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Daily Prelims Test – 10_August_2021

onsider the following statements regarding Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA):

  • It is a dynamic inter-governmental organization aimed at strengthening regional cooperation and sustainable development within the Indian Ocean region.
  • Currently, it has 23 members.
  • Its secretariat is based in Ebène, Mauritius.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: 5 principles needed for global maritime security, says PM Modi as he chairs UNSC meet

  • Narendra Modi proposed five principles to ensure global maritime security, including responsible connectivity and peaceful resolution of disputes, as he chaired a UN Security Council debate that was joined by Russian President Vladimir Putin and US secretary of state Antony Blinken.
  • Modi highlighted steps taken by India in this context, including creating the maritime information fusion centre, responding to maritime disasters in the region, and settling the maritime boundary with Bangladesh
  • Russia wants to build productive cooperation with the Indian Ocean Rim Association and Indian Ocean Commission and help ensure security in the Persian Gulf and Atlantic Ocean. He called for a special structure within the UN to fight maritime crimes in various regions.
  • Putin respect for sovereignty and settle disputes through dialogue Russia wants to build productive cooperation with the Indian Ocean Rim Association and Indian Ocean Commission, help ensure security in Persian Gulf, Atlantic Ocean
  • About Indian Ocean Rim Association
  • The IORA was formed in March 1997.  The idea for the IORA was formed by India and South Africa.
  • The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) was previously named the Indian Ocean Rim Initiative.
  • It was also called the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation or the IOR-ARC for short.
  • It is a regional tripartite forum that gathers government representatives, academia and business leaders for encouraging cooperation and greater interaction between them. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The organisation is founded upon the values of open regionalismfor boosting economic cooperation especially on the realms of trade facilitation, investment, the region’s social development and promotion.
  • Currently, it has 23 member states. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The Coordinating Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • The United Arab Emirates is the current Chair of IORA from October 2019-2021. The Vice-Chair will be the People’s Republic of Bangladesh which will take Chair as from October 2021-2023.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/5-principles-needed-for-global-maritime-security-says-pm-modi-as-he-chairs-unsc-meet-101628527337014.html

Which one of the following ministries has launched the PM-DAKSH Portal?

  1. a) Ministry of Women and Child Development
  2. b) Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment
  3. c) Ministry of Rural Development
  4. d) Ministry of Labour and Employment

Answer: (b) Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM-DAKSH’ Portal will make all information related to skill development programmes, provided under Pradhan Mantri Dakshta Aur Kushalta Sampann Hitgrahi (PM-DAKSH) Yojana

  • The Union Minister for Social Justice and Empowerment has launched ‘PM-DAKSH’ Portal and ‘PM-DAKSH’ Mobile App. Hence option (b) is correct.
  • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, in collaboration with NeGD, has developed this portal and app to make the skill development schemes accessible to the target groups of Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Safai Karamcharis.
  • By the virtue of this initiative the youth of the target groups will now be able to avail the benefits of skill development training programmes more easily.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Dakshta Aur Kushalta Sampann Hitgrahi (PM-DAKSH) Yojana is being implemented by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment from the year 2020-21. 
  • Under this Yojana, eligible target groups are being provided skill development training programmes on (i) Up-skilling/Reskilling (ii) Short Term Training Programme (iii) Long Term Training Programme and (iv) Entrepreneurship Development Program (EDP).
  • The training programs are being implemented through Government Training Institutes, Sector Skill Councils constituted by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship and other credible institutions.
  • Source: TH
  • 3. Consider the following statements regarding National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture:
  • It is a network project of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
  • It aims to enhance the resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change and climate vulnerability through strategic research and technology demonstration.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: National Innovation on Climate Resilient Agriculture

Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has informed Rajya Sabha about National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture(NICRA)

NICRA:

