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Daily Prelims Test – 12_April 2021

  1. With reference to grounding line, consider the following Statements
  2. It is the place below a glacier at which the ice transitions between resting fully on bedrock and floating on the ocean as an ice shelf.
  3. The location of the line is a pointer to the rate of retreat of a glacier.

1.Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: New findings about Antarctica’s ‘Doomsday Glacier’, and why they have sparked worry

The melting of Antarctica’s Thwaites Glacier – also called the “Doomsday Glacier”– has long been a cause of concern because of its high potential of speeding up the global sea level rise happening due to climate change.

What is the glacier and why is it important?

  • Thwaites Glacier, it is 120 km wide at its broadest, fast-moving, and melting fast over the years.
  • It contains enough water to raise the world sea level by more than half a metre. Studies have found the amount of ice flowing out of it has nearly doubled over the past 30 years.
  • Thwaites’s melting already contributes 4% to global sea level rise each year. It is estimated that it would collapse into the sea in 200-900 years.
  • Thwaites is important for Antarctica as it slows the ice behind it from freely flowing into the ocean. Because of the risk it faces — and poses — Thwaites is often called the Doomsday Glacier
  • The NYU study reported water at just two degrees above freezing point at Thwaites’s “grounding zone” or “grounding line”.

About grounding line

  • The grounding line is the place below a glacier at which the ice transitions between resting fully on bedrock and floating on the ocean as an ice shelf. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The location of the line is a pointer to the rate of retreat of a glacier. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • When glaciers melt and lose weight, they float off the land where they used to be situated. When this happens, the grounding line retreats.
  • That exposes more of a glacier’s underside to seawater, increasing the likelihood it will melt faster.
  • This resulted in the glacier speeding up, stretching out, and thinning, causing the grounding line to retreat ever further.
https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/Xb3j0xkxXNPgNfpQcTtH_Je0b1MPuMi2B50-wYkjGAgbQUMjnCWDhAQY4y2TTmplbG7yp0eGxVc0WbxVyXY0XPAcPYXAt2g5p_W_M5GjO7YfBmIY2wpAKkyGPhc0dvO9fkpHa5c

Source:https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-thwaites-glacier-finding-doomsday-melting-worry-7269124/


2.Consider the following Statements

The Indus and Ganges River dolphins are both classified as ‘Endangered’ species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature 

  1. The Ganges river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers while the Indus river dolphin is found only in the Indus River in Pakistan 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indus and Ganges river dolphins are two different species

  • Detailed analysis of South Asian river dolphins has revealed that the Indus and Ganges River dolphins are not one, but two separate species.
  • The research team studied body growth, skull morphology, tooth counts, colouration and genetic makeup. The researchers studied ancient DNA that they got out of skulls and skeletons which were 20 to 30 to even 150 years old.
  • The study estimates that Indus and Ganges river dolphins may have diverged around 550,000 years ago.

About South Asian river dolphin

  • The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered freshwater or river dolphin found in the region of the Indian subcontinent, which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor).
  • The Ganges river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers and their tributaries in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, while the Indus river dolphin is now found only in the main channel of the Indus River in Pakistan and in the River Beas (a tributary of the Indus) in Punjab in India. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The Indus and Ganges River dolphins are both classified as ‘Endangered’ species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Hence statement 1 is correct

About Ganges Dolphin:

  • The Ganges river dolphin can only live in freshwater and is essentially blind. They hunt by emitting ultrasonic sounds, which bounces off of fish and other prey, enabling them to “see” an image in their mind.
  • The Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the government of India as its national aquatic animal.
  • The Ganges dolphin is a Schedule I animal under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, and has been included in Annexure – I of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

About Indus Dolphin

  • Indus river dolphins are believed to have originated in the ancient Tethys Sea
  • They have adapted to life in the muddy river and are functionally blind. They rely on echolocation to navigate, communicate and hunt prey including prawns, catfish, and carp.
  • The Indus river dolphin is a marine mammal which means it’s warm-blooded, breathes air, gives birth and produces milk to feed its young.

