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Daily Prelims Test – 11_July

1.Consider the following statements regarding Privilege motion

  • It can be used to censure the whole council of ministers.
  • It is moved in the form of a motion by any member of either House for the breach of parliamentary privileges by a minister.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Horse trading: Now BJP MLAs lodge privilege motion complaint against Rajasthan CM Ashok Gehlot

  • The political row over the controversial remarks made during the Rajya Sabha (RS) polls in Rajasthan became more serious.
  • Ten BJP MLAs have now jointly lodged a complaint for a privilege motion against CM Ashok Gehlot with Assembly Speaker CP Joshi.

About Privilege Motion

  • Parliamentary privileges are certain rights and immunities enjoyed by the members of Parliament, individually and collectively, so that they can effectively discharge their functions.
  • When any of these rights and immunities are disregarded, the offence is called a breach of privilege and is punishable under the law of Parliament.
  • A notice is moved in the form of a motion by any member of either House against those being held guilty of breach of privilege. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Rule No 222 in Chapter 20 of the Lok Sabha Rule Book and correspondingly Rule 187 in Chapter 16 of the Rajya Sabha Rulebook govern privilege.
  • The Speaker/RS chairperson is the first level of scrutiny of a privilege motion
  • The Speaker/RS Chairperson can decide on the privilege motion him or herself or refer it to the privileges committee of Parliament.
  • Its purpose is to censure the concerned ministerHence statement 1 is incorrect.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/jul/11/horse-trading-now-bjp-mlas-lodge-privilege-motion-complaint-against-rajasthan-cm-ashok-gehlot-2168099.html

2.Hagia Sophia, a UNESCO World Heritage site often seen in news. It is situated in

  • Malaysia
  • Abu Dubai
  • Israel
  • Turkey

Answer: (d) Turkey

Explanation:

In NEWS: Turkey’s president formally makes Hagia Sophia a mosque

  • The president of Turkey on Friday formally converted Istanbul’s sixth-century Hagia Sophia back into a mosque and declared it open for Muslim worship, hoursafter a high court annulled a 1934 decision that had made the religious landmark a museum.Hence option (d) is correct.
  • The decision sparked deep dismay among Orthodox Christians. Originally a cathedral, Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque after Istanbul’s conquest by the Ottoman Empire but had been a museum for the last 86 years, drawing millions of tourists annually.

About Hagia Sophia

  • The construction of this iconic structure in Istanbulstarted in 532 AD during the reign of Justinian I, the ruler of the Byzantine Empire when the city was known as
  • The structure was originally built to become the seat of the Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church and remained so for approximately 900 years.
  • In 1453, when Constantinople fell to Sultan Mehmet II’s Ottoman forces, the Hagia Sophia was ransacked by the invading forces and turned into a mosque shortly after.
  • For a long time, the Hagia Sophia was Istanbul’s most important mosque.
  • The 1,500-year-old structure, listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, was originally a cathedral before it was turned into a mosque.
  • In the 1930s, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk,the founder of the Republic of Turkey, shut down the mosque and turned it into a museum in an attempt to make the country more secular.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-turkey-hagia-sophia-mosque-conversion-6488890/

3.Consider the following statements regarding International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

  • It is a multilateral treaty adopted by International Court of Justice.
  • This covenant commits its parties to respect the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and electoral rights.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Is Internet freedom being sacrificed for national security?

  • The government’s decision to block 59 Chinese apps has once again spotlighted the vulnerability of Internet freedom at a time of national security.
  • It is not a new power that the government is commandeering during a time of national security emergency.
  • Section 69A has a limited set of defined grounds under which the government can take action. Those are often wide grounds, including security of the state.
  • India is not only a constitutional democracy, but also one that is a signatory to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights as well as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • There is a certain basic understanding that regulation of the Internet or Internet-based services by governments has to respect basic human rights standards.
  • Therefore the necessity of blocking the app must be very clearly made out by the government.

About International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

  • The ICCPR is a multilateral treaty adopted by UN General AssemblyResolution on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976.Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedomof speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • As of September 2019, the Covenant has 173 parties and six more signatories without ratification.
  • It is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
  • It is monitored by the UN Human Rights Committee (a separate body to the UN Human Rights Council).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/is-internet-freedom-being-sacrificed-for-national-security/article32036908.ece

4.The recently introduced Code on Wages, replaces which of the following acts?

