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Daily Prelims Test – 12_December 2020

In a bid to curb crimes against women and children, the state cabinet approved two draft bills that propose death penalty for heinous cases of rape, acid attack and child abuse as a part of SHAKTI act. The above statement describes which of the following state?

  • Maharashtra
  • Haryana
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Madhya Pradesh

Answer: a) Maharashtra

Explanation:

In News: Maharashtra OKs bills on death for rape, child abuse and acid attack

In a bid to curb crimes against women and children in Maharashtra, the state cabinet approved two draft bills that propose death penalty for heinous cases of rape, acid attack and child abuse. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
The two interconnected bills, which will be tabled in the winter session of the state legislature as part of the Shakti Act, are the Maharashtra Shakti Criminal Law (Maharashtra Amendment) Act 2020 and the Special Court and Machinery for Implementation of Maharashtra Shakti Criminal Law 2020.
Drafted on the lines of the Disha Act framed by Andhra Pradesh, they seek to amend relevant sections of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), Criminal Procedural Code (CrPC) and Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act.
The bills also have provisions to increase the quantum of punishment, including life term, cover new categories of crimes, and propose a mechanism for speedy trials.
The media is not allowed to report the name of a rape victim. The proposed Acts will provide similar protection to victims of molestation and even acid attack. The draft bills propose to amend IPC Section 376 (rape) to increase the quantum of punishment to life term or death penalty in heinous cases where there’s adequate conclusive evidence or exemplary punishment is warranted.
Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/maharashtra-oks-bills-on-death-for-rape-acid-attack-child-abuse/articleshow/79653120.cms


A new species of Indian Muraingrasses (Genus Ischaemum) known for their ecological and economic importance, such as fodder, have been spotted by scientists in which of the following biodiversity hotspots of India?

  • Himalayas
  • Western Ghats
  • Indo-Burma Region
  • Sundaland

Answer: b) Western Ghats

Explanation:

In NEWS: A tough novel species of Muraingrass identified by scientists in the plateaus of Western Ghats of Goa

A new species of Indian Muraingrasses (Genus Ischaemum) known for their ecological and economic importance, such as fodder, have been spotted by scientists in Goa in the Western Ghats, one of the four global biodiversity hotspots of India. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
The species was named Ischaemumjanarthanamii in honour of Prof. M. K. Janarthanam, Professor of Botany, Goa University, for his contribution to the Indian grass taxonomy and documentation of the floristic diversity of Goa state.
Ischaemumjanarthanamii grows on low altitude lateritic plateaus in the outskirts of Bhagwan Mahavir National Park, Goa.
The species has adapted to survive harsh conditions, low nutrient availability, and blossoms every monsoon.
Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1679744


Which of the following statement is not correct ADMM plus?

  • It is one of the official frameworks of Defense Minister’s meetings in the Asia- Pacific Region.
  • It is a platform for ASEAN and its eight dialogue partners to strengthen security and defence cooperation for peace, stability, and development in the region
  • It was established in the year of 2010
  • United states of America is one of the dialogue partner of ADMM plus


Answer: (a) It is one of the official frameworks of Defense Minister’s meetings in the Asia- Pacific Region.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh, addresses ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting Plus online;

Raksha mantri Rajnath Singh, attended the 14th ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting Plus organized online at Hanoi, Vietnam on 10 December 2020 that marked the 10th anniversary of ADMM Plus.
ASEAN Defense Minister’s Meeting-Plus (ADMM-Plus) is the only official framework of Defense Minister’s meetings in the Asia- Pacific Region. Hence option (a) is not the correct answer
It is a platform for ASEAN and its eight Dialogue Partners to strengthen security and defence cooperation for peace, stability, and development in the region. It was established in 2010. Hence option (b) and option (c) is the correct answer.
Members: The ADMM-Plus comprises the ten ASEAN countries as well as Australia, China, Japan, India, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Russia and the United States. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1679635


Consider the following statements regarding New Parliament Building

  • The four-story building will be triangular and its interiors will have three national symbols
  • In the Lok Sabha chamber, the national bird (peacock) will be the theme.
  • In the Rajya Sabha the national flower (lotus) and in the central lounge the national tree (banyan) will be the theme.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM narendra modi lays foundation stone of new parliament building

Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone of the New Parliament Building. It will be the highlight of the ambitious ₹ 20,000 crore Central Vista project that PM Modi said will become “a symbol of a new and self-reliant India”.
The four-story building will be triangular and its interiors will have three national symbols – the lotus, the peacock and the banyan tree – as its themes. The triangular shape of the new parliament was a reference to “sacred geometries in various religions and cultures of India”.
In the Lok Sabha chamber, the national bird (peacock) will be the In the Rajya Sabha the national flower (lotus) and in the central lounge the national tree (banyan) will be the theme. Hence all the statements are correct.
Source : https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/pm-narendra-modi-lays-foundation-stone-of-new-parliament-building/article33297331.ece


