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Daily Prelims Test – 09_October 2020

.Which of the following Constitutional Provision is related to Right to Peaceful Protests?

  1. Article 16
  2. Article 17
  3. Article 18
  4. Article 19

Answer: (d) Article 19

Explanation:

In NEWS: Public places cannot be occupied indefinitely: Supreme Court

  • In a recent judgement, the Supreme Court upheld the right to peaceful protest against the law but said that public ways and public spaces cannot be occupied indefinitely.
  • The Supreme Court found the indefinite “occupation” of a public road by the Shaheen Bagh protestors unacceptable.
  • The court felt that the right of the protester has to be balanced with the right of the commuter.
  • The Constitution through Article 19(1)(a) guarantees the freedom of speech and expression.
  • Moreover, Article 19(2) of the Constitution guarantees the right to assemble peacefully without arms. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Peaceful protests are a cornerstone of democratic countries such as India. It allows citizens to highlight their grievances against the government/issue and are thus part of the democratic functioning of the state.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/shaheen-bagh-protest-occupying-public-places-for-protests-not-acceptable-says-sc/article32789318.ece


Which of the following statements are correct about TIDE 2.0?

a) It aims to provide modern infrastructure for food processing units in the country and ensure value addition of agricultural produce including dairy, fisheries etc. on hub and spokes model.
b) It is an investor facilitation portal which would provide information on Central and State Governments’ investor friendly policies, agro-producing clusters, infrastructure, and potential areas of investment in the food processing sector.
c) It aims to cater and address health and development needs of the country’s adolescents
d) It seeks to create a holistic ecosystem to support technology startups and incubation centresthrough identifying and creating necessary linkages.

Answer: (d) It seeks to create a holistic ecosystem to support technology startups and incubation centres through identifying and creating necessary linkages.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ virtually inaugurates Gyan Circle Ventures

Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ virtually inaugurated the Gyan Circle Ventures, a MeitY funded Technology Business Incubator (TBI) of Indian Institute of Information Technology, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh through Video Conference today.

  • Gyan Circle Ventures would function as a Technology Incubation and Development of Entrepreneurs (TIDE 2.0) incubation centre.
  • Serve as a hub for innovation and startups by providing support, in various phases, via investments, infrastructure and mentoring.
  • Technology Incubation and Development of Entrepreneurs (TIDE) 2.0
  • TIDE 2.0 seeks to create a holistic ecosystem to support technology startups and incubation centres through identifying and creating necessary linkagesHence option (d) is correct
  • The programme wants to promote tech entrepreneurship through financial and technical support to incubators engaged in supporting ICT startups primarily engaged in using emerging technologies such as IoT, AI, Block-chain, Robotics etc. in pre-identified areas of societal relevance.

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=401706


Poverty and Shared Prosperity Report is released by which of the following international organization

a) Organization for Poverty Alleviation and Development

b) Oxfam

c) Amnesty International

d) World Bank

Answer: (d) World Bank

Explanation:

In NEWS: India stopped counting poor; now the world in bind on how to achieve zero poverty by 2030

  • The World Bank’s biennial Poverty and Shared Prosperity Report: Reversals of Fortune was released October 7, 2020. Hence option (d) is correct
  • For the first time in two decades, global poverty rate would go up due to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
  • The coronavirus pandemic could push as many as 150 million people into extreme poverty by the end of 2021 wiping out more than three years of progress in poverty reduction.
  • An additional 88 million to 115 million people will fall into extreme poverty (defined as living on less than $1.90 a day) in 2020.
  • The report said this could grow to 111 million to 150 million by the end of 2021.
  • That would mean that 9.1-9.4% of the world’s population would be living under extreme poverty this year, about the same as 2017’s 9.2% and representing the first rise in the extreme poverty percentage in about 20 years.
  • India was to release its latest household consumer expenditure survey data by the National Statistical Office (NSO, 75th round) for 2017-18 last year. Consumption expenditure is taken as a proxy for gauging income levels in India.
  • But the Union government didn’t release this data, citing ‘quality’. The unpublished data was, however, released in a few newspapers that indicated a rise in poverty level.  

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/governance/india-stopped-counting-poor-now-the-world-in-bind-on-how-to-achieve-zero-poverty-by-2030-73712


Consider the following statements regarding Fishing Cat

  1. It is the only wild cat species in India
  2. In India, fishing cats are mainly found in the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Fishing cat to be ambassador of Chilika Lake

  • The fishing cat will be the ambassador of Chilika Lake, the largest brackish water lagoon in Asia and India’s oldest Ramsar Site, which is being dubbed as an important step towards conservation of the vulnerable species.
  • The Chilika Development Authority (CDA) designated the fishing cat as ambassador at a meeting held to conclude the ongoing wildlife week.

