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Daily Prelims Test – 09_July

1.Consider the following statements regarding Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships

It is a subordinate office under the Ministry of Shipping.

It aims to help the mariners and local fisherman to navigate safely in the Indian waters.

The Headquarters of the Directorate is at Noida

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1 and 2 only

1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Shri Mansukh Mandaviya calls for developing lighthouse tourism opportunities in India

Union Minister of State(I/C)for Shipping Shri Mansukh Mandaviya held a high level meeting, for developing around 194 existing lighthouses across India as Major tourist attractions. 

It will boost the tourism activities in lighthouses surrounding areas and give an opportunity to know about the enriched history of lighthouses.

About Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships:

The Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships is a subordinate office under the Ministry of Shipping. Hence statement 1 is correct

It provides General Aids to Marine Navigation along the Indian coast.

The Headquarters of the Directorate is at  Hence statement 3 is correct

For administrative control, the entire coastline has been divided into Nine Districts having their regional headquarters at Gandhidham, Jamnagar, Mumbai, Goa, Cochin, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Kolkata and Port Blair.

For providing these aids, the Directorate collects light dues in 30 days at the rate of Rs.8/- per ton NT basis from all foreign going vessels calling at/departing from Indian portsCustoms Department collects light dues behalf of the Directorate.

It aims to help the mariners and local fisherman tonavigate safely in the Indian waters. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1636950#:~:text=Shri%20Mandaviya%20said%20it%20will,develop%20lighthouses%20as%20tourism%20spots.

2.Consider the following statements

A zoonosis is any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans.

Animals are playing an essential role in maintaining zoonotic infections in nature

Zoonotic infections can be only bacterial or viral in nature

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1 and 2 only

1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Preventing future pandemics: curb climate change and protect environment, says UN report

July 6 is World Zoonoses Day, which commemorates the work of French biologist Louis Pasteur, who successfully administered the first vaccine against rabies, a zoonotic disease, on July 6, 1885.

Land degradation, wildlife exploitation, intensive farming and climate change are driving the rise in diseases that, like the coronavirus, are passed from animals to human

About 60% of known infectious diseases in humans and 75% of all emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, she said, largely due to the increased interaction between humans, animals and the environment.

About Zoonoses:

A zoonosis is any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. Hence statement 1 is correct

Animals thus play an essential role in maintaining zoonotic infections in natureHence statement 2 is correct

Zoonoses may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic, or may involve unconventional Hence statement 3 is incorrect

As well as being a public health problem, many of the major zoonotic diseases prevent the efficient production of food of animal origin and create obstacles to international trade in animal products.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/preventing-future-pandemics-curb-climate-change-and-protect-environment-says-un-report/article32010329.ece

3.Consider the following statements regarding UN Environment Programme (UNEP)

It is the leading global environmental authority to promotes the coherent implementation of sustainable development within the United Nations system

Emission Gap Report and Global Environment Outlook are the major reports released by UNEP

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Countries can learn from Africa in handling future pandemics: UN report

The world can learn from Africa’s experience in handling zoonotic diseases — illnesses caused by germs that spread between animals and humans — in its fight against the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and future pandemics said a report published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)

Suggestion:

A One Health approach, however, that unites public health, veterinary and environmental expertise was suggested by the report as the optimal method for preventing and responding to zoonotic disease outbreaks.

Building robust public and animal health systems, taking early action to combat disease outbreaks and raising political awareness on the need for greater investments in preventing and controlling emerging diseases needs to be prioritised

Ten policy response options to reduce the risk of future zoonotic pandemics and to “build back better” from the current crisis were provided by the report. These include:

Expanding scientific enquiry into zoonoses

Regulating and monitoring traditional food markets

Incentivising the legal wildlife trade and animal husbandry to adopt zoonotic control measures

Radically transforming food systems

About United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainabledevelopment within the UN system and serves as an authoritative advocate for the global environment. Hence statement 1 is correct

Headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya

Major Reports: Emission Gap Report, Global Environment Outlook, Frontiers, Invest into Healthy Planet. Hence statement 2 is correct

As a member of the United Nations Development Group, UNEP aims to help the world meet the 17 Sustainable Development Goals

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/africa/countries-can-learn-from-africa-in-handling-future-pandemics-un-report-72175

4.Consider the following statements regardingCentral Sector Scheme – Agriculture Infrastructure Fund

This scheme shall provide a medium – long term debt financing facility for investment in viable projects for post-harvest management Infrastructure and community farming assets

It will be managed and monitored through an online Management Information System (MIS) platform.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government decides to set up an agriculture infrastructure fund