  • the Payment of Wages Act, 1936
  • the Minimum Wages Act, 1948
  • the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965
  • the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  • 1,2 and 3 only
  • 2,3 and 4 only
  • 1,3 and 4 only
  • All of the above

Answer: (d) All of the above

Explanation:   

In News: Govt notifies draft rules for Code on Wages

The Code replaces four laws: (i) the Payment of Wages Act, 1936, (ii) the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, (iii) the Payment of Bonus Act, 1965, and (iv) the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976.  Hence option (d) is correct. 

Key provisions:

  • Working hours: The normal working day shall comprise eight hours of work and one or more intervals of rest which in total shall not exceed one hour.
  • Central Advisory Board: Government will set up a Central advisory board to fix the floor-level minimum wages.
  • Calculation of minimum wage:The criteria for fixing the minimum rate of wages per day for employees include: (i) standard family of four (self, spouse and two children) (ii) daily intake of 2700 calories per consumption unit, (iii) 10% expenditure on rent, (iv) 20% expenditure of fuel, electricity, and miscellaneous items, and (v) 25% expenditure on education, medical requirements and contingencies.
  • Norms for fixing minimum wage:Minimum wages will be calculated on the basis of the geographical area of employment and the skill category of an employee.  

Source: TH

5.Consider the following statements regarding Open Sky agreement

  • This agreement is based on the National Civil Aviation Policy, 2016 on a reciprocal basis with SAARC countries only.
  • They are bilateral agreements that the two countries negotiate to provide rights for airlines to offer international passenger and cargo services.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: The UAE is keen to have an open sky agreement with India, its Ambassador to India A.R. Albanna

  • There are about 1,068 flights a week between India and the UAE operated by the airlines of the two countries under the bilateral Air Service Agreement.
  • India has open skies policy with SAARC countries and those beyond the 5,000-km radius.
  • India has Air Service Agreements (ASA)with 109 countries including UAE covering aspects relating to the number of flights, seats, landing points and code-share. But does not allow unlimited number of flights between two countries.

About Open Skies Agreement

  • The National Civil Aviation Policy, 2016, allows the government to enter into an ‘open sky’ air services agreement on a reciprocal basis with SAARC nations as well as countries beyond a 5,000-kilometre radius from New Delhi.Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Open Sky Agreements are bilateral agreements that the two countries negotiate to provide rights for airlines to offer international passengerand cargo services. It expands international passenger and cargo flights. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • This implies that nations within this distance need to enter into a bilateral agreement and mutually determine the number of flights that their airlines can operate between the two countries.
  • India has open sky agreements with Japan, Greece, Jamaica, Guyana, Czech Republic, Finland, Spain and Sri Lanka.
  • India also has an open sky agreement with the US, among other countries.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/uae-in-support-of-open-skies-agreement-with-india/article32024879.ece

6.Consider the following statements regarding ASEEM portal

  • It has launched by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship
  • It is an endeavour to improve the information flow and bridge the demand-supply gap in the skilled workforce market.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship launches AI-based ASEEM digital platform to bridge demand-supply gap of skilled workforce across sectors. Hence statement 1 is correct

  • The portal will map details of workers based on regions and local industry demands
    Database of labour migrants in Indian states and overseas citizens, who returned to India under the Vande Bharat Mission and filled SWADES Skill Card, has been integrated with the ASEEM portal
  • Candidate data coming to Skill India Portal from various state and central skilling schemes will be integrated including PMKVY, Fee-based Programs, National Urban Livelihoods Mission, DeenDayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana and SeekhoaurKamao
  • It is developed and managed by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in collaboration with Bengaluru-based company Betterplace, specialising in blue collar employee management..
  • ASEEM portal aims at supporting decision and policymaking via trends and analytics generated by the system for programmatic purposes
  • ASEEM will  provide employers a platform to assess the availability of skilled workforce and formulate their hiring plans. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It will provide real-time granular information by identifying relevant skilling requirements and employment prospects.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1637755

7.Consider the following statements regarding National Commission for Protection of Child Rights

1.It is a statutory body.

2.Under this commission, the Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.

3.It consist of Chairperson and six other members.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Rajasthan’s education guidelines irk NCPCR

  • The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has said the Congress-ruled Rajasthan government has violated the Right to Education (RTE) Act in the new norms it has recently issued for admissions to pre-primary classes in private schools.

