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Daily Prelims Test – 09_March 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Non-Fungible Token

It is a type of crypto-asset that represents a variety of assets, including artforms, tickets and music.

These tokens are mutually interchangeable.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: First-ever non-fungible token-based rock album is out

  • American rock band ‘Kings of Leon’ released a music album last week as a non-fungible token (NFT), making it the first-ever band to distribute digitised art, Rolling Stone reported citing people familiar with the development.
  • The band’s new album titled ‘When You See Yourself’ will be distributed in three tokens as part of a series called ‘NFT Yourself’, according to Rolling Stone.

About Non-Fungible Token

  • NFT is a type of crypto-asset that represents a variety of assets, including artforms, tickets and music. This type of asset is becoming popular as several investors and enthusiasts are showing eagerness in spending large sums of money on items that only exist digitally. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • These tokens are not mutually interchangeable. This is opposite to the cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Such type of asset is gaining its popularity because several investors and enthusiasts are interested to spend a large sum of money on items which only exist digitally. 
  • These tokens are used to create digital scarcity and digital ownership. It can also be used in online gaming, crypto art and digital collectibles.
  • The system has been developed by YellowHeart, a New York City-based ticketing firm specialising in blockchain and distributed ledger technology.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/first-ever-non-fungible-token-based-rock-album-is-out/article34018130.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Stand-Up India Scheme

  1. This scheme seeks to provide the institutional credit structure to reach out to underserved sector of people like Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and Women Entrepreneurs
  2. This scheme was launched with the objective of facilitating the bank loans ranging between Rs.10 lakh and Rs.1 crore

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Women’s Day 2021: Women entrepreneurs biggest beneficiaries of PM Modi’s Stand-Up India, Mudra schemes

  • As of February 26, 2021, more than 81 per cent, that is, 91,109 accounts with an amount of Rs 20,749 crore were sanctioned to women entrepreneurs under the Stand-Up India Scheme.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi government’s two pet schemes to support entrepreneurship and self-employment by helping set-up micro-enterprises — Stand-Up India and Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojna (PMMY) 

About Stand up India scheme

  • The Stand up India scheme aims at promoting entrepreneurship among women and scheduled castes and tribes. The scheme is anchored by Department of Financial Services (DFS), Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Stand-Up India Scheme facilitates bank loans between Rs 10 lakh and Rs 1 Crore to at least one Scheduled Caste (SC) or Scheduled Tribe (ST) borrower and at least one woman borrower per bank branch for setting up a greenfield enterprise.  Hence statement 2 is correc
  • This enterprise may be in manufacturing, services or the trading sector. In case of non-individual enterprises at least 51% of the shareholding and controlling stake should be held by either an SC/ST or woman entrepreneur.
  • It seeks to enable them to participate in the economic growth of the country.

Eligibility

  • SC/ST and/or woman entrepreneurs, above 18 years of age.
  • Loans under the scheme is available for only green field project. Green field signifies, in this context, the first time venture of the beneficiary in the manufacturing or services or trading sector.
  • Borrower should not be in default to any bank/financial institution.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/industry/sme/msme-fin-womens-day-2021-women-entrepreneurs-biggest-beneficiaries-of-pm-modis-stand-up-india-mudra-schemes/2208727/


.Consider the following Statements regarding Quasars

They are very luminous objects in faraway galaxies that emit jets at radio frequencies.

