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Daily Prelims Test – 11_June

1.Consider the following statements regarding Coral Triangle Initiative

  1. It is a multilateral partnership of six countries working together to sustain extraordinary marine and coastal resources
  2. It is headquarter is based in Manado, Indonesia
  3. India is a partners of this initiative

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: The Coral Triangle Day (held every June 9) is a massive celebration of the Coral Triangle, the world’s epicentre of marine biodiversity

The Coral Triangle Day is an annual, open-sourced event that brings together individuals, organizations, and establishments on one special day of the year to shed light on ocean conservation and the numerous ways to protect and conserve the Coral Triangle.

The Coral Triangle, the world’s epicentre of marine diversity, is one of the 3 mega ecological complexes on our planet, together with the Congo Basin and the Amazon Rainforest.

About The Coral Triangle Initiative:

  • The Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF) is a multilateral partnership of six countries working togetherto sustain extraordinary marine and coastal resources by addressing crucial issues such as food security, climate change and marine biodiversity. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The permanent Regional Secretariat was officially established with the appointment of the first Executive Director in April 2015, where the headquarter is based in Manado, Indonesia. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The CTI-CFF is formed in 2009 and members include the governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste(the ‘CT6’) representing the custodians of the Coral Triangle area. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

Source:https://wwf.panda.org/knowledge_hub/where_we_work/coraltriangle/events/coraltriangleday/

2.Consider the following statements

  • The Sun Corona is the innermost part of the Sun’s atmosphere
  • The Sun Corona is difficult to see without using special instruments and can be viewed during a total solar eclipse

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Now, more light on Sun’s coronal heating puzzle

  • A group of scientists working at the Pune-based National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) have recently discovered tiny flashes of radio light emanating from all over the sun, which they say could help in explaining the long-pending coronal heating problem.
  • The strength of the magnetic fields varies a lot from one place on the surface of the Sun to another, by more than a factor of 1,000. But the corona is hot everywhere. So, this heating process has to work all over the corona, even in regions of weak magnetic fields.
  • This contradiction, dubbed “the coronal heating problem” has puzzled astrophysicists ever since the temperature of the corona was first measured over 70 years ago.

About Sun corona:

  • The Sun’s corona is the outermost part of the Sun’s atmosphere. The corona is usually hidden by the bright light of the Sun’s surface. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • That makes it difficult to see without using special instruments. However, the corona can be viewed during a total solar eclipse. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • During a total solar eclipse, the moon passes between Earth and the Sun. When this happens, the moon blocks out the bright light of the Sun.
  • The glowing white corona can then be seen surrounding the eclipsed Sun.
  • The corona reaches extremely high temperatures. However, the corona is very dim. The corona is about 10 million times less dense than the Sun’s surface.
  • This low density makes the corona much less bright than the surface of the Sun.
  • The corona extends far out into space. From it comes the solar wind that travels through our solar system.
  • The corona’s temperature causes its particles to move at very high speeds. These speeds are so high that the particles can escape the Sun’s gravity.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/now-more-light-on-suns-coronal-heating-puzzle/article31733303.ece#:~:text=NCRA%20scientists%20discovered%20tiny%20radio,long%2Dpending%20coronal%20heating%20problem.

3.Which one of the following pairs of countries separated from each other by the 38thparallel?

  • France and Germany
  • USA and Canada
  • Iran and Iraq
  • South Korea and North Korea

Answer: (d) South Korea and North Korea

Explanation:

In NEWS: What we know about the hotlines to North Korea

  • Lines of communication were last cut in 2016. When North Korea has stopped communicating, South Korean officials still typically try to call every day at the same time, even if there is no answer
  • At least 49 hotlines have been established between the two Koreas to arrange diplomatic talks, deconflict military operations, coordinate air and sea traffic, hold humanitarian discussions, and cooperate on economic issues
  • The UN Command, recently held both North and South Korea guilty of violating armistice agreements after a recent incident which involved gunfire along the Demilitarised Zone (DMZ) between the two countries.
  • The agreement brought about a complete cessation of hostilities of the Korean War. It was signed on 27 July 1953 by the United Nations Command (UNC), Korean People’s Army (KPA of North Korea) and the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (PVA).  It was designed to ensure a complete termination of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved.
  • The DMZ runs close to the 38th parallel and has separated North and South Korea since the Agreement. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The UN Commandoversees affairs pertaining to the DMZ, to ensure the terms of the armistice are being agreed upon by both North Korea and South Korea

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/north-korea-hotlines-with-south-korea-explained-6451698/

4.Consider the following statements regarding Asiatic lio

  • Asiatic Lion population in Gir national park has increased by 29% in the past five years from 523 in 2015 to 674 in 2020.
  • It is listed as an endangered species under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 29% rise in Asiatic lion numbers, says Gujarat

