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Daily Prelims Test – 12_February 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Sudden stratospheric warming

It is a rapid warming up to about 50 °C in between 10 km and 50 km above the earth’s surface.

It leads to a warm Arctic not only in the stratosphere but also in the troposphere as well

It doesn’t happen every year.

 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Rain check: What caused south Indian deluge in early January?

  • Southern India was deluged by unusually heavy rainfall in the first 17 days of the New Year. Tamil Nadu received almost 10 times more rainfall than normal. All its 38 districts experienced large excess rainfall — 60 per cent over normal
  • The polar sudden stratospheric warming or SSW is one of the reasons for the high rainfall in the tropics this year.
  • On January 5, the Arctic region recorded an SSW event that takes place in the stratosphere, the second major layer of our atmosphere that starts roughly 50 kilometres from the Earth’s surface. During such events the temperature of the stratosphere can increase by up to 50 degrees C within 10 day
  • The warming impacts the stratospheric polar vortex
  • In extreme cases, the polar vortex flow weakens dramatically and sometimes even reverses
  • The last SSW event happened in 2019 during which the polar vortex split into three smaller vortices releasing cold winds into the southern regions.
  • These disturbances in the stratosphere sometimes cause circulation anomalies in the troposphere — the atmospheric layer where weather is generated. For instance, after SSWs, one often observes a meandering and southward shifted jet stream in the troposphere, causing colder winter weather in Northern Eurasia and the northeastern United States, as well as increased storminess and precipitation in the Mediterranean region

What is sudden stratospheric warming (SSM)?

  • It is a rapid warming (up to about 50 °C in just a couple of days), between 10 km and 50 km above the earth’s surface.Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • However, usually a few weeks later, knock-on effects on the jet stream can be seen, which in turn effects weather lower down (in the troposphere).
  • The stratospheric sudden warming doesn’t happen every year, and it doesn’t always affect weather when it does.Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • It was first discovered in 1952.
  • Every year in winter, strong westerly winds circle around the pole high up in the stratosphere. This is called the stratospheric polar vortex and it circulates around cold air high over the Arctic.
  • In some years, the winds in the polar vortex temporarily weaken, or even reverse to flow from east to west. 
  • The cold air then descends very rapidly in the polar vortex and this causes the temperature in the stratosphere to rise very rapidly, as much as 50°C over only a few days; hence the term sudden stratospheric warming.  
  • As the cold air from high up in the stratosphere disperses, it can affect the shape of the jet stream as the cold air sinks from the stratosphere into the troposphere. It is this change in the jet stream that causes our weather to change.Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • High above Earth’s surface, air temperatures occasionally increase suddenly, producing widespread effects on weather, air chemistry, and telecommunications.
  • Recent research has conclusively shown the existence of a strong connection between SSWs and extensive changes throughout Earth’s atmosphere. 
  • These changes can affect atmospheric chemistry, temperatures, winds, neutral (non-ionized particle) and electron densities, and electric fields
  • If the polar vortex strengthens in the future (which means less SSWs) the drying of the Mediterranean region will be faster and extreme storminess in northern Europe will increase. In this scenario it would result in milder winters for northern Eurasia.
  • If the vortex weakens (which means more SSWs), opposite patterns would be the case and the cooling effects of SSWs in northern Eurasia could partly dilute the expected effects of global warming in winter in these regions. Whatever happens in the future, some parts of the world, including India, are going to experience an increase in extreme weather events such as cold waves and extreme rainfall.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/rain-check-what-caused-south-indian-deluge-in-early-january–75305


Consider the following Statements,

  1. Measurement of biomass in terms of dry weight is more accurate.
  2. Each trophic level has a certain mass of living material at a particular time called as the standing crop
  3.  

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Rain check: What caused south Indian deluge in early January?

  • Southern India was deluged by unusually heavy rainfall in the first 17 days of the New Year. As a result, one million hectares of standing crops were submerged

About standing crop.

