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Daily Prelims Test – 10_June

1.Consider the following statements regarding State Food Safety Index (SFSI)

  • It has released by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
  • It aims to measure the performance of States on ten parameters of food safety

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Dr. Harsh Vardhan inaugurates first-ever World Food Safety Day

  • Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare at the first-ever World Food Safety Day being celebrated by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI). The theme for this day was ‘food safety, everyone’s business.
  • FSSAI has developed the second State Food Safety Index (SFSI)to measure the performance of States on five parameters of food Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The categories included Human Resources and Institutional Arrangements, Compliance, Food Testing- Infrastructure and Surveillance, Training and Capacity Building and Consumer Empowerment.
  • Gujarat has topped among larger States in terms of food safety index, while Chandigarh tops among UTs. Goa leads smaller States so far as food safety is concerned, as per the details shared by FSSAI. Gujarat is followed by Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra, said the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), released the results of the second ‘State Food Safety Index’ to celebrate the World Food Safety Day

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1573662

2.Consider the following statements regarding Coro-bot

  • It is a first-of-its kind ‘Internet-controlled’ robot developed by a student from IIT Madras
  • It can be operated using Internet of Things (IoT) technology to provide food, medicines and advice to Corona patients without the need of care-givers

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: 23 yr old engineer from Maharashtra develops ‘Coro-bot’ to reduce physical contact of care-givers with COVID-19 patients

  • A robot named as ‘Coro-bot’ has been developed by an engineer from Thane district of Maharashtra, in order to reduce the physical contact of care-givers with COVID-19 patients. Instrumentation Engineer, Pratik Tirodkar developed the ‘Coro-bot’ to cut away the requirement of physical contact of nurses and ward boys with the patient as they confronts a great risk while working in the COVID-19 hospitals. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The robot ‘Coro-bot’ will be operated by a special app from any location in the world based on the idea of Internet of Things (IoT).This robot can provide various services such as delivering food, water and medicines to the patients suffering from COVID-19, without any necessity of physical presence of nurses as well as other care-givers. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • ‘Coro-bot’ is likely to be deployed in over a dozen other government and private hospitals soon in the district. On another positive note, in Nashik district of Maharashtra, out of the 87 children who had tested positive for the Coronavirus in the last two months, 56 have recovered and have been discharged from various hospitals

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=390705

3.Ukai Dam is constructed across which of the following river in India?

  • Tapi River
  • Narmada River
  • Godavari River
  • Yamuna River

Answer: (a) Tapi River

Explanation:

In NEWS: Full reservoirs as monsoon sets in: Why India should watch out for floods

  • The onset of the monsoon has raised fears of dam-induced floods as India’s major reservoirs are already full. Live storage in 123 reservoirs was 55.837 billion cubic metres (BCM), according to data released by the Central Water Commission (CWC)
  • Live storage in reservoirs in the corresponding period last year was 32.801 BCM, with the average for the last 10 years at 33.706 BCM.
  • The current live storage available in 123 reservoirs was 170 per cent of the same corresponding period of last year and 166 per cent of the last 10 years’ average.
  • Ukai dam — from where sudden release of water led to floods in Gujarat’s Surat in 2006 — has 45 per cent water level, compared to just four per cent last year

About Ukai Dam

  • The Ukai Dam, constructed across the Tapi River, is the second largest reservoir in Gujarat after the Sardar Sarovar.It is also known as Vallabh Sagar. Hence option (a) is correct
  • Constructed in 1972, the dam is meant for irrigation, power generation and flood control.
  • The storage capacity of Ukai dam is almost 46% of the total capacity of all the other existing dams in Gujarat if put together.
  • The dam is an earth-cum-masonry dam.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/natural-disasters/full-reservoirs-as-monsoon-sets-in-why-india-should-watch-out-for-floods-71577

4.Consider the following statements regarding Enforcement Directorate

  • It is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crime in India.
  • It was set up at New Delhi in 1956 for enforcement of the provisions of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Enforcement Directorate to seek extradition of Iqbal Mirchi

The Enforcement Directorate has conducted searches at five locations, connected to Cox & Kings Group in the Yes Bank scam. According to ED, CKG has borrowed ₹3,642 crores from the private lender.

