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Daily Prelims Test – 13_December 2020

Recently, HGCO19 seen in the news, which is?

  • India’s first indigenous mRNA vaccine candidate
  • Newly found rare species in the Western Ghats
  • Newly found galaxy
  • A viral respiratory disease

Answer: a) India’s first indigenous mRNA vaccine candidate

Explanation:

In News: India’s first indigenous mRNA vaccine candidate receives approval to initiate phase I and human clinical trials

  • India’s first indigenous mRNA vaccine candidate has received approval from Indian Drug regulators to initiate Phase one and two human clinical trials. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  • The novel mRNA vaccine candidate, HGCO19 has been developed by Gennova, Pune and supported with seed grant under the Ind-CEPI mission of the Department of Biotechnology.
  • The mRNA vaccines do not use the conventional model to produce immune response. Instead, they carry the molecular instructions to make the protein in the body through a synthetic RNA of the virus.
  • mRNA-based vaccines are scientifically the ideal choice to address a pandemic because of their rapid developmental timeline. The mRNA vaccine is considered safe as is non-infectious, non-integrating in nature, and degraded by standard cellular mechanisms.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=India%e2%80%99s-first-indigenous-mRNA-vaccine-candidate-receives-approval-to-initiate-Phase-1-and-2-human-clinical-trials&id=405933


Consider the following statements regarding the e-Court project

  •  It aims to provide designated services to litigants, lawyers and the judiciary by universal computerization of district and subordinate courts in the country by leveraging Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for improved justice delivery.
  •  It has led to completion of all the 2992 sites conceived to be connected with high speed WAN under the project.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 2927 Court complexes across country have been connected by a high-speed Wide Area Network (WAN) as against target of 2992 under e-Courts Project

  •  As many as 2927 Court complexes across India have been connected so far by a high-speed Wide Area Network (WAN) under e-Courts
  •  It has led to completion of 97.86 % sites out of 2992 sites conceived to be connected with high speed WAN under the project. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  The Government approved the computerization of 14,249 district & subordinate Courts under the e-Courts Phase I project ( 2007-2015).
  •  The objective of the e-Courts project is to provide designated services to litigants, lawyers and the judiciary by universal computerization of district and subordinate courts in the country by leveraging Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for improved justice Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  Envisaging further ICT enhancement through universal computerization of all the courts, the Phase II of the project was approved by the Cabinet in July 2015 with a cost of Rs 1670 crore under which 16,845 courts have been computerized.
  •  Under e-Courts Project, one of the largest digital networks of the world was conceived by Department of Justice along with the e-Committee of the Supreme Court of India to connect the 2992 court complexes located all over India by a high-speed Wide Area Network (WAN) via different modes of connectivity.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1679933


With reference to the draft of Indian Ports Bill 2020, consider the following statements

  • The bill circulated for public consultation which will repeal and replace the Indian Ports Act, 1908.
  • The bill has been formulated by the Ministry of Shipping and Waterways.
  • The Bill also seeks to create an enabling environment for the growth and sustained development of the ports sector

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Draft Indian Ports Bill, 2020 issued for Public Consultation

  • Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways has circulated draft of Indian Ports Bill 2020 for public consultation which will repeal and replace the Indian Ports Act, 1908Hence statement 1 and statement 2 is correct.
  • The Bill also seeks to create an enabling environment for the growth and sustained development of the ports sector in India through the following broad methodshence statement 3 is correct.
    • Constitution of Maritime Port Regulatory Authority
    • Formulation of the National Port policy and National Port plan in consultation with Coastal State Governments, State Maritime Boards and other stakeholders.
    • Formulation of specialised Adjudicatory Tribunals namely Maritime Ports Tribunal and Maritime Ports Appellate Tribunal to curb any anti-competitive practises in the port sector and act as a speedy and affordable grievance redressal mechanism.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1679974


Consider the following statements regarding PM SVANIDHI

  •  It aims for providing affordable loans to street vendors.
  •  It is launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
  •  The scheme would not only benefit vendors, but also hawkers, thelewale and people involved in goods and services related to textiles, apparel, artisan products, barbers shops, laundry services etc in different areas.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Housing & Urban Affairs Secy launches programme of socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries & their families

