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Daily Prelims Test – 09_February 2021

With reference to the Indian National Movement, Martyr town of Dhekiajuli was related to 

Partition of Bengal

Non Co Operation Movement

Civil Disobedience movement

Quit India Movement

Answer: (d) Quit India Movement

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM’s Assam venue: ‘martyr town’ where a 12-yr-old fell to British bullets

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi made his second visit in a fortnight to poll-bound Assam on Sunday, and both venues have historical significance. The first was Sivasagar’s Jerenga Pothar, where 17th-century Ahom Princess Joymoti sacrificed her life. And on Sunday, Modi was at the historic “martyr” town of Dhekiajuli, associated with the Quit India Movement of 1942
  • What is Dhekiajuli’s connection to the Quit India movement?
  • Dhekiajuli was home to possibly the youngest martyr of the Indian freedom struggle. On September 20, 1942, as part of the Quit India movement, processions of freedom fighters marched to various police stations across several towns in Assam.  Hence option(d) is correct
  • These squads, which were known as ‘Mrityu Bahini’, or death squads, had wide participation — including women and children — and set out to unfurl the tricolour atop police stations, seen as symbols of colonial power.
  • The British administration came down heavily on them. In Gohpur, 17-year-old Kanaklata Barua and others fell to bullets. And in Dhekiajuli, at least 15 people were shot dead, three of them women, including the 12-year-old Tileswari Barua.
  • Significance of Martyr Town of Dhekiajuli
  • Dhekiajuli is a historic land and a symbol of valour and pride.
  • Dhekiajuli was home to possibly the youngest martyr of the Indian freedom struggle.
  • The Dhekiajuli police station was accorded heritage status and restored by the Assam government.
  • Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/narendra-modi-assam-polls-quit-india-movement-indian-freedom-struggle-7178864/

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.Consider the following Statements regarding International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development 

It is a regional intergovernmental learning and knowledge sharing centre about the changes happening to mountainous ecosystems due to impacts of climate change.

It has eight regional member countries of the Hindu Kush Himalaya and based in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Number of glacial lakes rising, as is threat of similar incidents

  • New evidence from satellite images suggest that glacial lakes might not be the reason for Sunday’s flash flood in Uttarakhand, several studies in the last few years have highlighted the risk posed by such lakes in causing similar incidents.
  • These studies have taken note of the rapid increase in the number of glacial lakes due to a retreat in the glaciers caused by warming temperatures, and their potential to cause largescale flooding and destruction. 
  • International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) had identified 127 glacial lakes in Uttarakhand using satellite images.
  • Most glacial lakes lie in remote locations and are inaccessible even to scientists, who have to rely on satellite images to identify and locate them
  • Glacial lakes are increasing, not just in Uttarakhand but in other regions of the Himalayas as well. This is happening because of retreating glaciers. And this has to be a cause of concern. Higher the number of such lakes, greater is the risk of incidents

About International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development

  • The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is a regional intergovernmental learning and knowledge sharing centre serving the eight regional member countries of the Hindu Kush Himalayas: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan. Hence Statement 1 is correct and Hence Statement 2 is correct
  • ICIMOD aims to assist mountain people to understand these changes, adapt to them, and make the most of new opportunities, while addressing upstream-downstream issues.
  • ICIMOD’s provision of services and support is in terms of assisting its constituents to understand the changes happening to mountainous ecosystems due to impacts of climate change.
  • ICIMOD engages in regional transboundary programmes through partnership and extensive collaboration with regional partner institutions and global centers of excellence. 
  • The center’s strategic objective is working to develop an economically and environmentally sound mountain ecosystem to improve the living standards of mountain population at the same ensuring sustainability of ecosystem services for the billions of people living in the area.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/glacial-lakes-uttarakhand-flash-flood-himalayan-region-7180457/


Consider the following Statements regarding Chipko Movement

It was a non-violent agitation in 1973 mostly participated by the women

It aim was to protect the trees by hugging them and not allowing cutting of these trees.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: In Chamoli disaster revives tales of Gaura Devi and her role in Chipko movement

  • Raini village’s Gaura Devi who played a key role in the Chipko movement in March 1974.
  • In fear of a recurrence of more calamites after disaster struck the area on Sunday, residents of Raini village spent Sunday night in the forest, about 1-km from their homes.
  • The irony is that a village that is known for its ecological consciousness has faced a massive disaster
  • Raini Chak Lata village has lost connectivity with the main road after the motorable road was washed away in Sunday’s flood.
  • About Chipko movement
  • The Chipko movement was a non-violent agitation in 1973 that was aimed at protection and conservation of trees, but, perhaps, it is best remembered for the collective mobilisation of women for the cause of preserving forests, which also brought about a change in attitude regarding their own status in society.  Hence Statement 1 is correct and Hence Statement 2 is correct
  • The uprising against the felling of trees and maintaining the ecological balance originated in Uttar Pradesh’s Chamoli district (now Uttarakhand) in 1973 and in no time spilled onto other states in north India. 
  • The name of the movement ‘chipko’ comes from the word ’embrace’, as the villagers hugged the trees and encirled them to prevent being hacked.
  • Inspired by Gandhian non-violence, the Chipko movement started in 1973 against felling of trees and spread throughout the Himalayas
  • The movement got attention across the country and the Central government brought Forest Protection Act, a law to regulate forests in a bid to conserve them across India.
  • The Chipko movement can essentially be called a women’s movement. Women, being solely in charge of cultivation, livestock and children, lost all they had because of floods and landslides, caused due to rise in deforestation in the face of urbanisation.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/what-is/what-is-the-chipko-movement-google-doodle-5111644/


