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Daily Prelims Test – 12_November 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Thirty Meter Telescope

  • It will explore first stars and galaxies were formed, providing information about the nature of “first-light” objects.
  • India also participated in the project.
  • It is located at Maunakea in Hawaii

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Indian astronomers collaborated with Nobel laureate on Thirty Meter Telescope Project

  • 2020 Physics Nobel Laureate Prof. Andrea Ghez had worked closely with Indian astronomers on the design of back-end instruments and possible science prospects of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project being installed at Maunakea in Hawaii, which can revolutionized the understanding of the universe and the enigmas in it.

About Thirty Meter Telescope

  • It is an international partnership between CalTech, Universities of California, Canada, Japan, China, and India.Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The Thirty Meter Telescope is being designed and developed by the TMT International Observatory LLC (TIO).
  • India has committed 10% of the project’s resources and Indian scientists are in turn guaranteed 10% of observation time on the TMT once it is ready.
  • Thirty Meter Telescope International Observatory (TIO) is located at Maunakea, in Hawaii.Hence statement 3 is correct
  • TMT will be a unique tool for probing many outstanding open questions in astronomy.
  • Its adaptive optics and spectroscopic capabilities will allow astronomers to explore the mysterious period in the life of the universe.
  • TMT will explore first stars and galaxies were formed, providing information about the nature of “first-light” objects.Hencestatement 1 is correct.
  • TMT will also observe the formation of the large-scale structures by looking at faint distant galaxies.
  • It will allow us to see deeper into space and observe cosmic objects with unprecedented sensitivity.
  • This will provide unparalleled resolutionwith TMT images more than 12 times sharper than those from the Hubble Space Telescope.
  • It will also allow understanding star and planet formationto unraveling the history of galaxies and the development of large-scale structure in the universe.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1671685


Consider the following statements regarding GRACE-FO Mission

  • It is a partnership between NASA and the Indian Space Research Organization
  • It aims to tracking Earth’s water movement to monitor changes in underground water storage, the amount of water in large lakes and rivers, soil moisture, ice sheets and glaciers

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:How does land motion, ice height impact sea-level rise? NASA shows in maps

  • The sea levels in areas could be rising (or falling) due to the land’s movement relative to the sea; the Earth’s surface mass in August 2020 deviated from the average for all months between 2004 and 2009; there were spatial variations in the rate of sea-level rise between 1993 and 2018.
  • About GRACE- FO mission:
  • The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-on (GRACE-FO) mission is a partnership between NASA and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • GRACE-FO is a successor to the original GRACE mission, which began orbiting Earth on March 17, 2002. The GRACE missions measure variations in gravity over Earth’s surface, producing a new map of the gravity field every 30 days
  • GRACE-FO will continue the work of tracking Earth’s water movement to monitor changes in underground water storage, the amount of water in large lakes and rivers, soil moisture, ice sheets and glaciers, and sea level caused by the addition of water to the ocean. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • These discoveries provide a unique view of Earth’s climate and have far-reaching benefits to society and the world’s population.

How did NASA measure this?

(1) Altimetric Study

  • Altimetry missions are used to know the ocean surface topography — the shape and height of the ocean’s peaks and valleys.
  • Radar altimeters continually send out pulses of radio waves (microwaves) that bounce off the surface of the ocean and reflect back toward the satellite.
  • The instrument calculates the time it takes for the signal to return, while also tracking the precise location of the satellite in space. From this, scientists can derive the height of the sea surface directly underneath the satellite.

(2) Gravimetric Study :

  • Gravimetry is a process of using ice’s gravitational pull on a pair of satellites. It helps estimate ice loss and its contribution to sea-level rise.
  • The twin satellites in each mission detect subtle shifts in Earth’s gravity field.
  • The strength of gravitational forces is determined by mass, so changes in Earth’s gravity field indicate a change or redistribution in mass.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/how-does-land-motion-ice-height-impact-sea-level-rise-nasa-shows-in-maps-74146


Sometime the term Yarkovsky effect is seen in news, is associated with

1.Liquid rocket engines

2.Gender parity at the workplace

3.Reverse osmosis systems

4.Changing the path of the asteroid

Answer: (d) Changing the path of the asteroid

Explanation:

In NEWS:Asteroid Apophis, equal to size of 3 football fields, may hit Earth in 2068

  • Asteroid Apophis, about the size of three-and-a-half football fields, may crash into Earth in 2068 due to a phenomenon called Yarkovsky effect, which has eventually accelerated its flow and deviated it from its orbit. Astronomers said that the possibility of the collision is almost negligible but cannot be ruled out.
  • Discovered in 2004, asteroid Apophis is a 1,120-foot-wide (340-meter-wide) asteroid. That’s about the size of three-and-a-half football fields
  • According to a recent report, the sun can heat an asteroid in a non-uniform way, causing the space rock to radiate heat energy asymmetrically. This can cause a thrust or a tiny push in a certain direction, sometimes changing the path of the asteroid. This effect is called the Yarkovsky acceleration. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Before the discovery of Yarkovsky effect, the possibility of the collision was impossible. The detection of this effect acting on Apophis means that the 2068 impact scenario is still a possibility.
  • As per the new calculations by astronomers at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, asteroid Apophis, which will also be extremely close to Earth on April 13, 2029, is deviating from its actual orbit and may crash into Earth in 2028.

Source: https://www.indiatoday.in/science/story/asteroid-apophis-equal-size-football-fields-hit-earth-2068-1739289-2020-11-09


The Haiderpur wetland is situated at a strategic location on the banks of the

1.Godavari River

2.Sabarmati River

3.Brahmaputra River

4.Ganga River

Answer: (d) Ganga River

Explanation:

In NEWS:Agencies working towards making Haiderpur wetland in west UP a Ramsar site

  • The forest department in Uttar Pradesh is working along with conservation organisations to eventually make the the Haiderpur wetland in Muzaffarnagar district a Ramsar site.
  • Fed by the Ganga and Solani rivers, the wetland came into existence in 1984 after the construction of the Madhya Ganga Barrage on the former. It is spread over 1,214 hectares.
  • Many bird species inhabit the Haiderpur wetland and it is an important stopover destination for winter migratory birds like the Greylag goose and the Bar-headed goose.
  • The wetland was important as it was situated at a strategic location on the banks of the Ganga where it meets the Solani, a small tributary. After the barrage was constructed, the spill over water of these two rivers formed the marshy land, now an important bird habitat.Hence option (d) is correct
  • TSA is conducting a survey of river turtles in Haidepur to assess their habitat and population.
  • Apart from turtles and migratory birds, river dolphin tourism is another way to draw visitors and ensure livelihood opportunities for local people.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/agencies-working-towards-making-haiderpur-wetland-in-west-up-a-ramsar-site-74188


.He was also well-known for his work in the field of education. From 1912 to 1927, he taught at various places before becoming wholly involved in freedom movement. He earned the moniker ‘Acharya’ around 1922 when he was teaching at the Gujarat Vidyapith, founded by the Mahatma a couple of years before. He was involved in the organization of Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience movements and Quit India Movement. He was the President of Indian National Congress (INC) at the time of independence. He served in the Interim government of India (1946–1947) and the Constituent Assembly of India. He was

1.Rajagopalachariar

2.Jawaharlal Nehru

3.JP Kripalani

4.Mahatma Gandhi

Answer: c) JP Kripalani

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi pays tributes to Maulana Azad, Acharya Kripalani on their birth anniversary

  • JP Kripalani was also well-known for his work in the field of education. From 1912 to 1927, he taught at various places before becoming wholly involved in freedom movement.
  • He earned the moniker ‘Acharya’ around 1922 when he was teaching at the Gujarat Vidyapith, founded by the Mahatma a couple of years before. He was involved in the organization of Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience movements and Quit India Movement.
  • He was the President of Indian National Congress (INC) at the time of independence. He served in the Interim government of India (1946–1947) and the Constituent Assembly of India. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.
  • His autobiography ‘My Times’ was released 22 years after his death in 2004.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/pm-modi-pays-tributes-to-maulana-azad-acharya-kripalani-on-their-birth-anniversary/articleshow/79171830.cms


Consider the following statements

1.Kalka-Shimla railway is located in the state of Punjab

2.UNESCO added the Kalka–Shimla railway to the mountain railways of India World Heritage Site.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Fifth Narrow Gauge locomotive on Kalka-Shimla route manufactured by Central Railway

