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Daily Prelims Test – 11_October 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Vigyan Jyoti Scheme

1.It is an initiative that will create a level-playing field for the meritorious girls in high school to pursue Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) in their higher education.

2.It will cover girl students from grade 6 to 12

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: DST, IBM collaborate to scale up initiatives for nurturing girl students interest in STEM areas

Department of Science and Technology (DST) and International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) India have announced collaborations to scale up the initiatives, Vigyan Jyoti and Engage with Science.

Vigyan Jyoti programme

The Vigyan Jyoti programme was launched by the DST in 2019 to inspire girl students to pursue higher education and career in STEM fields.

Vigyan Jyoti is a programme to promote STEM learning among girl students and to inspire them towards STEM careers by creating a level-playing field for meritorious girls from grades 9 to 12 to pursue STEM in their higher education, especially from the top colleges in the areas where girls are hugely underrepresented. Hence statement 1 is correct

The programme will cover girl students from grade 9 to 12. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

It provides a scholarship, visit to nearby scientific institutions, science camps, lecturers from women scientists and career counselling.

It is implemented by Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya in 58 districts, with the participation of about 2,900 students.

Engage with Science:

Engage with Science by Vigyan Prasar is another initiative to build interest and create a community of practice with students, teachers, and scientists connecting the high school students to the higher education institutions.

Vigyan Prasar is an autonomous body under the DST to help India’s science popularisation agenda through several strategic initiatives.

This is an interactive platform that will be built on the Over-The-Top (OTT) platform to encourage and inspire high school students to pursue science and technology for a career.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1663120

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SARDP-NE is an initiative of which of the following Ministry in India?

1.Ministry of Road Transport and Highways

2.Ministry of Rural Development

3.Ministry of Defence

4.Ministry of Home affairs

Answer: (a) Ministry of Road Transport and Highways

Explanation:

In NEWS: Roads Ministry enhances fund allocation for developing roads in NE India

The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has increased the allocation of funds for expenditure under Special Accelerated Road Development Programme in North Eastern Areas (SARDP-NE) related works during the current financial year. Hence option (a) is the correct answer

The Centre has undertaken a large-scale road development programme under SARDP-NE Scheme in the North East Region.

Objectives:

Up-gradation of National Highways connecting State Capitals.

Providing connectivity to District Headquarter towns of North Eastern Region(NER)

Providing road connectivity to backward and remote areas of NE region to boost socio-economic development;

Improving roads of strategic importance in border areas;

Improving connectivity to neighbouring countries.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/roads-ministry-enhances-fund-allocation-for-developing-roads-in-ne-india/article32802649.ece

·        


Consider the following statements regarding Graded Response Action Plan(GRAP)

1.It is a set of stratified actions that are taken once the pollution level reaches a certain specified limit.

2.If air quality reaches the severe+ stage, GRAP talks about shutting down schools and implementing the odd-even road-space rationing scheme.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is GRAP, Delhi-NCR’s action plan as air pollution increases?

Starting October 15, some stricter measures to fight air pollution will come into force in Delhi and its neighbouring National Capital Region (NCR) towns, as part of the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP). The action plan has been in effect for three years in Delhi and NCR.

What is GRAP?

Approved by the Supreme Court in 2016, the plan was formulated after several meetings that the Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) held with state government representatives and experts.

It is a set of stratified actions that are taken once the pollution level reaches a certain specified limitHence statement 1 is correct

GRAP works only as an emergency measure.

These are institutionalized measures to be taken when air quality deteriorates, hence works only as an emergency measure.

When the air quality shifts from poor to very poor, the measures listed have to be followed since the plan is incremental in nature.

If air quality reaches the severe+ stage, GRAP talks about shutting down schools and implementing the odd-even road-space rationing schemeHence statement 2 is correct

The plan requires action and coordination among 13 different agencies in Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan (NCR areas).

Has GRAP helped?

The biggest success of GRAP has been in fixing accountability and deadlines. For each action to be taken under a particular air quality category, executing agencies are clearly marked.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-grap-delhi-ncrs-action-plan-as-air-pollution-increases-6719746/

·        


Consider the following statements regarding Environmental Pollution Control Authority (EPCA)

1.It is a Supreme Court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in Delhi NCR.