Which of the following conditions are correct regarding unrecognized political parties?

Newly registered parties

Those which have not secured enough percentage of votes in the assembly or general elections to become a state party

Those which have never contested elections since being registered

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Donation reports of only 3.39% registered unrecognised parties for 2018-19 available in public domain: ADR

  • The registered unrecognized parties analysed in this report declared a total of 6,860 donations worth Rs 65.45 crore during FY 2018-19 and 6,138 donations of Rs 24.6 crore for FY 2017-18, amounting to 12,998 total declared donations of Rs 90.05 crore in two years.
  • The number of registered unrecognized political parties has increased two-fold in the last 10 years

About unrecognised political parties:

  • A party is considered as unrecognised political party, if any of the following conditions is fulfilled:
  • Newly registered parties; or
  • Those which have not secured enough percentage of votes in the assembly or general elections to become a state party; or
  • Those which have never contested elections since being registeredHence option(d) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/donation-reports-of-only-339-registered-unrecognised-parties-for-2018-19-available-in-public-domain-adr/article33758510.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF)

It is a savings scheme introduced under the Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Act, 1952

It is administered and managed by the Central Board of Trustees

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tax on EPF interest will not impact all salaried individuals

  • Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman has proposed to tax the Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF), albeit only the interest income on contributions exceeding Rs 2.5 lakh in a year from April 1. It will also be applicable for GPF contributions, i.e. for government employees.
  • Any contribution you are making to Provident Fund, that is in excess of Rs 2.5 lakh, will be in a separate basket and interest on that corpus will be taxable. It will work in the same manner as the interest income on fixed deposits is taxed
  • Sources from CBDT say that many High Networth Individuals (HNIs) were misusing PF provision. They were deducting a major portion of their salary to PF in order to get benefits of high tax-free interest
  • There are more than 4.5 crore EPF contributors, of which more than 1.23 lakh accounts belong to HNIs who have been parking huge sums on monthly basis. 
  • As of FY19, HNI’s contribution was Rs 62,500 crore. One of the highest contributors, for instance, had a balance of Rs 103 crore in his PF account, while another held more than Rs 86 crore.

About Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF)

  • The Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) is a savings scheme introduced under the Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Act, 1952. Hence Statement 1 is correct
  • It is administered and managed by the Central Board of Trustees that consists of representatives from three parties, namely, the government, the employers and the employees.  Hence Statement 2 is correct
  • The Employees’ Provident Fund Organization (EPFO) assists this board in its activities.
  • EPFO works under the direct jurisdiction of the government and is managed through the Ministry of Labour and Employment.
  • The Employees’ Provident Fund is a fund where both the employer as well as the employee contributes a part of the salary.
  • These contributions are made regularly on a monthly basis.
  • The interest rate fixed depends upon the employee’s basic pay along with the dearness allowance in his salary.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/business/2021/feb/08/tax-on-epf-interest-will-not-impact-all-salaried-individuals-2261045.html


With reference to biodiversity, Brookesia nana recently seen in the news is species of 

Plants

Birds

Reptiles

Amphinians

Answer: (c) Reptiles

Explanation:

In NEWS: World’s smallest reptile? How it compares to other reptiles

  • Previously, the chameleon species Brookesia micra was thought to be the smallest. The average length of adults of this species is 16 mm (29 mm with tail), while the smallest adult male has been recorded at 15.3 mm. Hence option(c) is correct
  • A chameleon discovered in the island country of Madagascar by scientists from Germany and Madagascar may be the world’s smallest adult reptile. The discovery has been reported in the journal Scientific Reports.
  • The team found one male and one female of the species, named Brookesia nana, during an expedition in 2012. 
  • Reptiles come in a wide size range. The longest, the reticulated python, at 6.25 m is almost as long as 289 Brookesia nanas. The gharial is more than 200 Brookesia nanas long, while the king cobra can measure up to nearly 180 Brookesia nanas.
  • On the smaller size, the gecko Sphaerodactylus ariasae of the Caribbean is almost as small as the Brookesia micra, or about 20-25% longer than the Brookesia nana. The gopher tortoise is equivalent to 12 Brookesia nanas, and the veiled chameleon to about 18 specimens of the newly reported Madagascar species.
  • Madagascar is home to tiny lizards and also the smallest species of snakes. One possible reason for such small species is the so-called “island effect” that causes species on small islands to get smaller.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/worlds-smallest-reptile-chameleon-madagascar-it-compares-to-other-reptiles-7180293/


Why is the plant Lantana camara often seen in the news?