Threats:

Ganges river dolphins once lived in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh. But the species is extinct from most of its early distribution ranges.

  • Declining river flow: The fast declining river flow due to diversion through the barrages has adversely affected the dolphin habitats.
  • Accidental deaths: Previously fishermen used to hunt dolphins and use their oil as bait, though that practice of directed killing has stopped they still end up as accidental catches. The increasingly mechanized boat fleet being used for fishing increases the chances of accidental injury to the dolphins.
  • River Pollution: The point and nonpoint source of pollution in the Ganges River is severely affecting the dolphin habitat.
  • Reduced gene flow: The physical barriers such as dams and barrages created across the river have reduced the gene flow to a great extent making the species vulnerable.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/indus-and-ganges-river-dolphins-are-two-different-species/article34290646.ece


3.Consider the following Statements with respect to Brucellosis

  1. It is a bacterial disease that mainly infects cattle, swine, goats, sheep and dogs.
  2. It is not a zoonotic disease and endemic in India
  3. It is also known as Malta fever

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Four cows culled at Vithura farm

  • Animal Husbandry officials have launched preventive measures after a few cases of brucellosis, a zoonotic infection, was detected in animals at the Jersey farm Vithura 

About Brucellosis

  • Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that mainly infects cattle, swine, goats, sheep and dogs. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Humans can get infected if they come in direct contact with infected animals or by eating or drinking contaminated animal products or by inhaling airborne agents.
  • It is also known as Malta fever or Mediterranean fever.
  • Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and endemic in India causing huge economic losses to dairy industry due to: Infertility, Abortion, Birth of weak off springs and reduced productivity. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Symptoms of the disease include fever, sweats, malaise, anorexia, and headache and muscle pain.
  • While some signs and symptoms can last for long periods of time, others may never go away. Human to human transmission of the virus is rare.
  • These include recurrent fevers, arthritis, swelling of the testicles and scrotum area, swelling of the heart, neurologic symptoms, chronic fatigue, depression and swelling of the liver or spleen.

Treatment and prevention:

  • It is usually treated with antibiotics, including rifampin and doxycycline. 
  • Avoiding raw/unpasteurised dairy products and taking safety precautions such as wearing rubber gloves, gowns or aprons, when handling animals or working in a laboratory can help prevent or reduce the risk of getting brucellosis.
  • Other preventive measures include cooking meat properly, vaccinating domestic animals, etc.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/four-cows-culled-at-vithura-farm/article34289626.ece


  • 4.The Umngot river is associated with which of the following Indian states?
  • Uttarakhand
  • Bihar
  • Mizoram
  • Meghalaya

Answer: d) Meghalaya

Explanation:

In NEWS: Residents of 12 Meghalaya villages oppose dam on India’s clearest river

  • Meghalaya Energy Corporation Limited (MeECL) to construct a dam over Umngot river to generate 210 megawatts of power has been met with road blockade as two public hearings organised by the Meghalaya State Pollution Control Board were disrupted by protesters.
  • The proposed 210 MW Umngot Hydro Electric Project would be built over Umngot river between East Khasi Hills district and West Jaiñtia Hills districtHence option (d) is correct
  • If the dam is built, it would connect Mawkynrew area with Amlarem area by road.
  • The villagers, especially landowners from villages in East Khasi Hills district opposed the project on the ground that their cultivable land would submerge due to the proposed hydropower project.

About Umngot river

  • At the distance of 96 km from Shillong, there is a place called Dwaki where Umngot river flows.
    The water of the river is so clean (crystal clear) that you can see the bottom of the river and you can clearly see the shadow of the boat on the water.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/meghalaya-locals-oppose-dam-on-indias-clearest-river/article34291199.ece


5.Consider the following Statements

  1. TReDS is an electronic platform for facilitating the financing / discounting of trade receivables of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
  2. Central public sector enterprises (CPSEs) are mandated by the government to procure at least 25 per cent of their purchases from MSMEs and to register on TReDS.  