About Fishing Cat:

  • The fishing cat is the only wild cat species in India that is a wetland specialist, and it’s found all around Chilika. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Fishing cats are mostly found in marshlands fringing the north and north-eastern sections of the lake.
  • The fishing cat is a Schedule I species and deserves conservation measures of the highest order in India, as with the tiger and elephant.
  • The conservation of the species is a concern as the marshland and mangrove ecosystems, which are fishing cat habitat are on decline.
  • IUCN: Despite multiple threats, the Fishing Cat was recently downlisted to “Vulnerable” from “Endangered” in the IUCN Red List species assessment. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/fishing-cat-to-be-the-ambassador-of-chilika-lake/article32809444.ece


Consider the following statements regarding report titled “Ranking the World’s Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Hotspots: 2019-2020”.

  1. India has continued to occupy the top spot in the world in sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions for the fifth consecutive year
  2. The biggest emission hotspots in India are thermal power stations

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India world’s largest emitter of sulphur dioxide, emissions see drop in 2019: Report

  • Sulphur dioxide is a poisonous air pollutant that increases the risk of stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and premature death.
  • India’s sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions, which contribute to air pollution, recorded a significant decline of approximately six per cent in 2019 as compared to 2018, the steepest dip in four years
  • However, India continues to occupy the top emitter’s position for the fifth consecutive year, the report based on an analysis by Greenpeace India and the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The biggest emission hotspots in India are thermal power stations (or clusters of power stations). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The major SO2 emission hotspots in India are Singrauli in MP, Neyveli and Chennai in Tamil Nadu, Talcher and Jharsuguda in Odisha, Korba in Chhattisgarh, Kutch in Gujarat, Ramagundam in Telangana and Chandrapur and Koradi in Maharashtra.
  • Recommendations: Mostof the power plants in India lack flue-gas desulfurization(FGD) units. Hence, FGD units should be installed to reduce SO2 emissions.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/oct/08/india-worlds-largest-emitter-of-sulphur-dioxide-emissions-see-drop-in-2019-report-2207541.html


Consider the following statements regarding RUDRAM

  1. It is first indigenous anti-radiation missile of the country for Indian Air Force
  2. It can be launched from a height ranging from 500 metres to 15 km and can hit radiation emitting targets within a range of 250 km.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why anti-radiation missile Rudram matters

India’s first indigenous anti-radiation missile, Rudram, developed for the Indian Air Force, was successfully flight-tested from a Sukhoi-30 MKI jet off the east coast

About Anti-Radiation Missile (RUDRAM)

  • The RUDRAM is first indigenous anti-radiation missile of the country for Indian Air Force (IAF). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • It is the tactical anti-radiation missile that the Indian Air Force can launch from its Sukhoi-30MKI fighter jets to take down enemy radars and surveillance systems.
  • The New Generation Anti-Radiation Missile or NGARM is integrated on Su-30MKI fighter aircraft.
  • The tactical, air-to-surface anti-radiation missile is equipped with a passive homing head that tracks sources of radiation of a wide range of frequencies.
  • The Passive Homing Head can detect, classify and engage targets over a wide band of frequencies as programmed.
  • It can be launched from a height ranging from 500 metres to 15 km and can hit radiation emitting targets within a range of 250 km. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The missile is comparable to the tactical air-to-surface missile AGM-88E Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile that was inducted by the US Navy only in 2017.
  • With this, IAF now has the capability to perform SEAD (Suppression of Enemy Air Defence) operations deep into enemy territory to destroy enemy air defence setup.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-anti-radiation-missile-rudram-matters-6718894/


Consider the following statements regarding World Food Programme

  1. It is the food assistance branch of World Bank.
  2. It is the leading humanitarian organization fighting hunger worldwide, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: How Nobel Peace Prize 2020 winner WFP has combated hunger around the world

  • The Norwegian Nobel Committee announced the 2020 Nobel Peace Prize to the UN agency World Food Programme (WFP), “for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict”.
  • The WFP is the 28th organisation awarded the Nobel Peace Prize since its inception in 1901.
  • Today, the WFP is the world’s largest humanitarian agency combating hunger.
  • In 2019, it assisted 97 million people – the largest number since 2012 – in 88 countries, says the WFP. The same year, it delivered about 4.4 million tonnes of food, purchased $1.7 billion worth of food from 91 countries, and $762 million worth of goods and services from 156 countries. On any given day, WFP has 5,600 trucks, 30 ships and nearly 100 planes on the move, delivering food and other assistance to those in most need
  • Every year, we distribute more than 15 billion rations at an estimated average cost per ration of US$ 0.61

