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Daily Prelims Test – 09_August_2021

Consider the following criteria regarding denial of Passport to an applicant by Passport Authority

  • 1. Not being citizen of India
  • 2. Engage in activities prejudicial to Country’s sovereignty outside India
  • 3. Departure may be detrimental to country’s security
  • 4.  Prejudice to Friendly relations of foreign country
  • 5. Conviction of offence that involves moral turpitude with sentence not less than 5 years

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 2 only
  2. b) 1 and 3 Only
  3. c) 1,2,3 & 4 only
  4. d) All of the Above

Answer: (c) 1,2, 3 & 4 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Facing a criminal case can be a reason to deny a passport?

Under section 6(2) of Passports Act, 1967, Passport authority can deny passport to person if,

  •  Not being citizen of India
  •  Engage in activities prejudicial to Country’s sovereignty outside India
  •  Departure may be detrimental to country’s security
  •  Prejudice to Friendly relations of foreign country
  •  Conviction of offence that involves moral turpitude with sentence not less than 2 years

Hence statement 5 is incorrect.

Source: The Hindu – FAQ

Recently, the Government brought 127th Constitutional Amendment Bill, It is related to

  1. a) Provide for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram
  2. b) Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes
  3. c) Restore the power of the states to identify backward classes
  4. d) Empowers the centre to impose an additional tax of up to 1%

Answer: (c) Restore the power of the states to identify backward classes

Explanation:

In NEWS: Constitution amendment, power bills in Parliament next week amid complete washout threats

  •  The government is bracing up for pushing the Constitution 127th Amendment bill to give the power to states to prepare their own list of other backward castes (OBCs). Hence option (c) is correct.
  •  The Government is planning to bring a Bill to Parliamentto clarify “some provisions in the 102nd Constitutional amendment Bill” to restore the power of the states to identify backward classes.
  •  In India, separate OBC lists are drawn up by the Centre and each state concerned. Articles 15(4), 15(5) and 16(4) expressly conferred power on a state to identify and declare the list of socially and educationally backward classes.

About 127th Constitutional Amendment Bill:

  •  The Constitutional 127th Amendment Bill will amend Articles 342 A — clauses 1 and 2 — and will introduce clause 342 A (3) specifically authorizing states to maintain their State List.
  •  There will be a consequential amendment in Articles 366(26C) and 338B (9). States will then be able to directly notify OBC and SEBCs without having to refer to the NCBC.
  •  There has been some confusion about what comprises a state and Central list, and this clause will clarify that.

Why need an amendment?

  •  The Centre had earlier moved a review petition in the Supreme Court challenging the court’s interpretation of the 102nd amendment of the Constitution in the Maratha reservation judgment.
  •  The 102ndCA had scrapped the power of the states to identify and notify socially and educationally backward classes.
  •  The move is politically significant as the government is banking heavily on OBC votes in key states that go to the polls next year.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/thesundaystandard/2021/aug/08/constitution-amendment-power-bills-in-parliamentnext-week-amidcomplete-washout-threats-2341690.html

Consider the following statements:

  • 1. India has assumed the presidency for the first time in history UNSC
  • 2. India has served 4 times in the past as a Non-Permanent Member in UNSC

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: At UNSC, Putin will join Modi in the open debate on maritime security

Russian President Vladimir Putin will join the open debate on maritime security that Prime Minister NarendraModi will preside over on Monday at the U.N. Security Council as India holds the Presidency for the month

  •  India, for the eighth time, has entered the United Nations Security Council (UNSC)as a non-permanent member recently. It will stay on the council for two years i.e 2021-22.Hence Statement 2 is Incorrect
  •  The current stint is the eighth time that India has held the Presidency of the top U.N. body.Hence Statement 1 is Incorrect
  •  The last time India held the position was a decade ago during 2011-12. Similar stints were served during 1950-51, 1967-68, 1972-73, 1977-78, 1984-’85 and 1991-92.

United Nation Security Council

  •  The United Nations Charter establishedsix main organs of the United Nations, including the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). Article 23 of the UN Charter concerns the composition of the UNSC.
  •  The UNSC has been given primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security to the Security Council,which may meet whenever peace is threatened.
  •  While other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to member states, only the Security Council has the power to make decisions that member states are then obligated to implement under the Charter.
  •  Permanent and Non-Permanent Members:The UNSC is composed of 15 members, 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent.


    •  Five permanent members:China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
    •  Ten non-permanent members: Elected for two-year terms by the General Assembly.


      •  Each year, the General Assembly electsfive non-permanent members (out of ten in total) for a two-year term. The ten non-permanent seats are distributed on a regional basis.
      •  As stipulated in rule 144 of the rules of procedure, a retiring member is not eligible for immediate re-election.
      •  In accordance with rule 92 of the rules of procedure, the election is held by secret ballot and there are no nominations.Underrule 83 of the rules of procedure, the non-permanent members of the Security Council are elected by a two-thirds majority.
        •  Five for African and Asian countries.
        •  One for Eastern European countries.
        •  Two for Latin American and Caribbean countries.
        •  Two for Western European and other countries.