The Union Cabinet on Wednesday gave its nod to a new Agriculture Infrastructure Fund focused on post-harvest management and nurturing agricultural assetsHence statement 1 is correct

In the course of 10 years, Rs. One Lakh Crore will be provided by banks and financial institutions as loans to Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS), Marketing Cooperative Societies, Farmer Producers Organizations (FPOs), Self Help Group (SHG), Farmers, Joint Liability Groups (JLG), Multipurpose Cooperative Societies, Agri-entrepreneurs, Startups, Aggregation Infrastructure Providers and Central/State agency or Local Body sponsored Public Private Partnership Project

Loans will be disbursed in four years starting with sanction of Rs. 10,000 crore in the current year and Rs. 30,000 crore each in next three financial years.

All loans under this financing facility will have interest subvention of 3% per annum up to a limit of Rs. 2 crore. This subvention will be available for a maximum period of seven years.

Agri Infra fund will be managed and monitored through an online Management Information System (MIS) platform. Hence statement 2 is correct

It will enable all the qualified entities to apply for loan under the fund.

5.Consider the following statements regardingPradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) Programme

It is launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation in Mission mode envisions provision of Housing for All by 2022

Households belonging to the economically weaker sections (EWS), low income groups (LIGs) and middle-income groups (MIGs) are usually the beneficiaries covered under PMAY-U

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Cabinet approves developing of Affordable rental housing Complexes for urban migrants / poor

The Union Cabinetchaired by the Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has given its approval for developing of Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (AHRCs) for urban migrants  / poor as a sub-scheme under Pradhan MantriAwasYojana – Urban (PMAY – U) by:

existing vacant government funded housing complexes will be converted in ARHCs through Concession Agreements for 25 years. Concessionaire will make the complexes livable by repair/retrofit and maintenance of rooms and filling up infrastructure gaps like water, sewer/ septage, sanitation, road etc

special incentives like use permission, 50% additional FAR/FSI, concessional loan at priority sector lending rate, tax reliefs at par with affordable housing etc. will be offered to private/ public entities to develop ARHCs on their own available vacant land for 25 years.

About Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) Programme

It was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA). It envisions provision of Housing for All by 2022, when the Nation completes 75 years of its Independence. Hence statement 1 is correct

Beneficiaries include Economically weaker section(EWS), low-income groups (LIGs) and Middle Income Groups (MIGs)Hence statement 2 is correct

Mission will be implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) except for the component of credit linked subsidy which will be implemented as a Central Sector Scheme.

The Mission seeks to address the housing requirement of urban poor including slum dwellers through following programme verticals:

Slum rehabilitation of Slum Dwellers with participation of private developers using land as a resource

Promotion of Affordable Housing for weaker section through credit linked subsidy

Affordable Housing in Partnership with Public & Private sectors

Subsidy for beneficiary-led individual house construction /enhancement.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1637218

6.Consider the following

  • Members of the armed forces
  • Government employees posted outside India and their spouses
  • Voters under preventive detention

Which of the above members can avail Postal ballot for the general election in india?

  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Postal ballots and why they are fast turning into a political controversy

The Election Commission has announced that it will allow those above the age of 65 as well as those under home or institutional quarantine to vote using postal ballots during the Bihar elections

What is postal voting?

  • A restricted set of voters can exercise postal voting.
  • Through this facility, a voter can cast her vote remotely by recording her preference on the ballot paper and sending it back to the election officer before counting.

Who can avail this facility?

  • Members of the armed forces like the Army, Navy and Air Force
  • Members of the armed police force of a state(serving outside the state), government employees posted outside India and their spouses are entitled to vote only by post.
  • Voters under preventive detention can alsovote only by post. Hence option (d) is correct

How are votes recorded by post?

  • The Returning Officer is supposed to print ballot papers within 24 hours of the last date of nomination withdrawal and dispatch them within a day.
  • For members of the armed police force of a state (serving outside the state), government employees posted outside India and their spouses, the ballot paper can be sent through post or electronically.
  • For remaining categories ballot papers can be delivered personally or through post.
  • After receiving it, the voter can mark her preference with a tick mark or cross mark against the candidate’s name.
  • The ballot paper and the declaration are then placed in a sealed cover and sent back to the Returning Officer before the time fixed for the commencement of counting of votes.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/postal-ballots-political-controversy-explained-6495861/

7.Uighurs, often seen in news, is related to which of the following option?

china’s ethnic minority community

Kyrgyzstan’s ethnic religion

Jaintias tribal community

practice jhum cultivation

Answer: (a) china’s ethnic minority community

Explanation:

In NEWS: Exiled Uighurs approach International Criminal Court seeking justice against China

  • China’s ethnic minority community, the Uighurs,have finally approached the the International Criminal Court seeking justice for human rights against them. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The New York Times reported that a team of London-based lawyers representing two Uighur activist groups have filed a complaint against China for repatriating thousands of Uighurs through unlawful arrests in or deportation from Cambodia and Tajikistan. This is for the first time that an international court’s help is being taken against the Chinese Communist Party
  • The 80-page complaint includes a list of more than 30 Chinese officials, including President Xi Jinping, whom the exiled Uighurs have held responsible.
  • The crimes committed against the Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other Turkic peoples which should be investigated include — massacres, mass internment camps, torture, disappearances, forced birth control and sterilisation, forcible transfer of children from their families to Chinese state orphanages and boarding schools, measures aimed at eliminating the use of the Uyghur and other Turkic languages in schools
  • The applicants believe that with the court’s order the victims of genocide and several other atrocities will finally see justice.
  • The filing on behalf of the East Turkistan government in exile confirms that the ICC has jurisdiction over international crimes allegedly committed against the Uighur and other Turkic peoples.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/world/2020/jul/07/exiled-uighurs-approach-international-criminal-court-seeking-justice-against-china-2166586.html

8.Consider the following statements regardingCuriosity Mars rover

It is a car-sized rover designed to explore the crater Gale on Mars

It is a part of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Curosity Mars Rover’s road trip kicks off, aims to uncover reason behind Red Planet’s climate

  • The summer road trip of National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Curiosity Mars rover is underway. The Mars rover will complete a total of 1.6 km during its yearly road trip.
  • As the road trip kicked off on July 6, Curiosity Mars Rover sent a few images of the next destination. The plan is to avoid getting stuck in a vast patch of sand before it moves to the next part of the mission, a mountain called Mount Sharp. The mission’s aim is to study the sediments of Mount Sharp.
  • The image posted is a combination of a total of 116 images sent. It is the path Mars rover will take to the floor of the Gale crater which will release new details about the climate change that took place on the planet three million years ago.

About Curiosity Mars rover

  • Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore the crater Gale on Marsas part of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL). Hence statements 1 and 2 are correct
  • Aim: Determine if Mars was ever able to support microbial life.
  • Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars.
  • It is launched by NASA in 2011.
  • It successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater in 2012.
  • The overall objectives include investigating Mars’ habitability, studying its climate and geology, and collecting data fora manned mission to Mars.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/curosity-mars-rover-road-trip-images-red-planet-climate-6494196/

9.Which of the following statements with respect to Sitana Dharwarensis?

It is a new species of a fan-throated lizard

It is a new species of silver colored small freshwater fish

It is a new plant species found in Western ghats

All the above given statements are incorrect

Answer: (a) It is a new species of a fan-throated lizard

Explanation:

In NEWS: Two Mumbai researchers discover new species of fan-throated lizard

  • A 3 member team has discovered a new species of a fan-throated lizard, Sitana dharwarensis, from the barren lands of northern Karnataka’sBagalkot district. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The species belongs to the genus Sitana and derives its name from the Dharwar craton,  a piece of the Earth’s crust formed 3.6-2.5 billion years ago.
  • Though it is similar to a fan-throated lizard species, Sitana laticeps, it bears a much larger throat fan or dewlap. Its distinctness was confirmed after comparing the DNA sequences and micro-CT-scans of the two species.
  • When compared to other fan-throated lizards, it is larger in size. 
  • It is restricted to the area surrounded by two major rivers namely Krishna and Dungapatra, which likely acts as biogeographic barriers for terrestrial lizards.
  • This is the 2nd species discovered from the open scrub and rock terrain of northern Karnataka after Hemidactylus vijayraghavani, a gecko.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/two-mumbai-researchers-discover-new-species-of-fan-throated-lizard-6495113/

10.Consider the following statements:

Agricultural soils release nitrogen oxides into environment.

Cattle release ammonia into environment.

Poultry industry releases reactive nitrogen compounds environment.

Which of the statements given above is/arc correct?

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: Agricultural soils contributed to over 70% of N2O emissions from India in 2010, followed by waste water (12%) and residential and commercial activities (6%).
  • Statement 2 is correct: Cattle account for 80% of the ammonia production and India is globally the biggest source of ammonia emission, nearly double that of NOx emissions.
  • Statement 3 is correct: The poultry industry, with an annual growth rate of 6%, recorded an excretion of reactive nitrogen compounds of 0.415 tonnes in 2016.