About World Food Programme (WFP)

  • The World Food Programme (WFP) is the leading humanitarian organization fighting hunger worldwide, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is the food assistance branch of United Nations. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It was established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Conference.
  • It is headquartered in Rome (Italy).
  • WFP’s efforts focus on emergency assistance, relief and rehabilitation, development aid and special operations.
  • It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its Executive Committee.
  • WFP is governed by a 36-member Executive Board.
  • It works closely with its two Rome-based sister organizations, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
  • WFP partners with more than 1,000 national and international NGOs to provide food assistance and tackle the underlying causes of hunger.
  • The WFP operations are funded by voluntary donations from world governments, corporations and private donors.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/how-peace-nobel-winner-wfp-has-combated-hunger-around-the-world-6718909/


Khardungla Pass is situated to the

a) West of Aksai Chin

b) East of Jelep la pass

c) North of Gilgit

d) North of Nubra Valley

Answer: (a) West of Aksai chin

Explanation:

In NEWS: IAF sets new record of highest skydive landing at Khardungla Pass

Two Indian Air Force (IAF) personnel created a new record of highest skydive landing at Khardungla Pass.

About Khardungla Pass

  • It is known as the gateway to the Nubra and Shyok Valleys in the union territory of Ladakh.
  • It is the highest motorable pass in the world.
  • Khardung La Pass is positioned on the Ladakh range, which is 40 km from Leh, at an altitude of 18,379 ft (5602 m).
  • The tourists are required to carry the Inner Line Permit (ILP) to pass through Khardung La.
  • The roads at Khardungla Pass are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO).
  • It is historically important as it lies on the major caravan route from Leh to Kashgar in Central Asia.
  • It is located on western sideof the Aksai Chin. Hence option (a) is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/videos/india-news/watch-iaf-sets-new-record-of-highest-skydive-landing-at-khardungla-pass/video-In1K1f8C9MP8omSPeyIyfM.html


Consider the following statements

  1. Cnemaspis anandani is a rock-dwelling gecko endemic to the Eastern Ghats
  2. Sphaerotheca Magadha is a burrowing frog discovered in the farm fields of Jharkhand

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Frog to fungus, 544 species add to India’s diversity in 2019

  • A rock-dwelling gecko, Cnemaspis anandani, endemic to the Western Ghats. Sphaerotheca magadha, a burrowing frog discovered in the farm fields of Jharkhand. Enoplotrupes tawangensis, a dung beetle from Tawang. A wild ginger variety, Amomum nagamiense, discovered from the forest behind Kohina Zoo in Nagaland. A wild fern, Pteris subiriana, found not just in Kerala but also Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Hence statement 1 is incorrect and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • India has 544 reasons to cheer with the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) and the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) on Friday releasing their annual publications, ‘Animal Discoveries 2019’ and ‘Plant Discoveries 2019’ respectively.
  • ‘Animal Discoveries 2019’lists 368 faunal species as new to science and 116 species as being spotted for the first time in India.
  • The publication provides the details about 360 new species, 4 subspecies and 4 fossil species as well as 116 species spotted for the first time in India.
  • ‘Plant Discoveries 2019’ lists 180 new plant species and 73 species spotted for the first time in the country.
  • Among the new discoveries this year are plants with horticulture value as well those which can serve as alternative foods. The number of plant species found in India, according to the 2019 BSI compilation, is 50,012 and accounts roughly for 12% of all flora species in the world.
  • Both the ZSI and BSI have been releasing ‘Animal Discoveries’ and ‘Plant Discoveries’ since 2007 and this is the 13th publication in the series. The data analysis of the past decade reveals a total of 2,444 new animal species and 3,500 plant species from the country.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-added-544-new-species-in-2019/article32815814.ece


Consider the following minerals:

  1. Bentonite
  2. Chromite
  3. Kyanite
  4. Sillimanite

In India, which of the above is/are officially designated as major minerals?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 4 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2, 3 and 4 only

Answer: (d) 2,3, and 4 only

Explanation:

  • Bentonite is essentially a highly plastic clay containing not less than 85% clay mineral, montmorillonite. It gets its name from the place where its presence and usages were first discovered, Fort Benton, America. As per Govt. of India Notification S.O. 423(E) dated 10th February 2015 Bentonite has been declared as ‘Minor Mineral’. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Chromite (Cr) is the single commercially viable ore of chromium which is chemically known as iron chromium oxide (Fe Cr2O4).
  • Kyanite, Sillimanite and andalusite are unhydrous aluminosilicate minerals that have the same chemical formula Al2O3 but differ in crystal structure and physical properties.