  • National Innovations in Climate Resilient Agriculture(NICRAis a network project of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) launched in February Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The project aims to enhance the resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change and climate vulnerability through strategic research and technology demonstrationHence statement (2) is correct.
  • The research on adaptationand mitigation covers crops, livestock, fisheries and natural resource management.
  • Objectives of NICRA:
  • To enhance the resilience of Indian agriculture covering crops, livestock and fisheries to climatic variability and climate change through the development and application of improved production and risk management technologies.
  • To demonstrate site specific technology packages on farmers’ fields for adapting to current climate risks
  • To enhance the capacity building of scientists and other stakeholders in climate resilient agricultural research and its application.
  • The Project is composed of Four Components:
  • Strategic research on adaptation and mitigation
  • Technology demonstration on farmers fields to cope with current climate variability
  • Sponsored and competitive research grants to fill critical research gaps
  • Capacity building of different stakeholders

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1743354

Evia island was recently in the news due to Wildfire incidents. It is located in

  1. a) Iran
  2. b) Turkey
  3. c) Australia
  4. d) Greece

Answer: (d) Greece

Explanation:

In NEWS: Hundreds flee, homes destroyed, as fires ravage island in Greece

  • Hundreds of Greek firefighters fought desperately on Sunday to control wildfires on the island of Evia that have charred vast areas of pine forest, destroyed homes and forced tourists and locals to flee
  • The fire on Evia, an island of forested mountains and canyons laced with small coves of crystalline water
  • The blaze now is the most severe of dozens that broke out in Greece in the wake of the country’s most protracted heat wave in three decades, which sent temperatures soaring to 45 degrees Celsius (113 F) for days and created bone-dry conditions. Hence option (d) is correct.
  • Three more major fires were also burning Sunday in Greece’s southern Peloponnese region, while another fire broke out Sunday afternoon on the southern island of Crete.
  • In the U.S., hot, dry, gusty weather has also fueled devastating wildfires in California.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/lifestyle/travel/fire-devours-greek-s-second-largest-island-residents-urged-to-flee-101628478103588.html

Recently, the term 8888 Uprising was seen in the news, it is associated with which of the following countries?

  1. a) India
  2. b) Myanmar
  3. c) Bangladesh
  4. d) Nepal

Answer: (b) Myanmar

Explanation:

In NEWS: Myanmar protesters mark 1988 uprising anniversary

  • Myanmar protesters on Sunday marked the anniversary of a 1988 pro-democracy uprising that brought Aung San Suu Kyi to prominence, with flash mobs and marches of defiance against the ruling junta
  • The 8888 Uprising, also known as the People Power Uprisingand the 1988 Uprising, was a series of nationwide protests, marches, and riots in Burma (Myanmar) that peaked in August 1988. Key events occurred on 8 August 1988 and therefore it is commonly known as the “8888 Uprising”. Hence option (b) is correct.
  • The protests began as a student movement and were organised largely by university students at the Rangoon Arts and Sciences University and the Rangoon Institute of Technology (RIT).
  • During the crisis, Aung San Suu Kyi emerged as a national icon. When the military junta arranged an election in 1990, her party, the National League for Democracy
  • However, the military junta refused to recognise the results and continued to rule the country as the State Law and Order Restoration Council. Aung San Suu Kyi was also placed under house arrest.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/myanmar-protesters-mark-1988-uprising-anniversary/article35803776.ece

  • 6. Consider the following statements regarding Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:
  1. It is a condition in which a hormone made by the placenta prevents the body from using insulin effectively.
    1. India has a very high prevalence of GDM by global standards.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) with a “Single Test Procedure” recommended

Dr Jitendra Singh, who is also a renowned Diabetologist, has advocated mandatory Blood Sugar test for every pregnant woman, even if she does not have any symptoms.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM):

  • Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition in which a hormone made by the placentaprevents the body from using insulin Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Some of hormones (estrogen, cortisol, and human placental lactogen) can have a blocking effect on insulin. This is called contra-insulin effect,which usually begins about 20 to 24 weeks into the pregnancy.
  • When the production of insulin is not enough to overcome the effect of the placental hormones, gestational diabetes results.
  • Glucose builds up in the bloodinstead of being absorbed by the cells.
  • Gestational diabetes is not caused by a lack of insulin, but by other hormones produced during pregnancy that can make insulin less effective, a condition referred to as insulin resistance.
  • Gestational diabetic symptoms disappear following delivery.
  • India has an estimated 62 million people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); this number is expected to go up to 79.4 million by 2025.
  • In parallel with the increase in diabetes prevalence, there seems to be an increasing prevalence of gestational DM (GDM), that is, diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy.
  • India has a very high prevalence of GDM by global standards. Conversion rates to Type 2 diabetes are also very high. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1743538

