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Daily Prelims Test – 12_October 2020

Consider the following statements

  • Under Hindu Marriage Act, 1955mental illness is not a ground for divorce
  • Under the Representation of the People Act, 1951, a person with a mental health problem is denied voting.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:We need community-based mental health services, says Dr. SoumitraPathare

  • The psychiatrist says there is a need to modify a host of laws that discriminate against people with mental health issues

How people are discriminated on the basis of mental health?

  • Our society discriminates and our government discriminates.
  • Our marriage laws, whether it is the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, or the Special Marriage Act, 1954, if you have a mental illness, then it is a ground for divorce. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • If mental illness is a health issue, then why is one health problem a ground for divorce and not one other health problem? Even HIV is not a ground for divorce.
  • In the Representation of the People Act, 1951, with respect to voting. The government will say ‘mental illness’ is not mentioned in the Act and the legislation says with an ‘unsound mind’. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • However, electoral officers across the country have interpreted that ‘unsound mind’ means mental illness. There is a clear need to clarify that. In the Hindu marriage Act, it is very interesting that when the Act was amended, ‘leprosy’ was removed from it.
  • Simple statistics show that less than 1% of the health budget goes towards mental health. While there is enough data to show that mental health issues constitute 8-10% of the health burden, we do not have enough mental health professionals.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/we-need-community-based-mental-health-services/article32823113.ece


In which part of India Spialia zebra, butterfly have been added to the list of indigenous species in India, was found recently?

1.Maharashtra

2.Assam

3.Gujarat

4.Rajasthan

Answer: (b) Rajasthan

Explanation:

In NEWS:Indian tag for ‘Pak’ butterfly, ‘Chinese’ dragonfly

  • A ‘Pakistani’ with wings has become the 1,328th Indian of its kind around the same time as another winged creature from China earned a similar status. The species will add to the species richness in India.
  • It is also called as Zebra Skipper
  • The butterfly Spialia zebra was found in Dungarpur district of Rajasthan miles south of its known home comprising Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab province of Pakistan. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The dragonfly Atratothemisreelsi was recorded in southern Arunachal Pradesh’s Namdapha Tiger Reserve, about 1,170 km west of its previously known nearest locality of Xiaoqikong Park in China’s Guizhou Province.
  • The Spialia zebra butterfly would add to the richness of Rajasthan’s PhulwarikiNal Wildlife Sanctuary and Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • Similarly, the newly discovered dragonfly augurs well for the biodiversity of the eastern Himalayan region.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/indian-tag-for-pak-butterfly-chinese-dragonfly/article32821057.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Lesser flamingo

1.It is mainly found in North-Western India.

2.This species feeds primarily on Spirulina algae which grow only in very alkaline lake

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Shrinking spaces for winged visitors a cause for concern          

As part of the World Migratory Bird Day celebrations, experts from Mumbai came together to discuss ways to protect lesser flamingos.

Environmentalists and experts estimate that the habitat for flamingos and wetland birds has shrunk to 20% of the previously available area in and around Mumbai.

  • The lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) is a species of flamingo occurring in sub-Saharan Africa and northwestern India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The lesser flamingo is the smallest species of flamingo, though it is a tall and large bird by most standards.
  • The lesser flamingo is the most numerous species of flamingo.
  • This species feeds primarily on Spirulina algae which grow only in very alkaline lakes. Although blue-green in colour, the algae contain the photosynthetic pigments that give the birds their pink colour. Their deep bill is specialised for filtering tiny food items.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The lesser flamingos have been reported extensively in and around Mumbai given the presence of wetlands in the area.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/shrinking-spaces-for-winged-visitors-a-cause-for-concern/article32823834.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Rustom 2

1.It is a medium attitude long endurance indigenous drone

2.It is capable of carrying different combinations of payloads depending on the mission objectives including synthetic aperture radar, electronic intelligence systems and situational awareness systems

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:DRDO’s Rustom-2 drone takes-off, India goes for armed Heron

