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Daily Prelims Test – 09_June

Kingmakers ias academy - Prelims 9 june 2020

1.Consider the following statements regarding forex reserves

  • Forex reserves are external assets in the form gold, SDRs and foreign currency assets accumulated by India and controlled by the Reserve Bank of India.
  • Recently, India’s foreign exchange reserves are rising in the raging Covid-19 pandemic

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The importance of India’s rising forex reserves amid Covid-19 economic crisis

  • India’s rising forex reserves give a lot of comfort to the government and the RBI in managing India’s external and internalfinancial issues at a time when the economic growth is set to contract by 1.5 per cent in 2020-21. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Unlike in 1991, when India had to pledge its gold reserves to stave off a major financial crisis, the country can now depend on its soaring foreign exchange reserves to tackle any crisis on the economic front.
  • While the situation is gloomy on the economic front with the GDP growth in the contraction mode for the first time in 40 years and manufacturing activity and trade at standstill, there’s still some reason to cheer about amidst the raging Covid-19 pandemic: India’s foreign exchange reserves are rising and are slated to hit the $500 billion mark soon. In the month of May, forex reserves jumped by $12.4 billion to an all-time high of $493.48 billion (around Rs 37.30 lakh crore) for the week ended May 29.

What are forex reserves?

  • Forex reserves are external assets in the form gold, SDRs (special drawing rights of the IMF) and foreign currency assets (capital inflows to the capital markets, FDI and external commercial borrowings) accumulated by India and controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The International Monetary Fund says official foreign exchange reserves are held in support of a range of objectives like supporting and maintaining confidence in the policies for monetary and exchange rate management including the capacity to intervene in support of the national or union currency.
  • It will also limit external vulnerability by maintaining foreign currency liquidity to absorb shocks during times of crisis or when access to borrowing is curtailed.

What’s the significance of rising forex reserves?

  • The rising forex reserves give a lot of comfort to the government and the Reserve Bank of India in managing India’s external and internal financial issues at a time when the economic growth is set to contract by 1.5 per cent in 2020-21

Where are India’s forex reserves kept?

  • The RBI Act, 1934 provides the overarching legal framework for deployment of reserves in different foreign currency assets and gold within the broad parameters of currencies, instruments, issuers and counterparties.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-india-forex-reserves-covid-19-economic-crisis-6448701/

2.Galwan River, sometimes seen in news, is belonged to which of the following region?

  • Trans-Karakoram Tract
  • Aksai Chin
  • Siachen Glacier
  • Doklam region

Answer: (b) Aksai chin

Explanation:

In NEWS: New satellite images show positions of Indian, Chinese troops in Galwan valley ahead of military talks

  • The standoff between Indian and Chinese troops in the Galwan River Valley had intensified after a physical confrontation at Pangong Lake
  • A month after the Chinese troops scuffled with Indian soldiers in a brazen display of aggression in Ladakh, fresh satellite imagery suggests an intense build-up on both sides of the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the region

About Galwan River

  • It flows from the disputed Aksai Chin region to Ladakh of India. Hence option (b) is correct
  • It originates in the area of Samzungling on the eastern side of the Karakoram range and flows west to join the Shyok River.It is also one of the upstream tributaries of the Indus River.

Source: https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/new-satellite-images-show-positions-of-indian-chinese-troops-in-galwan-valley-ahead-of-military-talks-1685521-2020-06-04

3.Consider the following statements regarding Airborne Rescue Pod for Isolated Transportation (ARPIT)

  • It has recently designed, developed, and inducted by the Indian Air Force
  • It will be utilized for the evacuation of critical patients with infectious diseases including COVID-19 from high altitude areas, isolated and remote places

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indian Air Force Inducts Indigenous Airborne Rescue Pod for Isolated Transportation (ARPIT)

  • The Indian Air Force has designed, developed and inducted an Airborne Rescue Pod for Isolated Transportation (ARPIT). This pod will be utilised for evacuation of critical patients with infectious diseases including COVID-19 from high altitude area, isolated and remote places. Hence statements 1 and 2 are correct
  • The requirement of an air evacuation system with a facility to prevent spread of infectious aerosol from a COVID-19 patient during air travel was felt by IAF when coronavirus was declared as a pandemic.
  • The first prototype was developed at 3 BRD AF and has undergone various modifications.
  • Indigenous materials:
  • Supporting the “Atmanirbhar Bharat” call by Prime Minister, only indigenous materials have been used to fabricate this pod.
  • The system has been developed as a lightweight isolation system made from aviation certified material.  
  • This system has been developed at a cost of Rs Sixty Thousand only, which is very less as compared to the imported systems costing up to Rs Sixty Lakh.
  • The design integrates life support and monitoring instruments (defibrillator with multipara monitor, pulse oximeter, Infusion pumps etc), long arm gloves for use by health care professionals, and power pack with high endurance.
  • The system RPIT utilizes High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) H-13 class filters and supports invasive ventilation using Transport Ventilator.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1630268

4.Consider the following statements with respect to Gulf Cooperation Council

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • GCC promotes economic, security, cultural and social cooperation between the six countries in the Arabian Peninsula.
  • It is composed of infantry, armour, artillery and combat support elements from each of the states
  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: In Persian Gulf littoral, cooperative security is key

The Persian Gulf region has the presence of the major producers of crude oil and natural gas, and thereby contributing critically to the global economy.