Consider the following statements regarding Collegium system:

  1. It is introduced by the Supreme Court based on the second Judges Case.
    1. It is the system by which the judges are appointed and transferred only by the judges.
    1. The government cannot return the recommended Judge for reconsideration by Collegium.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Govt. delaying Collegium recommendations on appointment of judges to High Courts, says SC

The Centre’s delay, for months and years on end, to act on the recommendations of the Collegium and appoint judges to High Courts has affected the early adjudication of important cases, especially high-stake commercial issues

About Collegium System

  • It is the system by which the judges are appointed and transferred only by the judgesHence statement (2) is correct.
  • This system is not formed by an Act of Parliament or by a Constitutional provision. Instead, it is the system evolved by the judgments of the Supreme Court.
  • The SC collegium is headed by the CJI and comprises four other senior-most judges of the court.
  • An HC collegium is led by its Chief Justice of the High Court and four other senior-most judges of that court.
  • The names recommended for appointment by a High Court collegium reach the government only after approval by the CJI and the Supreme Court collegium. 
  • The government can return the recommended Judge for reconsideration by Collegium. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • If the collegium reiterates its recommendation then the government is mandated to appoint a person.
  • The system was introduced for strengthening and improving the appointment process.
  • Evolution of Collegium System
  • Article 124(2) of the Indian Constitution provides that the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President. He/she should consultsuch a number of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as he/she may deem necessary for the purpose.
  • Article 217 of the Indian Constitution states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President in consultation withthe Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the State. Further, the Chief Justice of the High Court should also be consulted except in case of his/her own appointment.
  • In First Judges Case (1981) – The court said consultation under Article 124 doesn’t mean concurrence (unanimity). Based on this judgement, the President is not bound by CJI’s advice.
  • In Second Judges Case (1993) – The court overruled its previous decisionand said CJI’s advice is binding. Further CJI is required to formulate its advice based on a collegium of judges consisting of CJI and two senior-most SC judges. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • In Third Judges Case (1998)– The court expanded the collegium to a five-member body to include the CJI and the four senior-most judges of the court after the CJI.
  • In the Fourth Judges Case (2015)– The SC upheld the primacy of the collegium. Further, the court strikes down the NJAC (National Judicial Appointments Commission) Act as unconstitutional. The Court held that the Act gave the government significant powers to appoint Judges. The Court held the Act encroached upon the judiciary’s independence and undermined the basic structure.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/govt-delaying-collegium-recommendations-on-appointment-of-judges-to-high-courts-says-sc/article35826108.ece#:~:text=The%20 government%20has%20ignored%20the,decide%20on%20the%20Collegium%20recommendations.&text=The%20court%20said%20the%20government,early%20adjudication%20of%20commercial%20disputes.

Consider the statements regarding the status of the edible oil industry in India:

  1. More than 60% of the domestic requirements of edible oil are met by domestic production.
    1. Soybean oil is the most imported edible oil by India.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ₹11,000 crore for new edible oil mission, says PM Modi

