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Daily Prelims Test – 12_August_2021

With respect to Operation Greens Scheme, consider the following statements:

  • Initially, it seeks to stabilize the supply of Tomato, Onion and Potato crops and to ensure their availability throughout the country round the year without price volatility.
  • As of now, Operation Greens scheme covers 22 perishables including shrimp.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Operation Greens Scheme

  •  
  • Ministry of Food Processing Industries launched Operation Greens scheme in November, 2018 for integrated development of Tomato, Onion and Potato (TOP) value chain with the objectives to enhance value realization of TOP farmers; reduction in post-harvest losses; price stabilization for producer and consumers and increase in food processing capacities and value addition etc. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The scheme provides for short term intervention by way of providing transportation and storage subsidy @ 50% and long term intervention through value addition projects in identified production clusters with Grant-in-aid @ 35% to 70% of eligible project cost subject to maximum of Rs. 50 crore per project.
  • Under the scheme, state-wise funds are not allocated as the scheme is demand driven and projects are approved as per scheme guidelines on the basis of applications received for setting up of projects in eligible production clusters.
  • The scheme aims to promote Farmer Producers Organizations (FPOs #), agri-logistics, processing facilities and value addition etc. in identified production clusters
  • As per budget Announcement 2021-22, expanded operation greens scheme covers 22 perishables including shrimp. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The Ministry of Food Processing Industries has launched the scheme. NAFED will be the Nodal Agency to implement price stabilisation measures.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1744337

  • 2. Consider the following statements regarding Graphene:
  • Graphene oxide can be used to increase the shelf-life of perishable commodities like fruits.
  • It is considered to be the world’s thinnest, strongest and non conductive material.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Carbon-based non-toxic and reusable wrapper to increase shelf life of fruits

  • Indian scientists have developed a composite paper made of carbon (graphene oxide) loaded with preservatives that can be used as wrappers to help extend shelf life of fruitsHence statement (1) is correct.
  • Unlike the present preservative dipping technology, where the preservatives are adsorbed by the fruit, causing chronic toxicity to the consumers; here preservatives the wrapper releases the preservative only when needed. The wrapper can be reused, which is not possible with the present technology.
  • Fruits are highly perishable, hence 50% of fruits produced are wasted, causing huge losses. Conventional preservation relies on coating the preservative with the resin, wax, or edible polymer, which may cause chronic health problems.
  • The activated graphene oxide-loaded molecules were then loaded with preservatives. This high preservative-loaded graphene oxide, when cast into a paper used for fruit wrapping, ensures that the fruit is not loaded with toxic preservatives
  • To develop this non-toxic and reusable wrapping paper, the team allowed carbon matrix to incubate with the preservative
  • About Graphene
  • It is a single layer (monolayer) of carbon atoms. It is one atom thick. It is the building-block of Graphite.
  • It is harder than diamond yet more elastic than rubber; tougher than steel yet lighter than aluminium. Graphene is the strongest known material.
  • Its thin composition and high conductivity means it can be used in applications ranging from miniaturised electronics to biomedical devices like computers, solar panels, batteries, sensors and other devices. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It can be used in applications ranging from miniaturised electronics to biomedical devices like computers, solar panels, batteries, sensors and other devices.
  • Other Properties of Graphene are:
  • Lowest resistivity substance known at room temperature.
  • High thermal stability.
  • High elasticity.
  • High electrical conductivity.
  • Electron mobility is high at room temperature.
  • Graphene oxide (GO) membranes can be used to filter common salt from seawater.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1744053

Consider the following statements regarding Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS-4):

  • 1. It is conducted by WHO and is released by UNICEF.
  • Tobacco use among school going children was highest in Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
  • As per the survey, there has been a 42% increase in tobacco use among school going children in the last decade.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 3 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Health Minister Shri Mansukh Mandaviya presides over the release of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS-4), India, 2019 National Fact Sheet