  • The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has launched Pradhan Mantri Street Vendor’s Atma Nirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi), for providing affordable loans to street vendors. Hence statement 1 and statement 2 are correct.
  • Under this, a complete profile of each PM SVANidhi beneficiary and their family members will be prepared. Based on the profiled data, benefits of the various eligible Central Schemes would be extended to them for their holistic socio-economic upliftment.
  • Earlier, the Scheme was announced as a part of the Economic Stimulus-II under the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
  • The scheme would benefit vendors, hawkers, thelewale and people involved in goods and services related to textiles, apparel, artisan products, barbers shops, laundry services etc. in different areas. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Source http://newsonair.com/News?title=Housing-%26-Urban-Affairs-Secy-launches-programme-of-socio-economic-profiling-of-PM-SVANidhi-beneficiaries-%26-their-families&id=405920


Consider the following statements Hospital Management Information System (HMIS)

  • HMIS in Railways has been developed by Indian Railways in coordination with RailTel Corporation Limited.
  • The objective of the HMIS is to provide a single window of clearance of hospital administration activity such as clinical, diagnostics, pharmacy, examinations, industrial health

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  •  1 only
  •  2 only
  •  Both 1 and 2
  •  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In News:

  •  Indian Railways has launched The Hospital Management Information System (HMIS), another major IT initiative towards according priority for the well-being of its work force.
  •  The HMIS in Railways has been developed by Indian Railways in coordination with RailTel Corporation Limited. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  The objective of the HMIS is to provide a single window of clearance of hospital administration activity such as clinical, diagnostics, pharmacy, examinations, industrial health etc. hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  Presently, 3 Modules of HMIS – Registration, OPD Doctor Desk & Pharmacy – are being taken up implemented. These three modules are going to be implemented on trial basis at Central Hospital, Lallaguda and will progressively be implemented across all Health Units over SCR.

Source:

http://ddnews.gov.in/national/pm-narendra-modi-addresses-international-bharati-festival


Consider the following statements regarding Rossby Waves

  • The meandering jet streams are called Rossby Waves.
  • They are influenced by the Coriolis force and pressure gradient.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Curving waves’ from Atlantic may be drying up monsoon, say scientists

  •  Droughts in India have historically been associated with El Nino, an anomalous warming of the equatorial Pacific, but scientists from Bengaluru suggest other reasons for it as well. 
  •  The study that appears in journal Science says that nearly six out of 10 droughts, in non-El Nino years, that occurred during the Indian summer-monsoon season in the past century may have been driven by atmospheric disturbances from the North Atlantic region.
  •  The study was led by researchers at the Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (CAOS), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru.
  •  In an El Niño year, abnormally warm equatorial Pacific waters pull moisture-laden clouds away from the subcontinent, but the IISc study shows that in non-El Nino years, these droughts are a consequence of a sudden and steep drop in rainfall in late August.
  •  According to research, as early as the 1980s, people have looked at these droughts individually. But they have not collated and pooled them together, and deduced that these droughts may all have a different type of evolution than El Niño droughts. 

About Rossby Waves

  • The meandering jet streams are called Rossby Waves. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Rossby waves are natural phenomenon in the atmosphere and oceans due to rotation of earth.
  • In planetary atmospheres, they are due to the variation in the Coriolis effect (When temperature contrast is low, speed of jet stream is low, and Coriolis force is weak leading to meandering) with latitude. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Rossby waves are formed when polar air moves toward the Equator while tropical air is moving poleward.
  • The existence of these waves explains the low-pressure cells (cyclones) and high-pressure cells (anticyclones).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/curving-waves-from-atlantic-may-be-drying-up-monsoon-scientists/article33308718.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Climate Ambition Summit 2020

  • It is to be jointly hosted by the United Nations, the United Kingdom and France, in partnership with Chile and Italy
  • It aims to mark the fifth anniversary of the adoption of the Paris Agreement seeks to limit global average temperature rise to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and endeavour to limit the increase to 1.5°C.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India has achieved 21% of emissions intensity target, claims Javadekar

  •  India was the only major G20 country that was on track towards keeping to its nationally determined commitments to halt runaway global warming
  •  Modi among 78 leaders expected to address climate summit.
  •  India has already achieved 21 per cent of its target of reducing emissions intensity of GDP by 33-35 percent by 2030.
  •  India has met 21% of our emissions intensity target,
  •  The share of renewables in our energy mix is 37.9% and
  •  Our tree cover has increased by 15,000 square kilometre in six years.
  •  India is not responsible for the problem of climate change and is presently contributing only 6.8 per cent of global emissions.