  • The Gujarat forest department has suggested that the Asiatic Lion population in Gir national park has increased by 29% in the past five years — from 523 in 2015 to 674 in 2020.The department has also said the distribution area of lions in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, where Gir is situated, has increased by 36% from 22,000 sqkm in 2015 to 30,000 sqkm. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • This is powered by community participation, emphasis on technology, wildlife healthcare, proper habitat management and steps to minimise human-lion conflict.
  • Asiatic lions are present in protected areas and agro-pastoral landscape of Saurashtra covering nine districts in a sprawling expanse of over 30,000 sq. km, which is termed as the Asiatic Lion landscape

About Asiatic lions

  • They belong to the category of Pantherine cats.
  • The Asiatic Lions in Gujarat is restricted to Gir National Park in the state.
  • It is listed as ‘Endangered’ under the IUCN Red List. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is listed in Schedule-I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • In the initial stage, the lions were spread from the east of the Indus River to West Bengal and also to Narmada river in Central India.
  • Until the 19th century, it occurred in Saudi Arabia,, eastern Turkey, Iran, Mesopotamia.
  • Since the turn of the 20th century, it is restricted to the Gir Forest National Park and surrounding areas.
  • The lion is one of five pantherine catsinhabiting India, along with the Bengal tiger (P. tigris tigris), Indian leopard (P. pardus fusca), snow leopard (P. uncia) and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).
  • It was also known as the “Indian lion” and the “Persian lion”.

Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary

  • It is also known as Sasan Gir, a forest and wildlife sanctuarynear Talala Gir in Gujarat, India.
  • It is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forestsecoregion.
  • The seven major perennialrivers of the Gir region are Hiran, Shetrunji, Datardi, Shingoda, Machhundri, Godavari and Raval.
  • The four reservoirs of the area are at four dams, one each on Hiran, Machhundri, Raval and Shingoda rivers, including the biggest reservoir in the area, the Kamleshwar Dam, dubbed ‘the lifeline of Gir’.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/29-rise-in-asiatic-lion-numbers-says-gujarat/story-b6BPKWSGtuqqZmnqGr4EpM.html

5.Consider the following statements regarding Quality Council of India

  • It is an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry
  • It aims to establish and operate national accreditation structure and promote quality through National Quality Campaign.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: QCI celebrates the World Accreditation Day, focuses on improving food safety

  • The theme for WAD 2020 is “Accreditation: Improving Food Safety”, as decided by the International Accreditation Forum (IAF) and the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC).
  • National Accreditation Board for Certification Bodies (NABCB) and National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL), the two accreditation boards of the Quality Council of India (QCI), organised a Webinar to commemorate the event, in which all concerned stakeholders participated.

About Quality Council of India (QCI):

  • Established in 1997 Quality Council of India (QCI) is an autonomous organization under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was setup jointly by the Government of India and the Indian Industry represented by the three premier industry associations i.e. Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM), Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).
  • It aims to establish and operate national accreditation structure and promote quality through National Quality CampaignHence statement 2 is correct
  • It is the Quality Apex and National Accreditation Body for accreditation and quality promotion in the country.
  • The Council was established to provide a credible, reliable mechanism for third party assessment of products, services and processes which is accepted and recognized globally.
  • Chairman of QCI is appointed by the Prime Minister on recommendation of the industry to the government.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/small-biz/sme-sector/qci-celebrates-the-world-accreditation-day-focuses-on-improving-food-safety/articleshow/76296207.cms

6.Consider the following statement

  • Titan is the largest moon of jupiter
  • Recently, the scientists using data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft found that titan drifting a hundred times faster than previously understood

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Saturn’s moon Titan drifting away faster than previously thought

  • A new research led by scientists at NASA and the Italian Space Agency has found that Titan is receding away from Saturn at a faster pace than previously thought.
  • Scientists had earlier thought that they knew the rate at which the Saturn’s moon Titan has been moving away from its host planet but as per a discovery with data from NASA’s Cassini Spacecraft, it has been found that Titan is drifting hundred times faster than previously understood. It is about 4 inches (11 centimeters) every year. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Titan, a moon of Saturnis currently 759,000 miles (1.2 million kilometers) from Saturn. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Our moon has also been drifting away from Earth a tiny bit more each year, other moons have also been doing the same with their host planets.
  • The moon starts drifting away from its host planets because as a moon orbits, its gravity pulls on a planet which causes a temporary bulge in the planet as it passes.
  • With time, the energy created by subsiding and bulging, transfers from the planet to the moon and nudging it farther and farther out. Our own moon drifts 1.5 inches (3.8 centimeters) from the Earth each year.
  • While scientists have known that Saturn was formed 4.6 billion years ago in the early days of the solar system, there has been more of an uncertainty about the planet’s rings and when its system of more than 80 moons was formed.