  • The Centre will spend ₹11,000 crore for a new mission to ensure self-sufficiency in edible oil production at a time when India’s dependence on expensive imports has driven retail oil prices to new highs, Prime Minister Narendra Modi
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced a National Edible Oil Mission-Oil Palm (NMEO-OP) to boost domestic oilseed production and make the country self-sufficient in cooking oils
  • India produces less than half of the roughly 2.4 crore tonnes of edible oil that it consumes annually. It imports the rest, buying palm oil from Indonesia and Malaysia, soyoil from Brazil and Argentina, and sunflower oil, mainly from Russia and Ukraine.
  • The new Mission plans to increase oil palm cultivation to 1 million hectares by 2025-26 and 1.7-1.8 million hectares by 2029-30.
  • At present, less than 0.5 million hectares is under Oil Palm cultivation in India domestically largely in Andhra Pradesh.
  • The domestic palm oil production is targeted to rise by three times to 1.1 million hectares by 2025-26 under the Mission.
  • India is dependent on imported edible oil to meet over 60 per cent of its domestic demand, as domestic oilseed production is lowHence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • India annually imports 13-15 million tonnes of edible oil of which almost 55-60 per cent is palm oil alone. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • This is projected to go up 20 million tonnes by 2030 due to rising disposable incomes and changing food habits.
  • According to trade sources, annually, the country imports edible oil worth Rs 60,000-70,000 crore, bulk of which is palm oil in both crude and refined forms.
  • Palm oil is largely imported from Malaysia and Indonesia, for whom India is the biggest consumer.
  • The country spent thousands of crores of rupees on edible oil imports, Modi said, adding that this money should rather go to farmers.
  • The Prime Minister said north-eastern states and Andaman and Nicobar Islands could be promoted for palm farming.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/11000-cr-for-new-edible-oil-mission-says-pm-modi/article35821273.ece

Consider the statements regarding the DRIP Project:

  1. It was launched by the Central Water Commission with assistance from the World
    1. It aims to improve the safety and operational performance of selected existing dams and associated appurtenances in a sustainable manner.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government Signs US $ 250 Million Loan Agreement For Second Phase of Dam Rehabilitation & Improvement Project (DRIP)

  • Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, chaired by the Prime Minister, has approved the Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) Phase II and Phase III.
  • It envisages comprehensive rehabilitation of 736 existing dams located across the country and complements theDam Safety Bill, 2019.
  • DRIP To Infuse Global Know-How, Innovative Technologies In Dam Safety & Introduce A Risk-Based Approach To Dam Asset Management
  • DRIP is likely to generate employment opportunities of 10,00,000 person days for unskilled workers & 2,50,000 person days for working professionals.
  • The programme will enable states and dam owners to extend these safety protocols and activities beyond the selected dams to all other dams within their jurisdiction, overall enhancing the culture of dam safety in the country.
  • India ranks third globally after China and the United States of America, with 5334 large dams in operation.
  • In addition, about 411 dams are under construction at present. There are also several thousand smaller dams. These dams are vital for ensuring the water security of the Country. Indian dams and reservoirs play an important role in the economic and agricultural growth of our country by storing approximately 300 billion cubic meter of water annually.

Dam Rehabilitation & Improvement Project (DRIP):

  • The project was launched in 2012 by the Central Water Commission (CWC) with assistance from the World Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • In September 2018, the Government approved its revised cost estimates along with a two-year time extension from 2018 to 2020, for the completion.
  • Apart from its general objectives, it also aims at ensuring the safety of downstream population and property that are affected in the case of a dam failure or operational failure.
  • It was initially taken up for the repair and rehabilitation of dam projects across the seven states of India, namely Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand.
  • Objectives:
  • To improve the safety and performance of selected existing dams and associated appurtenances in a sustainable mannerHence statement (2) is correct.
  • To strengthen the dam safety institutional setup in participating states as well as at the central level.
  • To explore the alternative incidental means at a few selected dams to generate the incidental revenue for sustainable operation and maintenance of dams.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1742419

Which one of the following National Parks lies completely in the temperate alpine zone?

  1. Manas National Park
    1. Namdapha National Park
    1. Neora Valley National Park
    1. Valley of Flowers National Park

Answer: (d) Valley of Flowers National Park

Explanation:

The Valley of Flowers national park located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand and is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora.Situated approximately 3255m above sea level, this splendid park is spread across 87.5 sq km of land. Hence option (d) is correct.

  • The valley has three sub-alpine between 3,200m and 3,500m which is the limit for trees, lower alpine between 3,500m and 3,700m, and higher alpine above 3,700m.
  • The rich diversity of species reflects the valley’s location within a transition zone between the Zanskar and Great Himalayas ranges to the north and south, respectively, and between the Eastern Himalaya and Western Himalaya flora.