2.It was constituted under the provisions of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is GRAP, Delhi-NCR’s action plan as air pollution increases?

In a territory like Delhi, where a multiplicity of authorities has been a long-standing impediment to effective governance, this step made a crucial difference. Also, coordination among as many as 13 agencies from four states is simplified to a degree because of the clear demarcation of responsibilities.

Three major policy decisions that can be credited to EPCA and GRAP are the closure of the thermal power plant at Badarpur, bringing BS-VI fuel to Delhi before the deadline set initially, and the ban on Pet coke as a fuel in Delhi-NCR.

About Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA):

EPCA was constituted with the objective of ‘protecting and improving’ the quality of the environment and ‘controlling environmental pollution’ in the National Capital Region-Delhi.

The EPCA also assists the apex court in various environment-related matters in the region.

EPCA is Supreme Court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in the National Capital Region. Hence statement 1 is correct

It was notified in 1998 by Environment Ministry under Environment Protection Act, 1986. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

EPCA has 15 members, including chairman.

It includes environment secretary of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), chairperson of the New Delhi Municipal Council, transport commissioner of the NCT, the commissioners of various municipal corporations of Delhi and professors at IIT Delhi and Jawaharlal Nehru University.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-grap-delhi-ncrs-action-plan-as-air-pollution-increases-6719746/

·        


Consider the following statements

1.A stillbirth means a baby born with no signs of life at 28 weeks of pregnancy or more

2.According to the global burden of stillbirths 2020, India has lowest number of stillbirths

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Topping the wrong chart: India has highest number of stillbirths

Some 0.34 million of the 1.9 million stillbirths globally in 2019 were in India, making it the country with the largest such burden, according to the first joint estimates released by a number of United Nations. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

India, along with five other countries — Pakistan, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, China and Ethiopia — accounted for nearly half of all stillbirths in the world, according to the report.

A stillbirth means a baby born with no signs of life at 28 weeks of pregnancy or more, according to UN agencies. Hence statement 1 is correct

Why the rise

At least eight prenatal checkups, one ultrasound before 24 weeks of pregnancy and a daily intake of iron and folic acid supplements are required to prevent a stillbirth, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

However, pregnant women faced reduced mobility and inability to access health care due to the lockdown, the report said.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/health/topping-the-wrong-chart-india-has-highest-number-of-stillbirths-73724

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Consider the following statements regarding Rapid Action Force

1.It is a specialized wing of the Border Security Force of India to deal with riot and crowd control situations.

2.It is a proud receiver of the president’s colour which is the highest honour bestowed upon any Indian military unit

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: RAF 28th anniversary: Know about the significance and role of Rapid Action Force

RAF stands for ‘Rapid Action Force’ is a specialized force. It was raised in October 1992 with 5 more units added w.e.f January 2018. These units were instituted to handle riots and similar situations and be responsible for internal security. Today, India is celebrating the 28th anniversary of Rapid Action Force.

Rapid Action Force significance

RAF is a zero response force which reaches to the crisis in no time, thus inducing an immediate sense of security and confidence amongst the general public.

This force also has a unique flag that signifies peace. It is also a proud receiver of the president’s colour, which is the highest honour bestowed upon any Indian military unit. SH L.K. Advani, then Deputy Prime Minister Of India presented it on October 7th, 2003, for its selfless service to the nation in the 11th year of coming into existence. Hence statement 2 is correct

RAF trained male and female contingents are deployed for UN peacekeeping missions to different countries.

The Rapid Action Force is a specialised wing of the Central Reserve Police Force of India to deal with riot and crowd control situationsHence statement 1 is incorrect

Source: https://www.indiatoday.in/information/story/raf-28th-anniversary-know-about-the-significance-role-of-rapid-action-force-1729315-2020-10-07

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Consider the following statements regarding Garba Dance

1.It is a dance form that originated in the Punjab region

2.It is a dance performed in a circular form by the village as well as urban women with rhythmic clapping.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Here’s what Navaratri without Garba means for Gujarat

This will be for the first time in the recent history of Gujarat that there will be no garba during the Navratri, which is its essential element and which the state government has branded as the ‘Longest Dance Festival of the World’.