They are only found in galaxies that have supermassive blackholes which power these bright discs.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Most distant source of radio emission discovered, holds clues about ancient universe

  • An international team of astronomers have discovered the most distant ‘radio-loud’ quasar with the help of European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (ESO’s VLT). It took 13 billion years for the quasar’s light to reach earth
  • Quasars are very luminous objects in faraway galaxies that emit jets at radio frequencies. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • They are only found in galaxies that have supermassive blackholes which power these bright discs. However, 90 per cent of them do not emit strong radio waves, making this newly-discovered one special. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Most active galaxies have a supermassive black hole at the centre which sucks in surrounding objects. Quasars are formed by the energy emitted by materials spiralling around a blackhole right before being sucked into it.  
  • Named P172+18, the quasar emitted wavelengths which had a redshift of 6.8. Only three other ‘radio-loud’ sources with redshift greater than six have been discovered so far and the most distant one had a redshift of 6.18.
  • The higher the redshift of the radio wavelength, the farther away is the source. It is also one of the fastest accreting quasars, which means it is accumulating objects from the galaxy at an enormous speed.
  • The black hole is eating up matter very rapidly, growing in mass at one of the highest rates ever observed.
  • The jets are thought to be capable of disturbing the gas around the black hole, increasing the rate at which gas falls in

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/science-technology/most-distant-source-of-radio-emission-discovered-holds-clues-about-ancient-universe-75833


Consider the following Statements

  1. Equine Herpes Virus is a common DNA virus that occurs in horse populations worldwide.
  2. Equine Herpes Virus 1 is contagious and spread by direct horse-to-horse contact via the respiratory tract through nasal secretions.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: 14 days quarantine, no events: Fouaad Mirza stranded after new virus hits Europe

  • There’s a 14-day quarantine, frequent thermal scanning too. But this time, it’s the outbreak of Equine Herpes Virus (EHV-1) among horses in Europe that is the reason. And caught in the middle of it are Tokyo Olympics-bound Indian horseman Fouaad Mirza and his mare, Dajara 4.
  • Seven countries have confirmed EHV-1 cases, so far: Spain, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and Qatar.

About Equine Herpes Virus (EHV):

  • Equine Herpes Virus is a common DNA virus that occurs in horse populations worldwide. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • EHV is a family of viruses which are named by numbers such as EHV 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
  • There are more viruses in this family, but EHV 1, 3, and 4 pose the most serious health risks for domestic horses.
  • EHV1 is contagious and spread by direct horse-to-horse contact via the respiratory tract through nasal secretions. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • EHV1 virus can also be spread indirectly through contact with physical objects that are contaminated with the virus.
  • EHV1 can cause manifestations of disease in horses, including respiratory disease, abortion and neonatal death.
  • This strain can also cause neurological problems, leading to paralysis and in some cases, death. Horses that contract this virus can develop a lack of coordination, weakness, loss of appetite and are unable to stand.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/sports/europe-covid-new-strand-indian-horse-rider-tokyo-olympics-7218735/


Which of the following statements are correct regarding Malana Cream?

It is oil extracted from Vetiver plant

It is the resin obtained from a species of the cannabis plant

It is naturally founded cream in the Eucalyptus 

None of the above 

Answer: (b) It is the resin obtained from a species of the cannabis plant

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why Himachal Pradesh is planning to legalise cannabis cultivation

  • Himachal Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur announced that the state government is coming up with a policy to allow controlled cultivation of hemp or cannabis in the state.
  • This means the state wants to legalise commercial cultivation of the plant for non-recreational uses such as making medicines and fabrics.
  • Mallana cream’which is the charas or hash or hashish which comes from the Malana Valley in Kullu district. Hence option (b) is correct

Isn’t cannabis cultivation illegal in India?

  • In 1985, India banned the cultivation of cannabis plant under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act. But this Act allows state governments to allow controlled and regulated cultivation of hemp for obtaining its fibre and seed for industrial or horticultural purposes.
  • In 2018, Uttarakhand became the first state in the country to do so, allowing the cultivation of only those strains of cannabis plant which have a low concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis that produces a high sensation.
  • Uttar Pradesh followed a similar policy, while Madhya Pradesh and Manipur are reportedly considering it as well.
  • In parts of Himachal such as Kullu and Mandi, hemp had traditionally been used for making footwear, ropes, mats, food items, etc.
  • Globally, cannabis products are increasingly being used for health and medicinal purposes, and the plant has also been used to make building material.