About Enforcement Directorate:

  • The Directorate of Enforcement (ED) is a law enforcement agency and economic intelligence agency responsible for enforcing economic laws and fighting economic crimein India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a part of the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
  • Directorate of Enforcement was set up at New Delhi in 1956 for enforcement of the provisions of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA), 1947.
  • FERA, 1947 was later replaced by Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • FERA was repealed in 2000 and replaced with Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.

Functions of Enforcement Directorate:

  • Investigate contraventions of the provisions of Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA). Contraventions of FEMA are dealt with by way of adjudication by designated authorities of ED and penalties upto three times the sum involved can be imposed.
  • Investigate offences of money laundering under the provisions of Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA), take actions of attachment and confiscation of property and prosecute the persons involved in the offence of money laundering.
  • Adjudicate Show Cause Notices issued under the repealed Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (FERA) for the alleged contraventions of the Act which may result in imposition of penalties.
  • Processing cases of fugitive/s from India under Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018. The objective of this Act is to provide for measures to deter fugitive economic offenders from evading the process of law in India by staying outside the jurisdiction of Indian Courts and to preserve the sanctity of the rule of law in India.
  • Sponsor cases of preventive detention under Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974(COFEPOSA) in regard to contraventions of FEMA.
  • Render cooperation to foreign countries in matters relating to money launderingand restitution of assets under the provisions of PMLA and to seek cooperation in such matters.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/enforcement-directorate-to-seek-extradition-of-iqbal-mirchis-kin/articleshow/76293358.cms

5.Consider the following statements regarding ANANYA

  • It is a nano-technology based disinfectant spray to combat Covid-19
  • It has developed by the Defence Institute of Advanced Technology

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: DIAT develops disinfectant spray to combat Covid-19

  • The Defence Institute of Advanced Technologyin Pune has developed a nano-technology based disinfectant spray to combat Covid-1 The formulation, which has been named Ananya, is effective in disinfecting all types of surfaces, developers. Hence statements 1 and 2 are correct
  • The material can be used on masks, PPEs, hospital linens, and other likely contaminated surfaces like medical instruments, elevator buttons, door knobs, corridors and rooms
  • The material has been developed by synthesising silver nanoparticles and a commercially available drug, Ampicillin…Properties of this material have been tested by two methods – Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy
  • This Nano-technology assisted formulation will not only stop the novel coronavirus from entering human body, but it will also kill the virus when the virus comes in contact with this formulation layer on masks and PPEs.
  • This is a water based spray and will be effective for more than 24 hours after spray.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/diat-develops-disinfectant-spray-to-combat-covid-19-6449281/

6.Consider the following statements regarding Permafrost

  • It is defined as ground that remains at or below 0°C for at least two consecutive years.
  • It consists of soil, gravel, and sand, usually bound together by ice and is defined solely based on temperature only.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Russia oil leak: What is permafrost, and why does its thawing pose risk to the world?

The thawing of permafrost is the principal reason that led to the recent 20,000-tonne oil leak at an Arctic region power plant in Russia. The thermoelectric plant at Norilsk (3,000 km northeast of Moscow) is built entirely on permafrost, whose weakening over the years due to climate change caused the plant to sink.

About permafrost

  • Permafrost is ground that remainscompletely frozen at 0 degrees Celsius or below for at least two years. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The permanently frozen ground,consisting of soil, sand, and rock held together by ice, is believed to have formed during glacial periods dating several millennia. It is defined solely based on temperature and durationHence statement 2 is incorrect
  • These grounds are known to be below 22 percent of the land surface on Earth, mostly in polar zones and regions with high mountains. 
  • They are spread across 55 percent of the landmass in Russia and Canada, 85 per cent in the US state of Alaska, and possibly the entirety of Antarctica. In northern Siberia, it forms a layer that is 1,500 m thick; 740 m in northern Alaska. At lower latitudes, permafrost is found at high altitude locations such as the Alps and the Tibetian plateau.

The Earth’s polar and high altitude regions — its principal permafrost reservoirs — are the most threatened by climate change. According to the USA’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Arctic regions are warming twice as fast compared to the rest of the planet, its current rate of temperature change being the highest in 2,000 years.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/russia-arctic-oil-leak-permafrost-6450195/

7.Recently, the term ‘Haidou-1’, is seen in news, what is it?