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: TReDS can be a lifeline for small businesses

  • Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are vital towards building a $5 trillion economy. The pandemic saw many MSMEs face a massive liquidity crunch, and this makes TReDS (Trade Receivables Discounting System) a key platform to revive the economy by providing financing to small businesses.
  • Central public sector enterprises (CPSEs) are mandated by the government to procure at least 25 per cent of their purchases from MSMEs and to register on TReDS. Hence statement 2 is correct

About TReDS

  • Trade Receivables Discounting System or TReDS is a welcome step by RBI to secure finances for micro, small and medium enterprises. It has been set up under the regulatory framework set up by RBI under Payment and Settlement Systems Act 2007. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • RBI has come forward to give an effective solution to the pan-India issue and has defined TReDS as the institutional mechanism for financing of trade receivables of MSMEs from corporate buyers through two or more financiers known as Trade Receivables Discounting System. 
  • TReDS deals with discounting of both invoices and bills of exchange. It was well-equipped to deal with both receivables factoring as well as reverse factoring to facilitate higher transaction volumes and better pricing.
  • MSMEs sellers, corporate buyers, financiers which include banks and non-banks will be direct participants in this. TReDS thus serves as a platform to bring these stakeholders and participants together for discounting, trading and settlement of the invoices.

Source:https://www.business-standard.com/article/opinion/treds-can-be-a-lifeline-for-small-businesses-121041100735_1.html


6.False Point island is located in which of the following Indian states?

  1. Gujarat
  2. Kerala
  3. Odisha
  4. Andhra Pradesh

Answer: (c) Odisha

Explanation:

In NEWS: Odisha lighthouses hold huge tourism potential

  • As the Union Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways seeks to develop 65 lighthouses on public-private-partnership mode, Odisha’s five lighthouses present a huge potential for tourism.
  • One of the five lighthouses situated along the Odisha coast was the 180-year-old functional tower which continues to guide ships. The ‘False Point’ island lighthouse is situated off the Kendrapara coast while the other four are situated in the mainland. Hence option (c) is correct
  • The Ministry wants to develop them as hubs of tourism under the Sagarmala project.
  • The British-era False Point lighthouse, a 129-ft massive minaret-like structure of red-white bands with a huge embossed star, is visible from quite a distance from the Bay of Bengal.
  • Its location close to massive mangrove vegetation infested with crocodiles makes it an adventurous tourist place on the eastern coast.
  • The 150-year-old tower used to assist ships sailing between Rangoon and the Coromandel coast ports and is already a tourist place. The Chilika Lake and the Gopalpur beach will be added attractions if it is developed as a place of tourist interest.
  • The Chandrabhaga lighthouse, 10 km from the world famous Konark temple, offers a breathtaking view of the sea and its height enables tourists to get a panoramic view of the town.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/lighthouses-in-odisha-hold-huge-tourism-potential/article34296290.ece


7.Recently, the term ‘SHAPHARI’ is seen in news, it is related to 

  1. A national health ID for every Indian.
  2. A credit-linked subsidy scheme which promotes self-employment
  3. Improve online education ecosystem.
  4. A certification scheme for aquaculture products

Answer: (d) A certification scheme for aquaculture products

Explanation:

In NEWS: Centre to certify shrimp farms

  • Centre has kicked off a new scheme to certify hatcheries and farms that adopt good aquaculture practices.
  • India exported frozen shrimp worth almost $5 billion in 2019-20 to the U.S. and China — its biggest buyers.
  • Frozen shrimp is India’s largest exported seafood item. It constituted 50.58% in quantity and 73.2% in terms of total U.S. dollar earnings from the sector during 2019-20. Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu are the major shrimp producing States, and around 95% of the cultured shrimp produce is exported.