What are the psychoactive intoxicants prepared from cannabis plant?

  • Mainly charas and ganja. The separated resin of the plant is called charas or hashish and it can be concentrated to obtain hashish oil 
  • Charas and ganja can be smoked and can also be used to prepare some edible drinks and foods.
  • Currently, charas, ganja, or any mixture or drink prepared from the two products are banned in India under the NDPS Act, regardless of hemp cultivation.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-himachal-is-now-planning-to-legalise-cannabis-cultivation-7219802/


What is the aim of SATAT scheme?

  1. To strengthen the farmers‟ fforts through creation of required pre and postharvest agriinfrastructure that increases access to quality inputs, storage, market facilities etc. 
  2. To increase production and productivity of rice and wheat by adopting latest crop production technologies
  3. To setting up of Compressed Bio-Gas production plants
  4. To make coal available to all the Thermal Power Plants of the country in a transparent

Answer: (b) To increase production and productivity of rice and wheat by adopting latest crop production technologies

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nine Compressed Biogas Plants Commissioned

  • SATAT scheme was launched on October 01, 2018 wherein Oil and Gas Marketing Companies (OGMCs) are inviting Expression of Interest (EoI) from potential entrepreneur to procure Compressed Bio Gas (CBG).
  • Under this scheme few of the enablers like assured price for offtake of CBG with long term agreements by OGMCs; inclusion of bio manures produced from CBG plants as Fermented Organic Manure (FOM) under Fertilizer Control Order 1985; inclusion of CBG projects under Priority Sector Lending by RBI have been provided.
  • So far 9 CBG plants have been commissioned and started supply of CBG under SATAT scheme. These plants are located in Andhra Pradesh (1 No.), Gujarat (3 No.), Haryana (1 No.), Maharashtra (3 No.) and Tamil Nadu (1 No.).

About SATAT scheme

  • Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) is an initiative aimed at setting up of Compressed Bio-Gas production plants and make it available in the market for use in automotive fuels by inviting Expression of Interest from potential entrepreneursHence option (b) is correct
  • The initiative was launched in October 2018 by the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas in association with Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) Oil Marketing Companies (OMC) viz. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1703233


Which of the following is/are tributaries of Brahmaputra River?

Subansiri

Kameng

Manas

Sankosh

Teesta

Select the correct option from the code given below

  1. 1, 2, 3 and 5 only
  2. 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
  3. 1,2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2,3,4 and 5 

Answer: (d) 1,2,3,4 and 5 

Explanation:

In NEWS: China gives green light for first downstream dams on Brahmaputra

  • A draft of China’s new Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) has given the green light for the first dams to be built on the lower reaches of Yarlung Zangbo river, as the Brahmaputra is known in Tibet, before it flows into India.
  • The draft outline of the new Five-Year Plan (FYP) for 2025 specifically mentions the building of hydropower bases on the lower reaches of the river as among the priority energy projects to be undertaken in the next five years.
  • The lower reaches refer to the sections of the river in Tibet before it flows into India.
  • There is the potential to significantly change the flow rate during times of standoff between the countries.
  • India has agreements with China that require the latter to share hydrological data of the river during monsoon season between May and October. The data is mainly of the water level of the river to alert downstream areas in the event of floods.

About Brahmaputra river

  • The Brahmaputra river rises from Chemayundung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar Lake to the north of the Himalayas in the southwest Tibet region. Confluence of Mouth: The Brahmaputra drains into the Bay of Bengal before forming a huge delta along with the Ganga.

Major left bank tributaries:

  • Burhi Dihing,
  • Dhansari (South)
  • Kalang

Major right bank tributaries:

  • Subansiri ( It has its origin in Tibet and is an antecedent river.)
  • Kameng
  • Manas
  • Sankosh. Hence option (d) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/china-gives-green-light-for-first-downstream-dams-on-brahmaputra/article34014912.ece


Renu Swarup Committee is related to which of the following area?