  • Rustom-2 is capable of carrying different combinations of payloads depending on the mission objectives including synthetic aperture radar, electronic intelligence systems and situational awareness systems.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) on Friday flight tested the Rustom-2 medium altitude long endurance indigenous prototype drone and achieved eight hours of flying at an altitude of 16000 feet at Chitradurga, Karnataka. The prototype is expected to achieve a height of 26000 feet and endurance of 18 hours by 2020 end.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Drone was developed to match the specifications of the Israeli unmanned aerial vehicle Currently India buys Heron drones from Israel. The push to the development of Rustom was brought in after Chinese cartographical claim on the line of actual control.
  • India is currently planning to upgrade the heron drones. The upgradation will include installing satellite communication link in the drone
  • India is currently strengthening its armed forces at a rapid rate to counter Chinese presence along the line of actual control.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/drdo-s-rustom-2-drone-flight-tested-india-goes-for-armed-heron-uavs/story-CZ5jd9tRo6Ph2jcq2HOpmM.html


Consider the following statements regarding Albedo

1.It is the portion of solar energy reflected from the surface of the Earth back into space

2.It is lower in Snow or Ice.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Dust causing rapid snow and ice melt in western Himalayas

  • Dust blowing in from the Thar desert in northwestern India, from Saudi Arabia and the Sahara desert in north Africa is causing a rapid melting of snow in the western Himalayas
  • The research has been done by scientists from the US government’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Indian Institute of Technology Madras.
  • The researchers found that due to climate change, wind patterns had changed, which were blowing dust in the direction of the Himalayas. Due to human-induced land use changes, there were no longer enough trees in the area that could stop the dust as there used to be.
  • Pure white snow reflects all heat. However, that is not the case with ‘dirty snow’. This is called the ‘albedo effect’, which is the measure of an object to reflect sunlight.

Albedo effect

  • Albedo is a measure of the reflectivity of a surface. It is the measure of the diffused reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by the planet Earth.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The albedo effect when applied to the Earth is a measure of how much of the Sun’s energy is reflected back into space.
  • Since the late 1970s, scientists estimate Earth’s average albedo is about 0.30.
  • The albedo of a surface is measured on a scale from 0 to 1, where 0 is an idealised black surface with no reflection, and 1 represents a white surface that has perfect reflection.
  • If Earth was completely covered in ice, its albedo would be about 0.84, meaning it would reflect most (84 percent) of the sunlight that hit it.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • On the other hand, if Earth was covered by a dark green forest canopy, the albedo would be about 0.14 (most of the sunlight would get absorbed).
  • Changes in ice cover, cloudiness, airborne pollution, or land cover (from forest to farmland, for instance) all have subtle effects on global albedo.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/global-eco-watch-dust-causing-rapid-snow-and-ice-melt-in-western-himalayas-73750


Consider the following statements regarding Peatlands

1.They are a type of wetlands and cover only 3 per cent of Earth’s surface.

2.They are formed due to the accumulation of partially decomposed plant remains over thousands of years under conditions of water-logging

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:World’s oldest tropical peatland found in Indonesia

  • A team of researchers led by scientists from the University of Oregon in the United States claimed to have discovered what could possibly be the oldest tropical peatland in the world
  • The site was found near the city of Putussibau, on the Indonesian-administered area of the island of It was dated to be formed at least 47,800 years ago, according to radiocarbon dating.
  • The site was found to be 17 to 18 metres deep. The average peat depth in Indonesia is 5 to 6 metres.

About Peatlands:

  • Peatlands are a type of wetlands. Peat lands cover only 3 per cent of Earth’s surface. Peatlands are the largest natural terrestrial carbon store.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • They are formed due to the accumulation of partially decomposed plant remains over thousands of years under conditions of water-logging.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • In these areas, year-round waterlogged conditions slow the process of plant decomposition to such an extent that dead plants accumulate to form peat.
  • Over millennia this material builds up and becomes several metres thick.
  • Peatlands occur in different climate zones. While in tropical climate, they can occur in mangroves, in Arctic regions, peatlands are dominated by mosses.
  • Some mangrove species are known to develop peatland soils under them.
  • In India, peatlands occupy roughly 320–1,000 square kilometres area.