About National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR):

  • National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) is a statutory bodyunder the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was set up in March 2007 under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005.
  • It comes under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • It aims to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • It emphasizes the principle of universality and inviolability of child rights and recognizes the tone of urgency in all the child related policies of the country.
  • The commission consist of:Chairperson andSix members, out of which at least two are woman appointed by theCentral Government from amongst person of eminence, ability, integrity, standing and experience.Hence statement 3is correct
  • The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/rajasthans-education-guidelines-irk-ncpcr/article32045698.ece

8.Consider the following

  • Dead Sea
  • Israel
  • Jerusalem
  • Jordan
  • Mediterranean Sea

Which of above regions are bordering with the West Bank territory of Palestine?

  • 1,3,4 and 5 only
  • 2,4 and 5 only
  • 1,4 and 5 only
  • 1,2,3 and 4 only

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:France asks Israel to drop West Bank annexation plans

  • Emmanuel Macron asked Is­rael’s Prime Minister Benja­min Netanyahu to refrain from annexing Palestinian territory in the West Bank and elsewhere during a tele­ phone call between the two leaders, the French Presi­dent’s
  • Israel’s government had set July 1 as the date when it could begin taking over thePalestinian areas, where the population of Israeli settlers has grown since the 1967 Six­ Day War.

About West Bank:

  • West Bank (about one and a half times the size of Goa) is a landlocked territory in West Asia. It also contains a significant section of the westerndead sea.Hence option (d) is correct.
  • It was captured by Jordan after the Arab-Israeli War (1948) but Israel snatched it back during the Six-Day War of 1967 and has occupied it ever since.
  • It has built some 130 formal settlements in the West Bank, and a similar number of smaller, informal settlements have mushroomed over the last 20-25 years.
  • Over 4 lakh Israeli settlers many of them religious Zionists who claim a Biblical birthright over this land — now live here, along with some 26 lakh Palestinians.
Picture1-Jul-20-2020-04-33-24-10-AM

Source: TH

9.Consider the following statements regarding Ex-servicemen Contributory Health Scheme

  • It is a flagship Scheme of the Ministry of Defence
  • It provides allopathic and AYUSH medicare through a network of ECHS Polyclinics, Service medical facilities spread across the country.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Trace contacts of positive cases within 72 hours of confirmation: Centre

  • The Government has now decided to treat unmarried permanently disabled and financially dependent sons of ECHS beneficiaries who have become disabled after attaining the age of 25 years as dependent and hence eligible for availing benefits under Ex-servicemen Contributory Health Scheme.
  • Ex-servicemen Contributory Health Scheme (ECHS) was launched with effect from 01 April 2003. The Scheme aims to provide allopathic and AYUSH medicare to Ex-servicemen pensioner and their dependents through a network of ECHS Polyclinics, Service medical facilities and civil empanelled/Govthospitals/specified Govt. AYUSH hospitals spread across the country. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • ECHS is a flagship Scheme of the Ministry of Defence, Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare. The aim of Scheme is to provide quality healthcare of Ex-servicemen pensioners and their dependents.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • To be eligible for membership of ECHS, a person must meet the following twin conditions:-
  • Should have ESM status.
  • Should be drawing normal Service /Disability/ Family Pension.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-trace-contacts-of-positive-cases-within-72-hours-of-confirmation-centre/article32024872.ece

10.Which of the following leaf modifications occur(s) in the desert areas to inhibit water loss?

  • Hard and waxy leaves
  • Tiny leaves
  • Thorns instead of leaves

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 2 and 3 only
  • 2 only
  • 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

Leaf modifications of Desert Plant to inhibit water loss for adaptations and survival of Desert Plant-

  1. Wax coatings on leaves prevent water loss throughevaporation, which in the hot desert can cause loss of water from both the surface and the inside of leaves. Leaves are also smaller on desert plants, further reducing the possibility for water loss.
  2. Deciduous plants in desert ecosystems have adapted through the activity of their leaves. Leaveson these plants are typically smaller and coated with wax to prevent evaporation.
  3. Plants such as aloes are equipped with fleshy leaves that contain much of their water supply. Because of their moist inner bodies, these plants are called succulents. They typically feel spongy and when cut open are filled with a pulpy flesh, protected by a waxy outer layer.
  4. Many plants in the desert conserve water by not having any leaves at all. Cacti are the most prolific of this plant type. Many cacti have spines in place of leaves, which conduct photosynthesis and catch dew when the climate is right. These small structures also reflect light, further reducing water loss. During heavy rains, cacti will grow temporary root systemsand absorb water. They will then shed the roots when the ground has dried. Hence option (d) is correct