  • Each trophic level has a certain mass of living material at a particular time called as the standing crop.Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The standing crop is measured as the mass of living organisms (biomass) or the number in a unit area. It is not limited to the food grains.
  • The biomass of a species is expressed in terms of fresh or dry weight. Measurement of biomass in terms of dry weight is more accurate.Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The total amount or weight, or energy content, of (a portion of) organisms existing in a specific areaat a particular time, is known as standing crop.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/rain-check-what-caused-south-indian-deluge-in-early-january–75305


Consider the following Statements regarding Rajya Sabha

  1. The retiring members are not eligible for re-election and re-nomination any number of times.
  2. The Constitution has fixed the term of office of members of the Rajya Sabha

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Rajya Sabha members bid farewell to four retiring members

  • Rajya Sabha bid farewell to four retiring members of the Upper House with Deputy Chairman Harivansh heaping lavish praise on the leader of the Opposition Ghulam Nabi Azad.

About Rajya Sabha

  • The Rajya Sabha is a continuing chamber which was first constituted in 1952.
  • It implies that it is a permanent body and not subject to dissolution.
  • One-third of its members retire every second year and their seats are filled up by fresh elections and presidential nominations at the beginning of every third year.
  • The retiring members are eligible for re-election and re-nomination any number of times.Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • The Constitution has not fixed the term of office of members of the Rajya Sabha and left it to the Parliament.The Parliament in the Representation of the People Act (1951) provided that the term of office of a member of the Rajya Sabha shall be six years.Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • The Fourth Schedule of the Constitution deals with the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha to the states and union territories:
  • Representation of States: The representatives of states in the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of state legislative assemblies.The seats are allotted to the states in the Rajya Sabha on the basis of population.
  • Representation of Union Territories: The representatives of each union territory in the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by members of an electoral college specially constituted for the purpose.
  • Nominated Members: The president nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha from people who have special knowledge or practical experience in art, literature, science and social service.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/politics/rajya-sabha-members-bid-farewell-to-four-retiring-members-121020901369_1.html


Consider the following Statements regarding Kisan Credit Cards

It was created by NPCI

It was developed on the recommendations of R.V.GUPTA committee to provide term loans for agricultural needs.

The farmers can take out a loan of up to Rs.3 lakh

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: More than 187 lakh Kisan Credit Cards issued to farmers in last one year, says Anurag Singh Thakur

More than 187 lakh Kisan Credit Cards with credit limit of one lakh 76 thousand crore rupees have been sanctioned to farmers across the country during the last one year.

About Kisan Credit Cards (KCC)

  • Kisan Credit Card is available in the form of electronic RuPay Card, through which the farmer can draw the money from ATMs
  • The KCC scheme was launched in 1998 with the aim of providing short-term formal credit to farmers.It was created by NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development).Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • It was developed on the recommendations of R.V.GUPTA committee to provide term loans for agricultural needs.Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The farmers are given credit for meeting their financial requirements of agricultural and other allied activities along with post-harvest expenses.
  • The investment credit for agricultural requirements such as dairy animals, pump sets etc.
  • The farmers can take out a loan of up to Rs.3 lakh and also avail produce marketing loans.Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • The insurance coverage for KCC scheme holders up to Rs.50,000 in the case of permanent disability or death. 
  • The eligible farmers will be issued a savings account with attractive interest rate along with smart card and a debit card in addition to the Kisan Credit Card.

The eligibility criteria for the KCC scheme are as follows:

  • Any individual farmer who is an owner-cultivator.
  • The people who belongs to a group and are joint borrowers but the group has to be owner-cultivators.
  • Sharecroppers, tenant farmers, or an oral lessee are eligible for the KCC.
  • Self-help groups (SHG) or joint liability groups (JLG) of sharecroppers, farmers, tenant farmers, etc.
  • Farmers involved in the production of crop or allied activities such as animal husbandry along with non-farm activities such as fishermen.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=More-than-187-lakh-Kisan-Credit-Cards-issued-to-farmers-in-last-one-year%2C-says-Anurag-Singh-Thakur&id=409553


The term Arka Shubha is sometimes seen in the news, is related to which of the following option?

a new variety of marigold

a new variety of wheat

a new variety of Rice

a new variety of cotton

Answer: (a)a new variety of marigold

Explanation:

In NEWS: Bengaluru scientists develop new marigold variety

  • Generally the flowers lose their value if they get spoilt either due to rain or delay in harvest. But the new variety of marigold developed by the Hessarghatta-based Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) are of value even if they get spoilt after full bloom as they can be used for extraction of crude carotene.
  • All marigolds have carotene content that ranges up to a maximum of 1.4%. However, the Arka Shubha variety of marigold has high carotene content of 2.8% which is the highest content from plant source.Hence option (a) is correct.
  • This new variety of marigold can be used for extraction of crude carotene even if spoiled after full bloom, unlike that of other varieties.
  • This new variety not only has ornamental purpose but is also a good source of crude carotene.
  • Its petals could be used as poultry feed to get quality yolk.
  • India imports most of its carotene from other countries, including China. This development can significantly reduce import dependency. Therefore, both cultivation area and investment on carotene extraction should be increased.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/bengaluru-scientists-develop-new-marigold-variety/article33795721.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Ambedkar Social Innovation and Incubation Mission

  1. It is launched in by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment under Venture Capital Fund
  2. It aims to promote entrepreneurship among the SC Youth with special preference to Divyangs.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Ambedkar Social Innovation and Incubation Mission Under VCF-SC

  • The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Government of India in order to boost entrepreneurship and innovation among the SC students/SC Divyang youth has launched Ambedkar Social Innovation and Incubation Mission (ASIIM) under Venture Capital Fund for Scheduled Castes (VCF-SC). Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The companies/entrepreneurs owned by Scheduled Castes enrolled /registered with Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) are eligible to get maximum capital of Rs.30 lakhs over a period of 3 years i.e. Rs.10 lakhs every year.
  • Financial support of up to Rs.10 lakhs per year for a period of 3 years aggregating to Rs.30 Lakhs shall be provided to eligible applicants as equity funding.
  • Launched in 2020: By the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment under Venture Capital Fund for SCs with a view to promoting innovation and enterprise among SC students studying in higher educational institutions.

Objectives:

  • To promote entrepreneurship among the SC Youth with special preference to DivyangsHence statement 2 is correct.
  • To support innovative ideas till 2024 through synergetic work with the Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) set up by the Department of Science and Technology. 
  • To support, promote, hand-hold the start-up ideas till they reach commercial stage by providing liberal equity support.
  • To incentivise students with an innovative mind-set to take to entrepreneurship with confidence.

Benefits:

  • Under this initiative, 1,000 SC youth would be identified in the next 4 years with start-up ideas through the Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in various higher educational institutions.
  • They will be funded Rs. 30 lakhs in 3 years as equity funding so that they can translate their start-up ideas into commercial ventures.
  • Successful ventures would further qualify for venture funding of up to Rs. 5 Crore from the Venture Capital Fund for SCs.

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1696875#:~:text=The%20Ministry%20of%20Social%20Justice,SC)%20on%2030th%20September%202020.


Consider the following Statements

  1. Parliamentary privilege refers to the right and immunity enjoyed by legislatures, in which legislators are granted protection against civil or criminal liability 
  2. The powers, privileges and immunities of either House of the Indian Parliament and of its Members and committees are laid down in Article 105 of the Constitution

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: BJP MP Chaudhary issues breach of privilege notice against Trinamool MP Mahua Moitra

  • A BJP member in Lok Sabha issued a breach of privilege notice against Trinamool Congress (TMC) MP Mahua Moitra over her remarks against a former chief justice of India.
  • While speaking on Motion of Thanks on President’s address, she has cast some aspersions with respect to the conduct of a judge. So the question is whether the conduct of a judge can be discussed on the floor of the House or not

What is parliamentary privilege? 

  • Parliamentary privilege refers to rights and immunities enjoyed by Parliament as an institution and MPs in their individual capacity, without which they cannot discharge their functions as entrusted upon them by the Constitution. Hence statement 1 is correct.

 Are these parliamentary privileges defined under law? 

  • According to the Constitution, the powers, privileges and immunities of Parliament and MP’s are to be defined by Parliament. No law has so far been enacted in this respect. In the absence of any such law, it continues to be governed by British Parliamentary conventions. 
  • The powers, privileges and immunities of either House of the Indian Parliament and of its Members and committees are laid down in Article 105 of the Constitution. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Similarly, Article 194 deals with the powers, privileges and immunities of the State Legislatures, their Members and their committees.
  • Rule No 222 in Chapter 20 of the Lok Sabha Rule Book and correspondingly Rule 187 in Chapter 16 of the Rajya Sabha rulebook governs privilege. 
  • It says that a member may, with the consent of the Speaker or the Chairperson, raise a question involving a breach of privilege either of a member or of the House or of a committee thereof.
  • The rules however mandate that any notice should be relating to an incident of recent occurrence and should need the intervention of the House. 
  • The Speaker/RS chairperson is the first level of scrutiny of a privilege motion. 
  • The Speaker/Chair can decide on the privilege motion himself or herself or refer it to the privileges committee of Parliament. 
  • If the Speaker/Chair gives consent under Rule 222, the member concerned is given an opportunity to make a short statement.
  • A large number of notices are rejected, with penal action recommended in only a few.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/bjp-mp-chaudhary-issues-breach-of-privilege-notice-against-trinamool-mp-mahua-moitra/article33805537.ece