  • The fourth round of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS-4) was conducted in 2019 by the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • The survey was designed to produce national estimates of tobacco use among school going children aged 13-15 years at the state level and Union Territory (UT) by sex, location of school (rural-urban), and management of school (public-private).
  • Tobacco use among school going children (13-15 years) – highest in Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram & lowest in Himachal Pradesh and Karnataka. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The first three rounds of GYTS were conducted in 2003, 2006 and 2009.
  • The objective of the survey was to provide information on tobacco use, cessation, second-hand smoke, access and availability, exposure to anti-tobacco information, awareness and receptivity to tobacco marketing, knowledge, and attitudes.
  • The Minister was also apprised of the key findings of the Survey:
  • There has been a 42% decline in tobacco use among 13-15 year-old school going children in the last decadeHence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • Nearly one-fifth of the students aged 13-15 used any form of the tobacco product (smoking, smokeless, and any other form) in their life.
  • Use of any form of tobacco was higher among boys. Prevalence of tobacco use among boys was 9.6% and among girls was 7.4%.
  • Every use of e-cigarette among the students was8%.
  • Use of any form of tobacco was higher among boys than girls.
  • 69% of current cigarette smokers and 78% of current bidi smokers bought cigarettes/bidis from a store, paan shop, street vendor or vending machine.
  • Among the current smokers who bought cigarettes/bidi, 45% of cigarette smokers and 47% of bidi smokers were not refused because of their age.
  • 52% of students noticed anti-tobacco messages in the mass media.
  • 18% of students noticed tobacco advertisements or promotions when visiting points of sale.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1744555

  • 4. Consider the following statements regarding Parliamentary Committee on Official Language:
  • It was set up in 1976 under the Official Languages Act,1963.
  • The Committee comprises 30 members of Parliament, 20 from Lok Sabha and 10 from Rajya Sabha.
  • It shall review the progress made in the use of Hindi for the Official purposes of the Union and submit a report to the President making recommendations.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Home Minister, Shri Amit Shah, chaired the 36th meeting of the Parliamentary Committee on Official Language, in New Delhi

  • Today it is a matter of great pride for all of us that we have given approval to send the 10th Report of the Committee to the President
  • Prime Minister has respected our official language by speaking in Hindi on many occasions and also at various international forums
  • Under the leadership of Narendra Modi, the work of translation of technical education and medical education has also been started in the official language and change is going to come in the country
  • We are entering the 75th year of Independence, in these 75 years we have taken the roots of democracy to the villages and towns and made democracy natural to us
  • On 75 years of Independence, the theme at conferences should be the role of official language in the freedom movement in Hindi
  • After Independence ruling dispensations changed many times but peacefully, this shows that roots of democracy in the country are deepening and becoming stronger and the banyan tree of democracy is growing bigger
  • The biggest contribution of our local languages ​​and especially the official language Hindi was in the Freedom Struggle
  • During the freedom movement, importance was given to languages ​​by our great Freedom Fighters and they were aware that English should not be dominant, that is why today all Indian languages ​​are rich
  • We have preserved and promoted all the dialects that were there after Independence and have preserved all the languages ​​that were there, as well as all the scripts that were there, these languages are also progressing under the auspices of Devanagari
  • Local languages ​​and official language have worked to unite the country, that is why the Official Language Committee is the most important committee of Parliament
  • We should create such an environment in which the development of official language – Hindi should take place naturally as a friend of the local languages
  • There can be no competition between any local language and Hindi because both of them are friends or sisters, if we encourage this feeling, then only we will be able to take this work forward
  • For children studying history, if the history of every part of the country will be available in the official language, the history from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, then the scope of the official language will automatically increase
  • There is similarity between our languages, there is also an invisible dialogue and it can be known only by feeling it
  • Many words of every Indian language are associated with another language, the root of grammar is also the same
  • As we enter the 75th year of Independence, the relevance and utility of our committee both increase greatly
  • All speeches of the Prime Minister in Parliament are also in Hindi and the Committee should take inspiration from this request
  • Commentary was arranged in Hindi for the first time in Tokyo Olympics
  • About Parliamentary Committee on Official Language:
  •  The Parliamentary Committee on Official Language was set up in 1976 under section 4 of the Official Languages Act,1963. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The Committee shall review the progress made in the use of Hindi for the Official purposes of the Union and submit a report to the President making recommendations. The President shall then lay the report before each House of Parliament and send it to all the State Governments. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  •  The Committee comprises 30 members of Parliament, 20 from Lok Sabha and 10 from Rajya Sabha. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The Chairman of the Committee is elected by the members of the Committee. As a convention, the Union Home Minister has been elected as Chairman of the Committee from time to time.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1744615

Consider the following statements:

  • The Constitution of India provides that Hindi in Devanagari script shall be the official language of the Union.
  • As per the Official Languages Act 1963, the Hindi or official language of a State in addition to the English language may be authorized to use.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The Union Home Minister has chaired the 36th meeting of the Parliamentary Committee on Official Language.