 Source: The Hindu Page 8

  • 4. Consider the following statements regarding Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation:
  • 1. It is a large system of ocean currents that carry warm water from the tropics northwards into the North Atlantic.
  • 2. Greenhouse gases are one of the major reasons for the slowing down of this

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Climate emergency: Tipping points are already here, scientists warn

A new study published in Nature Climate Change shows that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) may have become unstable over the last century and reached a tipping point

Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC):

  •  The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a large system of ocean currents that carry warm water from the tropics northwards into the North AtlanticHence statement (1) is correct.
  •  The AMOC is an important component of the Earth’s climate system and is a result of both atmospheric and thermohaline drivers.
  •  The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a major current in the Atlantic Ocean and can be considered as a large system of ocean currents.
  •  AMOC is characterized by a northward flow of warm, salty water in the upper layers of the Atlantic, and a southward flow of colder, deep waters that are part of the thermohaline circulation
  •  The AMOC is a large system of ocean currents, like a conveyor belt, driven by differences in temperature and salt content – the water’s density
  •  It aids in distributing heat and energy around the earth, as the warm water it carries releases heat into the atmosphere, and in absorbing and storing atmospheric carbon
  •  Oceanographers have been measuring the AMOC continuously since 2004. Discussed below are the causes that have resulted in the slowing down of AMOC and the impact this slow down shall be leaving on the climate and the environment. 
  •  Global warming caused by Greenhouse gasesis one of the major reasons for the slowing down of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/climate-emergency-tipping-points-are-already-here-scientists-warn-78236

Consider the following statements regarding DaraShikoh:

  • 1. He translated into Persian the Bhagavad Gita as well as 52 Upanishads.
  • 2. He defeated Aurangzeb in Battle of Samugarh
  • 3. He authored The Confluence of the Two Seas which argues for the harmony of Sufi philosophy and Vedanta philosophy.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 3 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Have not located DaraShikoh’s grave, says Archaeological Survey of India

  •  had formed a committee to locate the grave in Humayun’s Tomb complex in 2020.
  •  The final resting place of Mughal prince DaraShikoh remains a mystery, with the Archaeological Survey of India saying it has not located the grave within the Humayun’s Tomb complex over a year after a committee was formed for the job. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

About DaraShikoh

  •  He was the eldest son of Shah Jahan. The rank of ‘Padshahzada-i-BuzurgMartaba’ (Prince of High Rank) was given to him
  •  He was killed after losing the war of succession against his brother Aurangzeb.
  •  He was a liberal Mughal prince in comparison to orthodox Aurangzeb
  •  DaraShikoh was inclined towards philosophy and mysticism over military pursuits in comparison to Aurangzeb
  •  He translated into Persian the Bhagavad Gita as well as 52 Upanishads. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  •  At the Battle of Samugarh in May 1658, DaraShukoh was defeated by his brothers Aurangzeb and Murad. Aurangzeb then deposed his father and assumed power.Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  •  He authored the work The Confluence of the Two Seas (Majma-ul-Bahrain), which argues for the harmony of Sufi philosophy in Islam and Vedanta philosophy in Hinduism. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  •  He completed the translation of fifty Upanishadsfrom their original Sanskrit into Persian in 1657 so that they could be studied by Muslim scholars. His translation is often called Sirr-i-Akbar.
  •  He was also a great patron of the arts.

Source: The Hindu – Sunday

Consider the following statements regarding Brahui:

  • 1. It is an Indo Aryan Language
  • 2. It is primarily spoken in the central part of Balochistan Province, Pakistan and in scattered parts of Iran.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ancestral Dravidian languages were possibly spoken by many in Indus Valley civilisation, says study

  •  The paper by BahataAnsumaliMukhopadhyay seeks to resolve a crucial part of this perennial puzzle of South Asian prehistory.
  •  A recent publication has provided crucial evidence that Ancestral Dravidian languages were possibly spoken by a significant population in the Indus Valley civilisation
  •  This study seeks to resolve a crucial part of this perennial puzzle of South Asian prehistory, through establishing the certain existence of ancestral Dravidian language(s) in the Indus Valley civilization.
  •  In the absence of any deciphered written documents of Indus Valley civilization, there are no direct ways of identifying Harappan languages.
  •  Thus, the only feasible starting point is to find certain proto-words whose likely origin in Indus Valley civilisation gets confirmed through historical and linguistic evidence, whereas archaeological evidence indicates that the objects signified by those proto-words were prevalently produced and used in the Indian Valley civilisation.
  •  Even today, people across the greater Indus Valley speak several tongues including Indo-Aryan, Dardic, Iranian, along with the isolated Dravidian language Brahui and the language isolate Burushaski.
  •  During the Indus Valley civilisation era, this region could have been even more multilingual, with some languages that are now extinct. But we can at least be sure that ancestral Dravidian was one of the most popular tongues spoken by our ancestors