Source:https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/science/saturns-moon-titan-drifting-away-faster-than-previously-thought/articleshow/76274693.cms

7.Consider the following statements regarding OSIRIS-REx Mission

  • It is jointly launched by the NASA and Indian Space Research Organisation
  • It is primary aim of the mission is to study asteroid 101955 Bennu

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Discovers Sunlight Cracking Rocks on Asteroid Bennu

  • The images captured by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft have discovered that rocks on asteroid Bennu could crack as sunlight heats them up during the day and the rocks cool down at night.
  • For the first time evidence for this process called thermal fracturing has been definitively observed on an object without an atmosphere.
  • The scientists involved in the study found features consistent with thermal fracturing using the spacecraft’s OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite, which can see features smaller than one centimeter.
  • It can help in understanding what the surface used to be like and what it will be after millions of years from now

About OSIRIS-Rex

  • The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS REx) is a planned NASA asteroid study and sample return mission. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • NASA’s OSIRIS-REx will be the first U.S. mission to bring an asteroid sample to Earth. The spacecraft is currently orbiting asteroid Bennu and will spend two years mapping it before collecting a sampleand returning to Earth. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Bennu is a potentially hazardous asteroid that could one day threaten Earth
  • The sample will weigh at least 2.1 ounces (59.5 grams).
  • The sample will be stored on the spacecraft and delivered to Earth in September 2023.

Source: https://scitechdaily.com/nasas-osiris-rex-spacecraft-discovers-sunlight-cracking-rocks-on-asteroid-bennu/

https://zeenews.india.com/science/sunlight-can-crack-rocks-on-asteroid-bennu-reveal-osiris-rex-images-2289079.html

8.Consider the following statements regarding Heeng (asafoetida

  • Heeng is a perennial plant and it produces oleo-gum resin from the roots after five years of plantation.
  • It can be grown in unutilized sloppy land of cold desert region.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: IHBT to provide technical know-how to farmers to to enhance cultivation of heeng and saffron

  • Aimed at enhancing farmer income, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT) and Government of Himachal Pradesh have entered into a strategic partnership to boost cultivation of Saffron and Heeng in the country
  • Saffron and Heeng (asafoetida) are the most valuable spices of the world and widely used in Indian cuisine since time immemorial. In India, the annual demand for Saffron spice is 100 tons per year but its average production is about 6-7 tons per year.
  • At present, about 2825 hectares of land is under cultivation of Saffron in Jammu and Kashmir. IHBT has developed the production technology for Saffron and introduced its cultivation in non-traditional areas of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
  • Heeng is a perennial plant and it produces oleo-gum resin from the roots after five years of plantation. It can be grown in unutilized sloppy land of cold desert region.Hence statements 1 and 2 are correct
  • Introduction of these crops will reduce the import. CSIR-IHBT will provide technical know-how to the farmers, impart training to state agriculture department officers and farmers, and set up corm and seed production centres of Saffron and heeng, respectively, in the state

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=IHBT-to-provide-technical-know-how-to-farmers-to-to-enhance-cultivation-of-heeng-and-saffron&id=390850

9.Indian Monsoon Index and Indian Rain Index is published by the

  • National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Limited
  • Indian Space Research Organisation
  • India Meteorological Department
  • World Meteorological Organization

Answer: (a) National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Limited

Explanation:

In NEWS: NCDEX to publish two rainfall-based indices

  • National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX)is set to publish two national-level rainfall-based indices on June 10, 2020 that would track the systematic rainfall movement in the country – the Indian Monsoon Index (Cumulative Monsoon Index) and Indian Rain Index (Monthly Cumulative Rainfall Index). Hence option (a) is correct
  • NCDEX has partnered with Skymet Weather Services Private Limited, which will provide data on the weather movement in the country. The two indices will only be representative indices of rainfall in the country and won’t be available for trading.
  • The two indices will cover rainfall on pan-India basis using state-of-the-art rainfall data collection centres. This would track rainfall on the basis of deviation from normal (deficit/surplus) for which yearly cumulative and monthly statistics are available. The data updation would be on daily basis. These indices will be useful for a broad range of economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, insurance, banking, construction, entertainment, leisure, travel, retail, etc.
  • It will also be useful to promote new insurance / derivatives products for sectors that are dependent on weather, such as agriculture.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/markets/commodities/news/ncdex-to-publish-two-rainfall-based-indices-on-wednesday/articleshow/76288519.cms

10.The Service Area Approach was implemented under the purview of

  • Integrated Rural Development Programme
  • Lead Bank Scheme
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
  • National Skill Development Mission

Answer: (b) Lead Bank Scheme

Explanation:

  • The Service Area Approach (SAA) introduced in April1989, in order to bring about an orderly and planned development of rural and semi – urban areas of the country, was extended to all Indian scheduled commercial banks including Regional Rural Banks (RRBs).
  • Service area approach is an alternative and improved method of Lead Bank Scheme fordeployment of bank credit for rural development. Under SAA, each bank branch in rural and semi -urban area was designated to serve an area of 15 to 25 villages and the branch was responsible for meeting the needs of bank credit of its service area. Hence option (b) is correct 
  • The primary objective of SAA was to increase productive lending and forge effective linkages between bank credit, production, productivity and increase in income levels