Consider the following statements regarding Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau

The Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau (AAIB) is a division of the Ministry of Civil Aviation which investigates aircraft accidents and incidents in India.

Prior to the establishment of AAIB, Directorate General of Civil Aviation(DGCA) conducted investigations of aircraft accidents

Which of the above statements are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. None of the above

Solution: c) Both 1 and 2


In News: A look at what led to the Air India plane crash in Kozhikode airport

The civil aviation ministry’s accident investigation division Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau (AAIB) will conduct a detailed investigation into the Air India Express flight crash at Kozhikode airport in Kerala.

Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau, India (AAIB, India) is an attached office of the Govt of India, Ministry of Civil Aviation. AAIB processes the obligations of the Indian Government under Annex 13 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation signed at Chicago on the 7th of December, 1944 as amended from time to time. Hence Statement 1 is correct

In accordance with the Govt of India’s “State Safety Programme(SSP)” and “Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)” contained in Annex 13 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation; Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India established an Independent Accident Investigation

AAIB is responsible for classification of “Safety Occurrences” involving aircraft operating in the Indian Airspace into Accidents, Serious Incidents and Incidents.

All Accidents and Serious Incidents involving aircraft with AUW more than 2250 Kgs are investigated by AAIB. AAIB may investigate accidents or incidents to aircraft apart from the ones mentioned above if it appears expedient to hold an investigation into the circumstances of such accident or incident.

The sole objective of the investigations ordered by the Director General, AAIB is prevention of accidents and incidents and not to apportion blame or liability.

Earlier, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) conducted investigations and gave information to the investigations established by the Court of Inquiry and the Committee Inquiry. A separate investigative agency was established to comply with the Standards And Recommended Practices (SARPs) of the International Civil Aviation Organisation. Hence Statement 2 is correct.


The terms ‘ RESA’ and ‘EMAS recently seen in news are related to ?

  1. Malwares used by hackers
  2. COIVD 19 Vaccines
  3. Runway safety features in airports
  4. Missile Defence system

Solution: c) Runway safety features in airports


In News: What is a ‘tabletop airport’ and how many are there in India?

Why are these airports drawing attention now?

While there have been some aviation incidents at these airports, it was the accident in Mangaluru on May 22, 2010, that highlighted operational risks. Here, an Air India Express flight again, from Dubai to Mangaluru, overran the runway while landing on runway 24. Flight IX-812 hit an antenna and then went down a steep embankment after which there was a fire. Of the 160 passengers and 6 crew, 158 lost their lives. The case focused attention on the nature of operations to such airports, especially their shorter runways.

Kozhikode has two runways of 2,700 metres in length. It was 2,860 metres but ‘shortened’ to accommodate a safety feature called RESA, or Runway End Safety Area (of 240 metres), which is a means “to limit the consequences when there is an aircraft overrun during landing, a rejected take-off, or even undershoots the landing area”.

In “tabletop” airport operations, the ICAO says a RESA of 90 metres is mandatory, while 240 metres is recommendatory. The runways are Instrument Landing System (ILS) CAT 1 enabled and the airport has a range of visual aids which include simple approach lighting. In addition, all obstacles are lit. Both runways have Required Navigation Performance approach.

Could safety measures be better in terms of the ground infrastructure?

While RESA is in vogue, the term EMAS has been tossed up, which is mandatory at all international airports in the United States. Called Engineered Materials Arrestor/Arresting System, it is made of engineered lightweight and crushable cellular cement/concrete.

Used at the runway ends, it acts as a safety barrier and successfully stops an aircraft overrun.

Its retarding effect increases as one moves away from the runway edge. In demonstrations in the West, it ensured good aircraft safety. It must be noted that these are laid in easily replaceable blocks in the overrun area. The material is engineered specifically for the airport it is to be used in, says the retired official. It is said to be ideal for use in ‘tabletop’ airports. About 75m of EMAS can serve the purpose of 240m of RESA without causing any damage to the aircraft.


The GST Compensation Cess is levied on which of the following goods?

Select the correct code from the options given below

  1. 1,2 and 4 only
  2. 1,2,3 and 5 only
  3. 1,3,4 and 5 only
  4. All of the Above

Solution: b) 1,2,3 and 5 only


In News: Making up for shortfalls in GST collection

Two weeks ago, the Central government announced that it has released the Goods and Services Tax (GST) compensation dues to States for 2019-20. The total compensation was ₹1,65,302 crore while the compensation cess fund collected was ₹95,444 crore.

The shortfall was made up by excess collections in earlier years as well as some of the balance of inter-State GST from earlier years. This raises the question of how the compensation will be made in the current year

What is Compensation Cess?

While implementing the GST in 2017, a major concern of the state governments was the possibility of revenue loss. Several states argued for compensation from the centre if the revenue from GST to them falls than that of the estimated level.

The centre initially resisted to compensation but later agreed for the first five years.

What is the purpose of the compensation?

Main purpose of the compensation clause was to incentivise states to accept and implement the GST. States have to give up the control over their major tax revenues including the state sales tax that are to be merged under GST. Effectively, states had given up their power to impose and collect taxes on goods. Hence, assuring no revenue loss after the implementation of GST became important.

In the past, the centre compensated states when the latter introduced Value Added Tax (VAT) n place of state sales tax in 2006. Hence, compensation in case of revenue loss became a conventional clause when the state is undertaking any tax reform at the insistence of the centre.

What is GST Compensation cess?

GST Compensation Cess is imposed as a levy in addition to the regular GST taxes. The cess is imposed on the supply of certain luxurious and demerit goods and services that attract 28 per cent GST. The cess rate usually ranges from 1% to 25% and is levied over and above the GST rate.

Which items attracts GST Compensation Cess?

GST cess is applicable to a variety of goods or services that are traded either intrastate or interstate trade. Entities that fall under the composition scheme need not pay the cess. The main items that attract the cess are:

The list of the items is changed with change in GST Council decision. Rates for the goods/services also differ.

Alcohol for consumption is yet to be added under GST regime.