It produces and emits light in the water

Its extract is widely used as an antiseptic

It is the only insectivorous plant endemic to India

It is the invasive species in tiger habitats across India

Answer: (d) It is the invasive species in tiger habitats across India

Explanation:

  • In NEWS: Lantana in tiger habitats
  • The government had taken serious note of the spread of invasive lantana species in tiger habitats across India that had resulted in scarcity of native forage species for wild herbivores, Babul Supriyo, Minister of State in the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change told the Rajya Sabha. Hence option(d) is correct
  • He further stated that the invasive species in tiger reserves were being mapped on a quadrennial basis during the country-wide assessment of tigers.

About Lantana camara

  • It is native to Central and South America.
  • It is a small perennial shrub, which forms extensive, dense and impenetrable thickets.
  • It is a thicket forming shrub, has covered vast tracts of land in the sanctuary and it is stopping the natural light and nutrition for flora and fauna.
  • In some regions, the plant has made inroads into pastures and shrunk the cattle grazing areas, affecting the livelihood of villagers.
  • It is generally deleterious to biodiversity and is an agricultural weed.
  • With the herbivores not getting sufficient forage, the prey base for carnivorous animals was declining, leading to ecological disturbances in the food chain.
  • It has also invaded other wildlife reserves, river banks and the Project Tiger areas.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/pollution/as-told-to-parliament-february-8-2021-indo-gangetic-plains-have-high-air-pollution-levels-75443


Consider the following Statements regarding World Sustainable Development Summit

It is the annual flagship event of The Energy and Resources Institute.

It is organized in accordance with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Prime Minister to inaugurate World Sustainable Development Summit 2021 

  • The theme of the summit is ‘Redefining Our Common Future: Safe and Secure Environment for All’. 
  • The 20th edition of The Energy and Resources Institute’s (TERI) flagship event- the World Sustainable Development Summit, will be held online from 10th to 12th February. 
  • The summit will bring together a wide number of governments, business leaders, academicians, climate scientists, youth and the civil society in the fight against climate change. Energy and industry transition, adaptation and resilience, nature based solutions, climate finance, circular economy, clean oceans and air pollution, are amongst the range of topics to be discussed during the summit. 
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and the Ministry of Earth Sciences are key partners of the summit.

About World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS)

  • It is the annual flagship event that is organised by the Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). Hence Statement 1 is correct
  • The summit is organised with the aim of providing the long-term solutions to benefit the global community.
  • It seeks to benefit by assembling various stakeholders on a single platform to initiate a step for the constructive action to combat the issues of the future of humanity. 
  • The summit is organised in accordance with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. Hence Statement 2 is correct

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=Prime-Minister-to-inaugurate-World-Sustainable-Development-Summit-2021-tomorrow&id=409470


Consider the following Statements regarding United Nations Human Rights Council

It is made up of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly.

It passes binding resolutions on human rights issues called the Universal Periodic Review

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: US President Joe Biden seeks to rejoin UN Human Rights Council

  • The former president pulled out of the Geneva-based body over what he saw as its bias against the Israeli government.
  • Members also include China, Cuba, Eritrea, Russia and Venezuela, all of which have been accused of human rights abuses.

About United Nations Human Rights Council

  • The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system made up of 47 States responsible for the promotion and protection of all human rights around the globe. Hence Statement 1 is correct
  • It has the ability to discuss all thematic human rights issues and situations that require its attention throughout the year. It meets at the UN Office at Geneva.
  • The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them. 
  • It has the ability to discuss all thematic human rights issues and situations that require its attention throughout the year. 

Functions

  • The UNHRC passes non-binding resolutions on human rights issues through a periodic review of all 193 UN member states called the Universal Periodic Review (UPR). Hence Statement 2 is incorrect
  • It oversees expert investigation of violations in specific countries (Special Procedures).
  • UNHRC has a wide mandate which facilitates it to respond to human rights cases across the globe. In doing so, it also brings the members of civil society together for voicing concerns related to human rights in their respective local regions. (Global Reach)

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/world/us-president-joe-biden-seeks-to-rejoin-un-human-rights-council-7179425/


Which of the following is/are the indicator/ indicators used by IFPRI to compute the Global Hunger Index Report?

Undernourishment 

Child stunting 

Child mortality

 Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only 
  2. 2 and 3 only 
  3. 1, 2 and 3 
  4. 1 and 3 only

Answer: (c) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally and by country and region. Calculated each year by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the GHI highlights successes and failures in hunger reduction and provides insights into the drivers of hunger.

To reflect the multidimensional nature of hunger, the GHI combines the following four component indicators into one index:

  • Undernourishment 
  • Child stunting 
  • Child mortality
  • Child wasting. Hence option(c) is correct