Thus, maintaining peace in the geopolitically significant region through cooperative security by the regional members and major world economies is one of the best solutions to stabilize the region politically and economically.

  • The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is a political and economic alliance of six countries in the Arabian Peninsula: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
  • Established in 1981, the GCC promotes economic, security, cultural and social cooperation between the six states and holds a summitevery year to discuss cooperation and regional affairs. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is composed of infantry, armour, artillery and combat support elements from each of the states, numbering 40,000 in totalHence statement 2 is correct
  • All current member states are monarchies, including three constitutional monarchies (Qatar, Kuwait, and Bahrain), two absolute monarchies(Saudi Arabia and Oman), and one federal monarchy (the United Arab Emirates).
  • The GCC comprises six main branches that carry out various tasks, from the preparation of meetings to the implementation of policies. They are- Supreme Council, Ministerial Council, Secretariat-General, Consultative Commission, Commission for the Settlement of Disputes and the Secretary-General.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/in-persian-gulf-littoral-cooperative-security-is-key/article31774318.ece

5.Global Economic Prospects (GEP) 2020 is reported by the which of the following international organization?

  • World Trade Organization
  • World Economic Forum
  • World bank
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Answer: (c) World bank

Explanation:

In NEWS: Economy to contract 3.2% in FY21: WB

  • The Indian economy is expected to contract by 3.2% in this fiscal year as a result of the COVID­19 pandemic and its associated restrictions, the World Bank said in its Global Economic Prospects (GEP)June 2020 report released on Monday. Growth is forecast at 3.1% next year. Hence option © is correct
  • The world economy, as a whole, is set to witness its deepest recession since World War II, with a forecasted contraction of 5.2% this year — some 60 million could be pushed into extreme poverty, World Bank Group President David Malpass
  • Emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) are expected to contract by 2.5% this year,and economic activity in advanced economies is forecast to shrink by 7%, as domestic supply and demand, finance and trade have been disrupted due to the pandemic.
  • India’s growth is estimated to have slowed to 4.2% in FY 2019­20 (year ended March 31, 2020). Output is expected to contract by 3.2% (so growth is ­3.2%) in FY2020­ 21, as the impact of the pandemic (the restrictions on activity) will largely fall in this year, despite the fiscal and monetary stimulus

Source: TH

6.Consider the following statements

  • Recently, Indian Institute of Technology Madras have identified a specific microRNA (miRNAs) called miR­155 expression to develop therapeutics for tongue cancer.
  • The miRNAs affect cancer growth through inhibiting or enhancing the functions of certain proteins.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Role of microRNA in growth and spread of tongue cancer cells

  • Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras have identified a specific microRNA (miRNAs) called ‘miR­155’ that isoverexpressed in tongue cancer. The research team has shown that knocking out miR­-155 causes the death of cancer cells, arrests the cell cycle and regresses tumor size in animal models, and reduces cell viability and colony formation in benchtop assays.
  • The finding could help develop molecular strategies to manipulate miR­155 expression to develop therapeutics for tongue cancerHence statement 1 is correct
  • The miRNAs affect cancer growth through inhibiting or enhancing the functions of certain proteinsHence statement 2 is correct
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs containing 20–24 nucleotides that participate in virtually all biological pathways in animals. They have been found to play important roles in many cancers, in carcinogenesis (start of cancer), malignant transformation, and metastasis — the development of secondary cancer. The miRNAs associated with cancer are called ‘Oncomirs’
  • Many of the Oncomirs affect cancer by suppressing the performance of tumor-suppressing agents. Some of them can prevent the growth and spread of cancer cells and yet others prevent tumor growth itself
  • miRNA manipulation is being combined with conventional cancer treatment methods such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy.

Source: TH

7.Consider the following statements

  • Near-Earth Objects are comets and asteroids influenced by the gravitational attraction of nearby planets into orbits which allows them to enter the Earth’s neighbourhood.
  • Near-Earth Objects are composed mostly of water ice with embedded dust particles and occasionally approach close to the Earth as they orbit the Sun

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Asteroid flyby: Asteroid 163348 flew past Earth; All you need to know

  • An asteroid named 163348 (2002 NN4), a Near-Earth Object classified as a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid is expected to pass Earth in the first week of June 2020.
  • NEOs are comets and asteroids influenced by the gravitational attraction of nearby planets into orbits which allows them to enter the Earth’s neighbourhoodHence statement 1 is correct
  • These objects are composed mostly of water ice with embedded dust particles and occasionally approach close to the Earth as they orbit the Sun. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The comets and asteroids are relatively unchanged remnant debris from the solar system formation process over 4.6 billion years ago.
  • Therefore, these NEOs offer scientists clues about the chemical mixture from the planets formed.
  • 2002 NN4 was discovered in July 2002 and was expected to approach the Earth on June 6.
  • The asteroid is estimated to be between 250-570 meters in diameter, according to NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • This asteroid is classified as a PHA, which means the asteroid has the potential to make threatening close approaches to the Earth.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/lifestyle/science/asteroid-flyby-asteroid-163348-flew-past-earth-all-you-need-to-know/1984788/