About Shaphari

  • The Marine Products Exports Development Authority (MPEDA) has developed a certification scheme for aquaculture products called Shaphari, a Sanskrit word that means superior quality of fishery products suitable for human consumption. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The Shaphari scheme is based on the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization’s technical guidelines on aquaculture certification and will have two components — certifying hatcheries for the quality of their seeds and, separately, approving shrimp farms that adopt the requisite good practices.
  • The certification of hatcheries will help farmers easily identify good quality seed producers.
  • The entire certification process will be online to minimise human errors and ensure higher credibility and transparency

About MPEDA

  • The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) was set up by an act of Parliament during 1972
  • MPEDA is given the mandate to promote the marine products industry with special reference to exports from the country. 
  • The Act empowers MPEDA to regulate exports of marine products and take all measures required for ensuring sustained, quality seafood exports from the country.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/certification-scheme-to-encourage-good-aquaculturepractices/article34295794.ece#:~:text=The%20Marine%20Products%20Exports%20Development,products%20suitable%20for%20human%20consumption.


  • 8.Consider the following Statements with respect to Air Bubble Agreements
  • It is a bilateral arrangement with a set of regulations and restrictions in which the carriers of the two countries can operate international flights.
  • India has not yet formally signed it with any country.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India has finalised air bubble pact with Sri Lanka: Aviation Ministry

  • India has signed an air bubble agreement with the neighbouring island nation of Sri Lanka. 
  • Under the bilateral agreement, international flights between the two nations would be allowed to operateHence statement 1 is correct
  • India has finalized an air bubble agreement with Sri Lanka, making it the 6th such arrangement in the SAARC region and the 28th in total. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Other nations which have signed similar pacts with India include Afghanistan, France, Canada, Germany, Maldives, the USA, the UK and the UAE, among others

About Air Transport Bubbles

  • “Transport Bubbles” or “Air Travel Arrangements” are temporary arrangements between two countries aimed at restarting commercial passenger services when regular international flights are suspended as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. They are reciprocal in nature, meaning airlines from both countries enjoy similar benefits.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-has-finalised-air-bubble-pact-with-sri-lanka-aviation-ministry/article34289423.ece


9.Consider the following Statements with respect to NanoSniffer

  1. It is developed by NanoSniff Technologies which is an IIT Bombay incubated startup.
  2. It can detect explosives in less than 10 seconds and it also identifies and detects all classes of military, conventional and homemade explosives.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Education Minister, Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ launches NanoSniffer, a Microsensor based Explosive Trace Detector

  • NanoSniffer, the world’s first Microsensor based Explosive Trace Detector (ETD) developed by NanoSniff Technologies, an IIT Bombay incubated startup. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a 100% Made in India product in terms of research, development & manufacturing.
  • It gives visible & audible alerts with sunlight-readable color display.

Significance of NanoSniffer

  • It will reduce India’s dependency on imported explosive trace detector devices.
  • It will encourage other institutions, startups and medium-scale industries to research & develop products indigenously.
  • It is a step towards Prime Minister’s vision of a self-reliant India.
  • It can detect explosives in less than 10 seconds and it also identifies and categorizes explosives into different classes.
  • It detects all classes of military, conventional and homemade explosives. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It provides trace detection of nano-gram quantity of explosives & delivers result in seconds

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspxPRID=1710645#:~:text=by%20PIB%20Delhi-,Union%20Education%20Minister%2C%20Shri%20Ramesh%20Pokhriyal%20’Nishank’%20today%20launched,an%20IIT%20Bombay%20incubated%20startup.


10.Along with the Budget, the Finance Minister also places other documents before the Parliament which include “The Macro Economic Framework Statement’. The aforesaid document is presented because this is mandated by 

  1. Long standing parliamentary convention 
  2. Article 112 and Article 110(1) of the Constitution of India
  3. Article 113 of the Constitution of India 
  4. Provisions of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003

Answer: (d) Provisions of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003

Explanation:

Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) became an Act in 2003. The objective of the Act is to ensure inter-generational equity in fiscal management, long run macroeconomic stability, better coordination between fiscal and monetary policy, and transparency in fiscal operation of the Government. It is required for the presentation of the following documents before the Parliament – the Medium Term Expenditure Framework Statement (MTEF), Medium-Term Fiscal Policy Statement, Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement and Macroeconomic Framework Statement.Hence option (d) is correct