Consider the following statements Anthrax

  • It is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacteria.
  • It affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats more often than people.
  • It spreads directly from one infected animal or person to another
  • It is spread by spores that can be transported by clothing or shoes.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1, 2 and 3 only
  • 2 and 4 only
  • 1 and 4 only
  • 1, 2 and 4 only

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 4 only

Explanation:

In News: Vaccination drive after anthrax kills elephant

Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacteria. Hence statement 1 is correct
Affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats more often than people. Hence statement 2 is correct.
People can get anthrax from contact with infected animals, wool, meat, or hides.
It does not spread directly from one infected animal or person to another; hence statement 3 is not correct.
It is spread by spores. These spores can be transported by clothing or shoes. Hence statement 4 is correct.
Respiratory infection in humans initially presents with cold or flu-like symptoms for several days, followed by pneumonia and severe (and often fatal) respiratory collapse.
Source: https://epaper.thehindu.com/Home/MShareArticle?OrgId=GE5828LJ4.1&imageview=0


Consider the following statements regarding National Mission for Clean Ganga

  • It acted as implementation arm of National Ganga River Basin Authority
  • It was registered as a society under the Societies Registration Act 1860.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Jal Shakti Minister inaugurates 5th India Water Impact Summit (IWIS) with focus on Arth Ganga-River conservation synchronized development

IWIS will forge greater interaction between investors and stakeholders in water sector and promote international cooperation for water and river Management: shri Gajendra Singh Shekhawat
The 5th India Water Impact Summit (IWIS), organised by the National Mission for Clean Ganga and Center for Ganga River Basin Management and Studies (cGanga)began today with the theme of comprehensive analysis and holistic management of local rivers and water bodies with focus on Arth Ganga – river conservation synchronised development.
The summit was inaugurated by the Jal Shakti Minister, Shri Gajendra Singh Shekhawat. He said that Namami Gange is one of the largest, holistic and successful river conservation programs in the country which is laying down a model framework for river rejuvenation.
The summitIWIS which is organised by the National Mission for Clean Ganga and Center for Ganga River Basin Management and Studieswill continue till 15th December and will bring together various stakeholders to discuss, debate and develop model solutions to some of the biggest water related issues in the country.
About National Mission for Clean Ganga:

NMCG was registered as a society on 12th August 2011 under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Hence statement 2 is correct
It acted as implementation arm of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA). Hence statement 1 is correct
NGRBA has been replaced by National Ganga Council.
NMCG has a two-tier management structure and comprises of Governing Council and Executive Committee, both headed by Director General, NMCG.
The newly created structure attempts to bring all stakeholders on one platform to take a holistic approach towards the task of Ganga cleaning and rejuvenation.
Aims and objectives of NMCG:

To accomplish the mandate of National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA).
To ensure effective abatement of pollution and rejuvenation of the river Ganga by adopting a river basin approach to promote inter-sectoral co-ordination for comprehensive planning and management.
To maintain minimum ecological flows in the river Ganga with the aim of ensuring water quality and environmentally sustainable development.
Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1679734


Consider the following statements regarding Gangetic river dolphin

  • It is blind and finds its way and prey in river waters through echolocation
  • It is found in India, Bangladesh and Nepal.
  • It is a Schedule I animal under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Dead dolphin thrown back into Ganga in Bihar without autopsy

Locals in Patna district threw carcass back into the river out of fear even as officials failed to reach spot in time
The carcass of a Gangetic dolphin was disposed in the Ganga without ascertaining the reason of death of the marine mammal that is supposed to be highly protected.
If a dead Schedule I animal like a Gangetic dolphin is found, it is the duty of the forest department to take possession of the carcass for conducting a post mortem examination to find out the cause of death
About Gangetic river dolphin

The Gangetic river dolphin is India’s national aquatic animal. It is a Schedule I animal under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
It has been declared an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Hence statement 3 is correct
The dolphin is found in India, Bangladesh and Nepal. Hence statement 2 is correct
It is blind and finds its way and prey in river waters through echolocation. Bihar is home to around half of the estimated 3,000 Gangetic dolphins in India. Hence statement 1 is correct
Dolphins prefer water that is at least five to eight feet deep. They are usually found in turbulent waters, where there are enough fish for them to feed on.
Gangetic dolphins live in a zone where there is little or no current, helping them save energy. If they sense danger, they can dive into deep waters. The dolphins swim from the no-current zone to the edges to hunt for fish and return
The Gangetic river dolphin is one of four freshwater dolphin species in the world. The other three are found in the Yangtze river in China (now extinct), the Indus river in Pakistan and the Amazon river in South America.
Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/dead-dolphin-thrown-back-into-ganga-in-bihar-without-autopsy-74612


Recently, the Union Minister for Road Transport inaugurated the Koilwar Bridge over which of the following river in india?