  • The Kalka–Shimla railway is a 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow-gauge railway in North India which traverses a mostly-mountainous route from Kalka to Shimla. Kalka railway station is located in HaryanaHence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The railway was built under the direction of Herbert Septimus Harington between 1898 and 1903 to connect Shimla, the summer capital of India during the British Raj, with the rest of the Indian rail system.
  • On 8 July 2008, UNESCO added the Kalka–Shimla railway to the mountain railways of India World Heritage Site. hence statement 2 is correct.
  • A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in). Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) and 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in).
  • In Maharashtra, the Central Railway workshop at Parel in Mumbai has manufactured a fifth Narrow Gauge locomotive which will chug between Kalka to Shimla route, a UNESCO World Heritage Railway.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Fifth-Narrow-Gauge-locomotive-on-Kalka-Shimla-route-manufactured-by-Central-Railway&id=404011


Consider the following statements regarding Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)

1.CSTO is an intergovernmental military alliance

2.In 1992, the post-Soviet states belonging to the Commonwealth of Independent States signed the Collective Security Treaty

3.China is the members of CSTO.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: What is the peace deal between Armenia and Azerbaijan?

  • As per the new peace deal, both sides will now maintain positions in the areas that they currently hold, which will mean a significant gain for Azerbaijan as it has reclaimed over 15-20 percent of its lost territory during the recent conflict, the AFP reported.
  • Straddling western Asia and Eastern Europe, Nagorno-Karabakh is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, but most of the region is controlled by Armenian separatists.
  • Russia’s role in the conflict has been somewhat opaque since it supplies arms to both countries and is in a military alliance with Armenia called the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO).
  • CSTO is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • In 1992, six post-Soviet states belonging to the Commonwealth of Independent States signed the Collective Security Treaty (also referred to as the “Tashkent Pact” or “Tashkent Treaty”).Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Its 6 members are: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. Hence statement 3 is incorrect.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-the-new-peace-deal-between-armenia-and-azerbaijan-7046542/


Recently, Apophis was seen in the news, which is related to :

1.Asteroid

2.Cryptocurrency

3.Molecular scissors

4.Satellite of Jupiter

Answer: (a) Asteroid

Explanation:

In NEWS: End of world in 2068? Asteroid ‘Apophis’ equal to size of 3 football grounds may hit Earth

  • Asteroid Apophis, which was expected to pass extremely close to Earth, may now hit the blue planet in 2068 due to a phenomenon called Yarkovsky effect. This effect has eventually accelerated the asteroid’s flow and also changed its path. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.

Source: https://www.dnaindia.com/science/report-end-of-world-in-2068-asteroid-apophis-equal-to-size-of-3-football-grouds-may-hit-earth-2855622


Which of the following Pollutant(s) are monitored under the SAFAR

1.Ozone

2.Black Carbon

3.Benzene

4.Carbon dioxide

5.Methane

6.Blue Carbon

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1, 2, 3 and 5 only
  • 2, 3, 4 and 6 only
  • 1, 3, 4 and 6 only
  • 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

Answer: (a) 1, 2, 3 and 5 only

Explanation:

In News: CAQM reviews air quality scenario in NCR & adjoining areas

  • System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) envisages a research based management system where strategies of air pollution mitigation go hand in hand with nation’s economic development to target a win-win scenario.

Parameters monitored:

  • Pollutants: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, Ozone, CO, NOx (NO, NO2), SO2, BC, Methane (CH4), Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), Black Carbon, VOC’s, Benzene and Mercury. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  • Meteorological Parameters: UV Radiation, Rainfall, Temperature, Humidity, Wind speed, Wind direction, solar radiation.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=CAQM-reviews-air-quality-scenario-in-NCR-%26-adjoining-areas&id=403987


With reference to the provisions contained in Part IV of the Constitution of India, which of the following statements is/are correct?

1.They shall be enforceable by courts.

2.They shall not be enforceable by any court

3.The principles laid down in this part are to influence the making of laws by the State.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Answer: (d) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

DPSPs, contained in Part IV (Article 36 –51) of the Constitution of India, are not enforceable by any court, but the principles laid down there in are considered in the governance of the country, making it the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws to establish a just society. Hence statements 2 and 3 are correct and statement 1 is not correct.