The Gujarat government has banned garba completely but has allowed a no-contact worship of the idol or image of Goddess Durga, called Ma Amba in Gujarat, during the nine days of Navratri.

About Garba

  • Garba is a dance form that originated in the Gujarat region. Traditionally it is performed during the nine-day Hindu festival NavaratriHence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Either the lamp (the Garba Deep) or an image of the Goddess Durga is placed in the middle of concentric rings and the people dance around the centre, bending sideways at every step, their arms making sweeping gestures, each movement ending in a clap. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The women wear traditional dresses such as colourful embroidered choli, ghagra and bandhani dupattas dazzling with mirror work and heavy jewellery.
  • Traditionally, it is performed during the nine-day Hindu festival Navaratri.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-navaratri-without-garba-means-for-gujarat-6719914/


Consider the following statements regarding SVAMITVA scheme

1.It is a new initiative of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj

2.It aims to map residential land ownership in the rural sector using modern technology like the use of drones.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (C) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi launches property cards scheme, calls it a ‘historic move’ to transform villages

  • The beneficiaries of the new scheme would include 1 lakh property holders who would get “property cards” by their respective state governments

About SVAMITVA scheme

  • SVAMITVA (Survey of villages and mapping with improvised technology in village areas) scheme is a new initiative of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj. It aims to provide rural people with the right to document their residential properties so that they can use their property for economic purposes. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The scheme is for surveying the land parcels in rural inhabited area using Drone technology. The survey shall be done across the country in a phase wise manner over the period of four years (2020 -2024)
  • The residential land in villages will be measured using drones to create a non-disputable record. It is the latest technology for surveying and measuring of land.
  • The scheme will be carried out in close coordination with the Central Panchayati Raj ministry, Survey of India, Panchayati Raj departments and Revenue departments of various states.
  • Property card for every property in the village will be prepared by states using accurate measurements delivered by drone-mapping. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/pm-modi-launches-svamitva-scheme-calls-it-a-historic-move-to-transform-villages-6720587/


Consider the following statements regarding Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary

1.It is the only marine sanctuary of Maharashtra

2.It is recognized as an “Important Bird Area” by the Bombay Natural History Society.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Shrinking spaces for winged visitors a cause for concern 

  • On World Migratory Bird Day on Saturday, experts from Mumbai came together to discuss ways to protect lesser flamingos
  • They said four decades ago, conditions were ideal for flamingos to visit the city but today they are being forced to feed within a tiny piece of land owing to the continuous destruction of wetlands and development activities across many areas.
  • After the loss of 2,000 hectares of wetlands for the Navi Mumbai  International Airport and JNPT expansions, the habitat for flamingos and wetland birds has shrunk to 20% 
  • The Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary is the last refuge for 1.5 lakh birds which concentrate here now.  Presently, more than 60% of the habitat has been kept out ofthe sanctuary limits obviously to help real estate and other projects 

About Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary

  • It is the second marine sanctuary of Maharashtra after Malvan sanctuary, and lies along the western bank of the Thane Creek. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is one of the most popular bird watchers paradise and is recognized as an “Important Bird Area” by the Bombay Natural History Society. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It has a great biodiversity and shows the presence of both Greater as well as Lesser Flamingos.
  • It also has other bird species like migratory ducks, Ibis, Eurasian Curlew, birds of Prey like Marsh harrier, Osprey, Falcons and many shorebird species.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/shrinking-spaces-for-winged-visitors-a-cause-for-concern/article32823834.ece


In India, the term “Public Key Infrastructure is used in the context of

1.Digital security infrastructure

2.Food security infrastructure

3.Health care and education infrastructure

4.Telecommunication and transportation infrastructure

Answer: (b) Digital security infrastructure

Explanation:

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a technology for authenticating users and devices in the digital world. The basic idea is to have one or more trusted parties digitally sign documents certifying that a particular cryptographic key belongs to a particular user or device. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.