  • An Interstellar objects
  • A Human Space Flight Centre
  • China’s Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) system
  • An unnamed submersible

Answer: (d) An unnamed submersible

Explanation:

In NEWS: China’s unmanned submersible Haidou-1 takes 10,907-meter dive at world’s deepest point in new world record

  • “Haidou-1” set the record by submerging under the Pacific Ocean surface of the Mariana Trench, the deepest area in the world.
  • China’s unmanned submersible has dived to a depth of 10,907metres at the world’s deepest ocean point, setting a new record for the country during which samples from the deep sea and high-definition images of the geological environment were collected. Hence option (d) is correct
  • During the deep-sea diving operation, researchers tested high-precision depth detection, machine hand operation, acoustic detection and positioning, and high-definition video transmission.
  • The submersible collected samples from the deep sea and captured high-definition images of the geological environment
  • China in recent years has stepped up efforts to develop deep sea technology to explore mining of rich natural resources from the sea bed.

In 2011, China entered into a deal with the International Seabed Authority for a polymetallic sulfide exploration area of 10,000 square kms in the Indian Ocean for 15 years.

Source: https://www.indiatvnews.com/science/china-unmanned-submersible-haidou-1-new-world-record-624692

8.Consider the following statements regarding International Seabed Authority

  • It is an autonomous international organization established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
  • India is not a member of this authority 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: China’s Unmanned Submersible Haidou-1 Sets New Record By Diving 10,907 Meters

  • China has been stepping up efforts to develop sea technology to explore the mining of rich natural resources from the sea bed.
  • Back in 2011, the country also reportedly entered into a deal with the International Seabed Authority for a polymetallic sulphide exploration area of 10,000 square kilometres in the Indian Ocean for 15 years.

About International Seabed Authority:

  • The International Seabed Authority (ISA) is an autonomous international organization established under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • ISA governs non-living resources of the seabed lying in international waters.
  • It was established to organize, regulate and control all mineral-related activities in the international seabed area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, an area underlying most of the world’s oceans.
  • It has an observer status to UN
  • It is established in 1994, in Kingston
  • Currently, it has 168 member nations including India. ISA has registered & voluntary commitments towards Agenda 2030 for sustainable development. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://www.republicworld.com/world-news/china/chinas-unnamed-submersible-haidou-1-sets-new-record.html

9.Solar Risk Mitigation Initiative is associated with

  • International Atomic Energy Agency
  • World Bank
  • World Economic Forum
  • International Monetary Fund

Answer: (b) World Bank

Explanation:

In NEWS: World Bank-ISA Solar Risk Mitigation Initiative has mobilised $333 m

  • The World Bank has operationalised a Solar Risk Mitigation Initiative (SRMI) with $333 million for 22 African countries. The idea was incubated as the Common Risk Mitigation Mechanism by the International Solar Alliance. Hence option (b) is correct
  • SRMI has given a big push to solar projects in countries like Maldives to start with. We are trying to enhance the mechanism both vertically and horizontally. Many island countries now want to be covered under the SRMI.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/world-bank-isa-solar-risk-mitigation-initiative-has-mobilised-333-m/article31780260.ece

10.In the context of any country, which one of the following would be considered as part of its social capital?

  • The proportion of literates in the population
  • The stock of its buildings, other infrastructure and machines
  • The size of population in the working are group
  • The level of mutual trust and harmony in the society

Answer: (d) The level of mutual trust and harmony in the society

Explanation:

  • Social capital is a sociological concept that refers to the intangible relational assets that emerge from social interactions. These assets are generated through give and take and activate the “norm of reciprocity,” creating social obligations that connect and bind people and groups. The more social capital is used, the greater the benefits.
  • The concept of social capital is composed of three distinct but interrelated structural, emotional and behavioral components. They are, respectively, networks, trust and collaborative cultural norms. Hence option (d) is correct
  • In every society, some people have a greater share of valued resources – money, property, education, health, and power – than others. These social resources can be divided into three forms of capital – economic capital in the form of material assets and income; cultural capital such as educational qualifications and status; and social capital in the form of networks of contacts and social associations (Bourdieu 1986). Often, these three forms of capital overlap and one can be converted into the other. For example, a person from a well -off family (economic capital) can afford expensive higher education, and so can acquire cultural or educational capital. Someone with influential relatives and friends (social capital) may – through access to good advice, recommendations or information – manage to get a well -paid job