  • Narmada River
  • Gandaki River
  • Gomti River
  • Sone River

Answer: d) Sone River

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nitin Gadkari inaugurates three lane 1.5 km long Koilwar bridge over Sone river in Bihar

Road Transport and Highways Minister Nitin Gadkari inaugurated the three lane 1.5 km long Koilwar bridge over Sone river in Bihar through Video Conferencing. A sum of 266 crore rupees has been spent on the bridge. The existing two lane bridge for both rail and road traffic is 138 years old. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
A six-lane bridge is being made in its place, of which, a three-lane carriageway has been opened for public. The bridge is major road for transport between Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
The Ministry has approved a four-lane elevated road from Bharauli (Buxar) to Haidaria for providing connectivity to the Poorvanchal Expressway.
Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Nitin-Gadkari-inaugurates-three-lane-1.5-km-long-Koilwar-bridge-over-Sone-river-in-Bihar&id=405856


Consider the following statements regarding Global Health Estimates

  • It is launched by the World Health Organization
  • Heart disease which has remained the leading cause of death at the global level for the last 20 years

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Heart disease now killing more people than ever before: WHO

Heart disease has remained the leading cause of death at the global level for the last 20 years, however, the death rates are more alarming than before, warns WHO. Hence statement 2 is correct
The WHO said diabetes and dementia are also among the world’s top 10 causes of death.
The WHO’s 2019 Global Health Estimates, released on Wednesday, said non-communicable diseases now make up 7 of the world’s top 10 causes of death, an increase from 4 of the 10 leading causes in 2000. The new data cover the period from 2000 to 2019. Hence statement 1 is correct
Heart disease now represents 16 per cent of total deaths from all causes and the number of deaths from heart disease increased by more than two million since 2000 to nearly 9 million in 2019. Diabetes and dementia enter the top 10 causes of death.
Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia are now among the top 10 causes of death worldwide, ranking 3rd in both the Americas and Europe in 2019. Women are disproportionally affected: globally, 65 per cent of deaths from Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia are women.
Deaths from diabetes increased by 70 per cent globally between 2000 and 2019, with an 80 per cent rise in deaths among males. In the Eastern Mediterranean, deaths from diabetes have more than doubled and represent the greatest percentage increase of all WHO regions.
While more non-communicable diseases are now causing deaths worldwide, there has been a global decline in deaths from communicable diseases, which however still remain a major challenge in low- and middle-income countries.
In 2019, pneumonia and other lower respiratory infections were the deadliest group of communicable diseases and together ranked as the fourth leading cause of death.
HIV/AIDS dropped from the 8th leading cause of death in 2000 to the 19th in 2019, reflecting the success of efforts to prevent infection, test for the virus and treat the disease over the last two decades. While it remains the fourth leading cause of death in Africa, the number of deaths has dropped by more than half, falling from over 1 million in 2000 to 435 000 in 2019 in Africa.
WHO said Tuberculosis is also no longer in the global top 10, falling from 7th place in 2000 to 13th in 2019, with a 30% reduction in global deaths. Yet, it remains among the top 10 causes of deaths in the African and South-East Asian regions, where it is the 8th and 5th leading cause respectively.
The new estimates also emphasise the toll that communicable diseases still take in low-income countries: 6 of the top 10 causes of death in low-income countries are still communicable diseases, including malaria (6th), tuberculosis (8th) and HIV/AIDS (9th).
Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/heart-disease-now-killing-more-people-than-ever-before-who-7099058/


Consider the following pairs

International agreement/set-up Subject

  • Alma-Ata Declaration – Healthcare of the people
  • Hague Convention – Biological and chemical weapons
  • Talanoa Dialogue – Global climate change
  • Under2 Coalition – Child rights

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 4 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2, 3 and 4 only

Answer: (c) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

Alma Ata Declaration: The Declaration of Alma-Ata was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 6–12 September 1978. It expressed the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the health of all Hence pair 1 is correctly matched. Hague Convention: The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction or Hague Abduction Convention is a multilateral treaty developed by the Hague Conference on Private International Law that provides an expeditious method to return a child internationally abducted by a parent from one member country to another. Hence pair 2 is not correctly matched. The Talanoa Dialogue is a process designed to help countries implement and enhance their Nationally Determined Contributions by 2020. The Dialogue was mandated by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change to take stock of the collective global efforts to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases, in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement. Hence pair 3 is correctly matched.
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