Source: DTE


Consider the following statements regarding Skal International

1.It is a professional organization of tourism leaders around the world for promoting global tourism and friendship.

2.It is a part of United Nation World Tourism Organization

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Kashmir tourism takes baby steps to normalcy as visitors return

  • The silver lining has come with the UT of Jammu and Kashmir winning the bid to host the 50th annual Skal International Asia Area (SIAA) Congress in 2021 during the annual general meeting recently against four other cities

About Skal International

  • SkalInternational is a professional organization of tourism leaders around the world, promoting global tourism and friendship.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a Spain-based tourism body with 15,000 members and 150 chapters across the world.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The word Skal comes from Scandinavia and has a long tradition. The “Skal” is a bowl containing a welcome drink that is offered to visitors when entering a home.
  • Its members, the industry’s managers and executives meet at local, national, regional and international levels to discuss and pursue topics of common interest.
  • It is the only international group uniting all branches of the travel and tourism industry.
  • It is an Affiliated Member of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).
  • Skål International holds an annual World Congress each year in a different country.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/kashmir-tourism-takes-baby-steps-to-normalcy-as-visitors-return/article32827826.ece


The term Rustrela and Ruhugu, which was in news recently is associated with

1.5G Spectrum

2.Desalination of Seawater

3.Endangered Sperm Whales

4.Newly found Virus

Answer: (d) Newly found Virus

Explanation:

In NEWS:Two relatives of the Rubella virus found

  • Two teams of scientists have discovered two new relatives of the Rubella virus. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The Rubella virus was first described by George Maton in 1814. Henry Veale gave it the name ‘Rubella’ in 1866. However, it was only in 1962 that its full impact was identified.
  • Till now, it was thought the Rubella virus was the sole member in its family Matonaviridae.
  • That has, however, changed now. A team of African and American scientists discovered the ‘ruhugu’ virus in insect-eating, cyclopsleaf-nosed bats in the RuteeteSubcounty in Uganda.
  • Meanwhile, another team of researchers discovered the ‘rustrela’ virus in mice in Germany.
  • Neither of the new viruses is known to infect people.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/global-eco-watch-dust-causing-rapid-snow-and-ice-melt-in-western-himalayas-73750


Which of the following pairs is/are correctly matched?

Beaches in News – State/UT

  • Golden Beach     –   Odisha
  • Radhanagar         – Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Kappad                 – Goa

Select the correct options from the given blow codes

  1. 1 Only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3
  4. 3 Only

Answer: (b) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:India becomes first nation to be awarded Blue Flag certification for 8 beaches in a single attempt

Operated by Foundation for Environmental Education, Denmark, Blue Flag is an iconic voluntary award for beaches, marinas and a sustainable boating tourism operator which is awarded to those that meet and maintain the criteria’s of a series of stringent environmental, educational, safety and accessibility.

  • Shivrajpur (Dwarka-Gujarat)
  • Ghoghla (Diu)
  • Padubidri (Karnataka)
  • Kasarkod and Kappad (Kerala)
  • Rushikonda (AP)
  • Golden Beach (Odisha) and
  • Radhanagar (A&N Islands). Hence option (b) is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/travel/india-becomes-first-nation-to-be-awarded-blue-flag-certification-for-8-beaches-in-a-single-attempt/story-hM8bDouYdVJVphcWNgpaIO.html


Indigo cultivation in India declined by the beginning of the 20th century because of

1.peasant resistance to the oppressive conduct of planters

2.its unprofitability in the world market because of new inventions

3.national leaders’ opposition to the cultivation of indigo

4.Government control over the planter

Answer: (b) its unprofitability in the world market because of new inventions

Explanation:

  • Indigo crop has been associated with and created quite a bit of history. Faced by high prices charged by the British traders for indigo dye, German chemists had already started their search for making synthetic indigo and Adolf Baeyer succeeded in synthesizing it in 1882. This was followed by research by other German chemists, namely, Johannes Pfleger and Karl Heumann in the first decade of 20th century. The synthetic dye was much cheaper and blew the final blow to the natural plant produced indigo dye and indigo crop became a part of history. Now most of the indigo dye used world -over is made synthetically. Hence option (b) is correct