8.Consider the following statements with respect to ARISE

  • It is an initiative to promote research, innovation and competitiveness of Indian startups and small enterprises including Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises
  • It is one among the initiatives under the Atal Innovation Mission

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: CSIR, AIM join hands to promote culture of innovation, entrepreneurship

  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, CSIR has come together with Atal Innovation Mission, AIM to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in various sectors.
  • In this regard, a Letter of Intent was signed yesterday between CSIR and Niti Aayog. These two organizations joined hands to support world class start-ups through CSIR incubators under Atal Innovation Mission initiatives and working together on new models of innovation including setting up of CSIR Innovation Parks.
  • Both organizations will work in tandem to stimulate innovation and research in the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises industry in collaboration with ARISE initiative of AIM. This initiative works to stimulate innovation and research in the MSME industry.
  • CSIR is working with MSMEs to provide technical solutions to the industries. These two organizations will also collaborate in creating problem solving mind-set across schools in India through close cooperation between Atal Tinkering Labs and Jigyasa.

About Atal Research & Innovation for Small Enterprises (ARISE)

  • ARISE is an initiative to promote research, innovation and competitiveness of Indian startups and small enterprises including Micro, Small, and Medium enterprisesHence statement 1 is correct
  • The program’s objective is to catalyze research, innovation, find solutions to the sectoral problems and subsequently trigger creation of new industrial sectors, through the support of Central Government Ministries / Departments, who will become the first buyer of the solutions / products innovated under the ARISE program by start-ups and small enterprises.
  • ARISE will be a multi-phase, multi-sector, and multi-stakeholder program to identify, fund, guide, hand-hold, and procure from Indian startups and small enterprises. It aims to inculcate a culture and mindset of engaging and co-creating amongst the industry as well as the government, to improve India’s import substitution capabilities, develop export leadership in nation-critical sectors, and provide indigenous solutions for challenges in India.

The major initiatives of AIM are:

  • Atal Tinkering Labs-Creating problem solving mindset across schools in India.
  • Atal Incubation Centers-Fostering world class startups and adding a new dimension to the incubator model.
  • Atal New India Challenges-Fostering product innovations and aligning them to the needs of various sectors/ministries.
  • Mentor India Campaign-A national Mentor network in collaboration with public sector, corporates and institutions, to support all the initiatives of the mission.
  • Atal Community Innovation Center-To stimulate community centric innovation and ideas in the unserved /underserved regions of the country including Tier 2 and Tier 3 cities.
  • ARISE-To stimulate innovation and research in the MSME industry. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=390546

9.Consider the following statements with respect toTurant Customs programme

  • It is a flagship programme launched by the Directorate General of Foreign Trade
  • It will benefit the importers by eliminating routine interface with the Customs officers and providing uniformity in assessment across the country

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: CBIC launches its flagship programme ‘Turant Customs’ at Bengaluru & Chennai

  • Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs, CBIC today launched its flagship programme Turant Customs, at Bengaluru and Chennai. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • CBIC said, this is a giant leap forward to leverage technology for faster Customs clearance of imported goods.
  • Importers will now get their goods cleared from Customs after a faceless assessment is done remotely by the Customs officers located outside the port of import.
  • Now, the goods imported at Chennai may be assessed by the Customs officers located at Bengaluru and vice versa, as assigned by the Customs’ automated system.
  • Turant Customs is a mega reform for the ease of doing business.
  • The start of Turant Customs at Bengaluru and Chennai will be the first phase of the All India roll out which would get completed by 31st December this year. The first phase will cover imports of Mechanical, Electrical and Electronics machineries at the ports, airports and ICDs of Bengaluru and Chennai.
  • Turant Customs will benefit the importers by eliminating routine interface with the Customs officers and providing uniformityin assessment across the country. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=CBIC-launches-its-flagship-programme-%26%2339%3BTurant-Customs%26%2339%3B-at-Bengaluru-%26-Chennai&id=390791

10.With reference to communications technologies, what is/are the difference/differences between LTE (Long-Term Evolution) and VoLTE (Voice over Long-Term Evolution)?

  • LTE is commonly marketed as 3G and VoLTE is commonly marketed as advanced 3G.
  • LTE is data-only technology and VoLTE is voice-only technology.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

  • VoLTE is a technology update to the LTE protocol used by mobile phone networks.
  • Under LTE, the infrastructure of telecom players only allows transmission of data while voice calls are routed to their older 2G or 3G networks. This is why, under LTE, you cannot access your 4G data services while on a call. This leads to problems such as slow internet speeds and poor voice clarity.
  • VoLTE allows voice calls to be ‘packaged’ and carried through LTE networks. This would mean 4G data accessibility even during calls. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.
  • LTE is commonly marketed as 4G LTE. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.