  • Shri Amit Shah requesting members of the committee said that we should create an environment in which the development of the Official Language Hindi should take place easily as a friend of local languages.
  • Shri Amit Shah said that many leaders in the freedom movement like Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, Nehru, Rajendra Babu and Vinoba Bhave were prominent in this mission. They kept the aspects of official language and Devanagari script in front of the people of every state. Official language is the link to connect this country, but at the same time the importance of local languages should not be diminished.

About Official Language Resolution:

  • As per Article 343(1) of the Constitution of India, Hindi in Devanagari script shall be the official language of the UnionHence statement (1) is correct.
  • Article 343(2) provided that English shall also be continued to be used in official work of the Union for a period of 15 years from the date of commencement of the constitution, i.e., up to the 25th of January 1965.
  • Again, article 343(3) made provisions for the continuation of English even after 25th January 1965 by empowering the parliament to make laws to that effect.
  • Accordingly, the Official Languages Act, 1963 was passed which provided for the continued use of English even after the said date in 1965.
  • As per the Act, both English and Hindi shall be used for certain specified purposes like resolutions, rules, general orders, notifications, press communiqués, administrative and other reports, licenses, tenders, etc.
  • Article 348 (1) of the Constitution of India provides that all proceedings in the Supreme Court and in every High court shall be in English Language until Parliament by law otherwise provides.
  • Under Article 348 (2), the Governor of the State may, with the previous consent of the President, authorize the use of the Hindi language or any other language used for any official purpose of the State, in the proceedings of the High Court having its principal seat in that State provided that decrees, judgments or orders passed by such High Courts shall be in English.
  • Section 7 of the Official Languages Act, 1963, provides that the use of Hindi or official language of a State in addition to the English language may be authorized, with the consent of the President of India, by the Governor of the State for purposes of judgments etc. made by the High Court for that State. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1744615

Consider the following statements regarding Pusa Decomposer:

  • It is a low-cost capsule that can convert paddy stubble into bio-manure.
  • It has been developed by Indian Agriculture Research Institute.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Steps taken by the Government for awareness about the new low-cost capsule which can convert the paddy stubble into bio-manure

  • IARI has licensed this technology to 12 companies for mass multiplication and marketing of the Pusa Decomposer. In addition, ICAR – IARI, New Delhi has produced about 20000 packets of Pusa decomposer at its own facility for use by the farmers.
  • This information was given by Union Minister for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Shri Narendra Singh Tomar in a written reply in Lok Sabha
  • About Pusa Decomposer
  • Pusa Decomposer is a low-cost capsule that can convert paddy stubble into bio-manureHence statement (1) is correct.
  • The capsule consists of a fungi-based liquid solution that can soften hard stubble to the extent that it can be easily mixed with soil in the field to act as compost.
  • Pusa Decomposer Technology has been developed by ICAR – Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI), New DelhiHence statement (2) is correct.
  • It involves making a liquid formulation using decomposer capsules and fermenting it over 8-10 days and then spraying the mixture on fields with crop stubble to ensure speedy bio-decomposition of the stubble.
  • It takes around 20 days for the degradation process to be completed
  • The decomposer improves the fertility and productivity of the soil as the stubble works as manure and compost for the crops and lesser fertiliser consumption is required in the future.
  • It is an efficient and effective, cheaper, doable and practical technique to stop stubble burning.
  • It is an eco-friendly and environmentally useful technology and will contribute to achieving the Swachh Bharat Mission.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1744517

Consider the following statements regarding Marburg Virus:

  • It is transmitted to people from fruit bats.
  • There are no approved vaccines or antiviral treatments for the virus yet.
  • It causes hemorrhagic fever and belongs to the same family as the Ebola virus.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: West Africa records 1st death from ‘highly infectious’ Marburg virus