To find ways to treat patients with rare diseases

To promote social harmony, reach out to poor rural households

To use Artificial Intelligence to make learning more personalised and customised 

To transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy

Answer: (a) To find ways to treat patients with rare diseases

Explanation:

In NEWS: HC sets up panel to find ways to treat patients with rare diseases

  • The Delhi High Court has constituted an expert committee to assess and find solutions on various aspects, including how to immediately provide treatment and therapy options to patients suffering from rare diseases including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Hunter’s syndromes. Hence option (a) is correct
  • In order to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the issues that have arisen and for recommending a time-line based solution, the court has constituted a committee headed by Dr Renu Swarup, Secretary of Department of Biotechnology
  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD): It is one of the various forms of muscular dystrophy, is a rare genetic disease that affects boys almost exclusively and causes progressive weakness.
  • Hunter’s Disease: Also known as Mucopolysaccharidosis II, it is a rare disease that is passed on in families and it mainly affects boys and their bodies cannot break down a kind of sugar that builds bones, skin, tendons and other tissues.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/hc-sets-up-panel-to-find-ways-to-treat-patients-with-rare-diseases/article34014882.ece


The term Miyawaki Method is recently seen in news, what is it?

  1. It is a next Generation Sequencing (NSG) facility
  2. It aims to create awareness about genetic disorders amongst clinicians and establish molecular diagnostics in hospitals
  3. It is the deliberate addition of one or more micronutrients to food 
  4. It is an afforestation method to create urban forests

Answer: (d) It is an afforestation method to create urban forests

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Urban forests’: Miyawaki technique helps create dense green patches in one year

  • In a year, a patch, as small as a tennis court, in Mumbai’s eastern suburbs has become a testament to the creation of “urban forests” through the Miyawaki technique.
  • About Miyawaki Method:
  • Miyawaki is an afforestation method based on the work of Japanese botanist Akira Miyawaki in the 1980s. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Initially, native trees of the region are identified and divided into four layers — shrub, sub-tree, tree, and canopy.
  • After that, The quality of soil is analysed and biomass is mixed with it. Biomass mixing help to enhance the perforation capacity, water retention capacity, and nutrients.
  • A mound is built with the soil and the seeds are planted at a very high density. Furthermore, the ground is covered with a thick layer of mulch.
  • Multi-layered saplings are planted close to each other. This blocks sunlight from reaching the ground and prevents weeds from growing. It also keeps the soil moist.
  • The close cropping also ensures that the plants receive sunlight only from the top. It enables them to grow upwards rather than sideways.

Benefits of Miyawaki Method:

  • Faster Process and Dense Forest: This method creates mini forests. They grow 10 times faster and become 30 times denser and 100 times more biodiverse than those planted through conventional methods.
  • Faster Regeneration of Land: Miyawaki forests are designed to regenerate land in far less time. It takes over 70 years for a forest to recover on its own.
  • Self Sustainable: The saplings become self-sustainable after the first three years.
  • Environmental Benefits: These mini forests help lower temperatures in concrete heat islands, reduce air and noise pollution, attract local birds and insects, and create carbon sinks.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/mumbai/urban-forests-miyawaki-technique-helps-create-dense-green-patches-in-one-year-7218624/


Which one of the following is not a feature to Indian federalism?

  1. There is an independent judiciary in India. 
  2. Powers have been clearly divided between the Centre and the States. 
  3. The federating units have been given unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha. 
  4. It is the result of an agreement among the federating units

Answer: (d) It is the result of an agreement among the federating units.

Explanation:

  • The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government. It contains all the usual features of a federation, viz., two government, division of powers, written Constitution, super-macy of Constitution, rigidity of Constitution, independent judiciary and bicameralism. 
  • Moreover, the term ‘Federation’ has nowhere been used in the Constitution. Article 1, on the other hand, describes India as a ‘Union of States’ which implies two things: one, Indian Federation is not the result of an agreement by the states; and two, no state has the right to secede from the federation.