Rajbongshi people are an ethnic group inhabiting parts of:

Kerala

Assam

Rajasthan

Punjab

Answer: (b) Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS: Exiled Bengal leader hints at ST status for Koch-Rajbongshis

  • An “exiled” leader of West Bengal has hinted at his community, the Koch-Rajbongshi, being granted Scheduled Tribe (ST) status in Assam.

Who are Koch Rajbongshis?

  • They traced their roots to the Kamata kingdom, which comprised parts of Assam, West Bengal and adjoining territories.
  • The community was dominant and ruled their territory of Kamatapur during the medieval period.
  • It was comprised of a large part of Bangladesh, West Bengal, Bihar and India’s north-east.
  • They are found in Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal and Bihar, and in Bangladesh, Nepal and some parts of Bhutan.
  • The main dialects are Western Rajbanshi, Central Rajbanshi, Eastern Rajbanshi and the dialect of the Rajbanshi of the hills, also known as Koch language.
  • They were primarily animist, but later on they followed Hinduism/Sanatana (both Shaiva and Vaishnabhite).
  • They are estimated to number over 33 lakh in West Bengal, mostly the northern districts, and have a large presence in Assam.
  • In West Bengal, the community could be a deciding factor in at least 15 seats (out of 294) because they account for more than 30% of the electorate in North Bengal.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/exiled-bengal-leader-hints-at-st-status-for-koch-rajbongshis/article33810286.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding TRIFOOD Scheme

  1. It is a joint initiative of Ministry of Food Processing Industry, Ministry of Tribal Affairs and TRIFED.
  2. It is implemented in the backdrop of VanDhan Yojana to promote value addition to Minor Forest Produce

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

  • In NEWS: Van Dhan and TRIFOOD Day at Tribes India Aadi Mahotsav
  • The ongoing Tribes India Aadi Mahotsav has garnered a positive response from the people, based on the daily footfall. The festival is showcasing the rich heritage and traditions of the tribals from across the country through the regional handicrafts, paintings, cuisine and culture.
  • The stalls offering the organic and immunity-boosting healthy produce and other herbs were in focus in Aadi Mahotsav, which is being celebrated as the Van Dhan and TRIFOOD day.

About TRIFOOD Scheme

  • It is a joint initiative of Ministry of Food Processing Industry, Ministry of Tribal Affairs and TRIFED. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • It is implemented in the backdrop of VanDhan Yojana to promote value addition to Minor Forest Produce (MFP). Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • It aims to enhance the income of tribals through better utilization of and value addition to the MFPs collected by the tribal forest gatherers.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1696800


With reference to the cultural history of medieval India, consider the following statements:

  1. Siddhas (Sittars) of Tamil region were monotheistic and condemned idolatry. 
  2. Lingayats of Kannada region questioned the theory of rebirth and rejected the caste hierarchy. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

(a) 1 only

 (b) 2 only

 (c) Both 1 and 2

 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2 

Explanation:

The twelfth century witnessed the emergence of a new movement in Karnataka, led by a Brahmana named Basavanna (1106-68) who was initially a Jaina and a minister in the court of a Chalukya king. His followers were known as Virashaivas (heroes of Shiva) or Lingayats (wearers of the linga).The Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and the “pollution” attributed to certain groups by Brahmanas. They also questioned the theory of rebirth. These won them followers amongst those who were marginalised within the Brahmanical social order. Hence statement 1 is correct.

Siddhas (Sittars) Saiva school in Tamil Nadu which held the monotheistic puritan creed and roundly condemned idolatry, there history are not known they seem to be known as most active during 16th and 17th century.. Hence statement 2 is correct.