  • West Africa’s first case of the extremely contagious and deadly Marburg virus was confirmed in Guinea August 9, 2021, according to the World Health Organization. The virus causes hemorrhagic fever and belongs to the same family as the Ebola virus.
  • The disease was detected two months after the country’s almost half-year fight to contain an Ebola outbreak. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • The common symptoms of a Marburg infection are fever, headache, fatigue, abdominal pain and gingival hemorrhage. The man who died of the virus first complained of the symptoms July 25, 2021.
  • The virus was initially detected in 1967 after simultaneous outbreaks in Marburg and Frankfurt in Germany; and in Belgrade, Serbia.
  • The press statement mentioned the following characteristics of the virus: 
  • Marburg is transmitted to people from fruit bats. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The contagion spreads among humans through direct contact with the bodily fluids of the patient, surfaces and materials
  • Sudden high fever and severe headache are the initial symptoms
  • Many patients develop severe hemorrhagic signs within seven days
  • Case fatality rates have varied from 24-88 per cent in past outbreaks
  • There are no approved vaccines or antiviral treatments for the virus yet. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Sourcehttps://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/africa/west-africa-records-1st-death-from-highly-infectious-marburg-virus-78381

With respect to Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus, consider the following statements:

  • It is a type of herpes virus that can cause a highly fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants.
  • There is no cure for herpes viruses in animals or in humans.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Wild elephant tests positive for herpes virus in Odisha forest

In 2019, five elephants had died within 33 days in Odisha after testing positive for herpes

The autopsy report revealed that the death was due to acute haemorrhagic disease caused by the elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), a fatal infection found in captive as well as wild elephants.

About Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus

  • EEHV is a type of herpes virus that can cause a highly fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants between the ages of 1 and 12Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • If a young elephant dies before reproducing, it affects the population of the species as a whole in the concerned geography.
  • When EEHV is triggered, the elephant dies of massive internal bleeding and symptoms which are hardly visible, like reduced appetite, nasal discharge, and swollen glands.
  • Most elephants carry just as most humans carry a cold virus.
  • The disease is usually fatal, with a short course of 28-35 hours.
  • There is no true cure for herpes-viruses in animals or in humans because herpes viruses go latent. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The disease has a short course which means that we have to take a very quick call on a suspected EEHV case and kick off treatment protocols.
  • This treatment is a combination of antiviral therapy, aggressive fluid therapy (to counter haemorrhaging), immuno-stimulant drugs (selenium and Vitamins C, E), antipyretics and analgesics (to bring down fever).

Sourcehttps://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/wild-elephant-tests-positive-for-herpes-virus-in-odisha-forest-78408

Consider the following statements regarding EOS-03 mission:

 

It is a state-of-the-art agile Earth observation satellite.

It was launched using the GSLV and not PSLV.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: EOS-03 satellite launch: ‘Mission could not be fully accomplished’, says ISRO chief K Sivan

  • In a setback, the Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) mission to put the EOS-03 – also called Geo Imaging Satellite-1 (GISAT-1) in its orbit ‘could not be accomplished fully’ due to technical anomalies during one of the operational stages.
  • According to the latest update from the space agency, the EOS satellite is out of its trajectory path as its cryogenic engine failed to lift the satellite to Geostationary orbit.
  • GSLV-F10 /EOS03 mission ‘cannot be accomplished fully’ due to a performance anomaly in the cryogenic stage
  • GSLV-F10 launch took place today at 0543 Hrs IST as scheduled. Performance of the first and second stages was normal. However, Cryogenic Upper Stage ignition did not happen due to technical anomaly. The mission couldn’t be accomplished as intended
  • About EOS03 mission
  • EOS-03 It is an earth observation satellite. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Last year, ISRO launched EOS-01 which is nothing but another Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT) that will work together with RISAT-2B and RISAT-2BR1.
  • It will be placed in the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit by GSLV-F10. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Satellite will reach the geostationary orbit using its onboard propulsion system.
  • Satellite will also carry a 4-metre diameter Ogive-shaped payload for the first time in this GSLV flight.
  • Applications:
  • It would enable near real-time monitoring of natural disasters like floods and cyclones.
  •  It is capable of imaging the whole country four-five times daily.
  •  It would also enable monitoring of water bodies, crops, vegetation condition, forest cover changes.

Sourcehttps://indianexpress.com/article/explained/isro-eos-o3-satellite-gslv-rocket-mission-malfunction-explained-7449977/

 Building ‘Kalyana Mandapas’ was a notable feature in the temple construction in the kingdom of

  • Chalukya
  • Chandela
  • Rashtrakuta
  • Vijayanagara

Answer: (d) Vijayanagara

Explanation:

  •  In the Vittala Temple of Hampi, pavilions or mandapas that were meant to celebrate the marriages of deities were known as Kalyan Mandapa.
  •  Kalyana Mandapas, meant to celebrate divineweddings, were a notable feature of the Vijayanagara Hence option (d) is correct.