About Climate Ambition Summit 2020

  •  India is the only G20 nation to be in compliance with the Paris Agreement on Climate Change
  •  The Climate Ambition Summit, is to be jointly hosted by the United Nations, the United Kingdom and France, in partnership with Chile and Italy to mark the fifth anniversary of the adoption of the Paris Agreement.(It seeks to limit global average temperature rise to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and endeavour to limit the increase to 1.5°C.). Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is correct
  •  Attending nations are expected to, but not obliged, declare enhanced commitments to prevent global temperature from rising beyond 1.5C.
  •  Six of the world’s top 10 emitters will be present: China, the European Union, India, Japan and Canada (plus two senior U.S. Governors).
  •  The other big polluters are Australia, Brazil, Indonesia and Mexico.
  •  According to the International Institute of Sustainable Development, the summit is positioned as a “sprint to Glasgow,”
  •  At the Climate Ambition Summit 2020, countries will set out new and ambitious commitments under the three pillars of the Paris Agreement: mitigation, adaptation and finance commitments. There will be no space for general statements.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-has-achieved-21-of-emissions-intensity-target-claims-javadekar/article33307259.ece


Which schedule of the Constitution of India defines and specifies allocation of powers and functions between Union & States?

  • 4th schedule
  • 5th schedule
  • 6th schedule
  • 7th schedule

Answer: (d) 7th schedule

Explanation:

In NEWS: N K Singh for reviewing Constitutional provisions on federal structure

  •  Calls for fiscal changes, revisiting of centrally sponsored schemes and distribution of work between Centre and states
  •  Finance Commission chairman called for rationalisation of centrally sponsored schemes and the constitution of a panel to re-examine classification of legislative subjectsbetween the Centre and states.
  •  He said that a fiscal deficit range must bebased on expenditure outcomes, rather than a point target.
  •  Total public outlays on centrally sponsored schemes were close to Rs 6-7 lakh crore per annum and that the central government spends over Rs 3.5 lakh crore, or around 1.2 per cent of GDP, on these schemes.
  •  There is a need to take into account changes in technology, global interdependence and changes in national priorities when recommending the classification of subjects to the union, state or concurrent lists.

About 7th schedule of Constitution of India:

  •  The Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India defines and specifies allocation of powers and functions between Union & States. Hence option (d) is the correct answer

It contains three lists:

Union List:

  •  It contains the list of 98 subjects over which only Parliament of India has exclusive power to legislate.

State List:

  •  It contains the list of 59 items over which respective state governments have exclusive power to legislate.

Concurrent List

  •  It contains the list of 47 items over which both state as well as centre can legislate.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/n-k-singh-for-reviewing-constitutional-provisions-on-federal-structure-120121101155_1.html


Consider the following statements

  • Malaria is caused by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito
  • Plasmodium ovale is endemic to an India

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Plasmodium ovale and other types of malaria

  •  The soldier in Kerala is believed to have contracted Plasmodium ovale during his posting in Sudan, from where he returned nearly a year ago, and where Plasmodium ovale is endemic.
  •  A not very common type of malaria, Plasmodium ovale, has been identified in a jawan in Kerala. The soldier is believed to have contracted it during his posting in Sudan, from where he returned nearly a year ago, and where Plasmodium ovale is endemic.

Types of malaria

  •  Malaria is caused by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito, if the mosquito itself is infected with a malarial parasite. Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  There are five kinds of malarial parasites — Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax (the commonest ones), Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. Therefore, to say that someone has contracted the Plasmodium ovale type of malaria means that the person has been infected by that particular parasite.

About Plasmodium ovale

  •  Plasmodium ovale is endemic to tropical Western Africa. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  •  P ovale rarely causes severe illness and there is no need for panic because of the case detected in Kerala
  •  P ovale is very similar to P vivax, which is not a killer form.
  •  Symptoms include fever for 48 hours , headache and nausea, and the treatment modality is the same as it is for a person infected with P vivax.
  •  P ovale is no more dangerous than getting a viral infection

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-plasmodium-ovale-other-types-of-malaria-7101500/


In India, the term “Public Key Infrastructure is used in the context of

  • Digital security infrastructure
  • Food security infrastructure
  • Health care and education infrastructure
  • Telecommunication and transportation infrastructure

Answer: (a) Digital security infrastructure

Explanation:

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a technology for authenticating users and devices in the digital world. The basic idea is to have one or more trusted parties digitally sign documents certifying that a particular cryptographic key belongs to a particular user or device. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.


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