About Brahui language

  •  It is a northern Dravidian language spoken primarily by the Brahui people in the central part of Balochistan Province, in Pakistan and in scattered parts of Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Hence statement (1) is incorrect and statement (2) is correct.
  •  It is isolated from the nearest Dravidian-speaking neighbour population of South India by a distance of more than 1,500 kilometres

Dravidian Group of Languages:

  •  The Dravidian languages are first attested in the 2nd century BCE as Tamil-Brahmi script inscribed on the cave walls in the Madurai and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu.
  •  Telugu is numerically the largest of all dravidian languages, Malayalam is smallest and youngest of the dravidian group.
  •  Only two Dravidian languages are spoken exclusively outside the post-1947 state of India: Brahui in the Balochistan region of Pakistan and Afghanistan; and Dhangar, a dialect of Kurukh, in parts of Nepal and Bhutan.
  •  Dravidian place names along the Arabian Sea coasts and Dravidian grammatical influence such as clusivity in the Indo-Aryan languages, namely, Marathi, Gujarati, Marwari, and Sindhi, suggest that Dravidian languages were once spoken more widely across the Indian subcontinent
  •  Proto dravidian gave rise to 21 dravidian languages. These are classified into three categories.
    •  Northern :Brahui (Balochistan), malto (tribal areas of bengal and odisha) and kurukh (bengal, odisha, bihar, madhyapradesh) are the main languages.
    •  Southern :Kannada, Tamil, Malayalam, Tulu, Kodagu, Toda and Kota. Tamil is the oldest amongst these.
    •  Central :It consists of eleven languages i.e. gondi, Khond, Kui, Telugu. Only Telugu became a civilised language and is spoken in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/ancestral-dravidian-languages-were-possibly-spoken-by-many-in-indus-valley-civilisation-says-study/article35738505.ece#:~:text=%E2%80%9CEven%20today%2C%20people%20across%20the,and%20the%20language%20isolate%20 Burushaski.

Kanger is a traditional fire pot belonging to which of the following regions in India?

  1. a) Gujarat
  2. b) Tamilnadu
  3. c) Tripura
  4. d) Kashmir

Answer: (d) Kashmir

Explanation:

In NEWS: Kanger earthen pot of Kashmir

  •  Kanger is a traditional firepot in Kashmir. Hence option (d) is correct.
  •  It is a woven
  •  This traditional firepot is an antidote for the harsh winter of Kashmir.
  •  It is an earthenware filled with glowing embers and encased in a pretty handmade wicker basket.
  •  It is the cheapest item that Kashmiris keep to warm themselves, taking it along wherever they go.
  •  The name Kanger is derived from a Sanskrit word, ‘Kasthangarika’ (Kash means wood/wicker and Angarika means fire embers).
  •  The most famous producers of Kanger in Kashmir are the areas of Charar-i-Sharief (Budgam), Bandipora, Anantnag and TujjarSharief (Sopore).
  •  The ChararKanger is famous not only in Kashmir but all over the world because it differs from the ones manufactured in other parts of the valley.

Source: TH

With respect to CHAPEA Mission, consider the following statements:

  • 1. It is the one-year long analog mission in a habitat simulated to feel like staying on the surface of Mars.
  • 2. It is an initiative of NASA.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: How some people can pretend to live on Mars for a year

  •  NASA is seeking applications for participation as a crew member for the first one-year long analog mission in a habitat simulated to feel like what staying on the surface of Mars would be like. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  •  This is the first of three analog missions called the Crew Health and Performance Exploration Analog (CHAPEA), which is related to MarsHence statement (1) is correct.
  •  The other three are scheduled to take place over the next four years. The second analog mission is scheduled for 2024 and the third is scheduled for 2025.

What is this mission?

  •  The mission is set to begin in Fall 2022 and will give four successful applicants the chance to live and work in a 1,700 square-foot module that is created by a 3D printer and is called the Mars Dune Alpha.
  •  The simulated quarters include a kitchen, areas for medical, recreation, fitness, work, crop growth, a technical work area and two bathrooms.
  •  This habitat will simulate what it feels like to carry out missions on Mars including resource limitations, equipment failure, communication delays and any other environmental stressors.
  •  The crew will be expected to perform simulated spacewalks, scientific research and use virtual reality and robotic controls and exchange communications.

What is the purpose of this mission?

  •  NASA says that the habitat in which the four crew members will stay will be as Mars-realistic as possible.
  •  The results from this analog mission will provide scientific data that will help in validating the systems that will be used for actual missions to Mars and also help in solving problems for spaceflight research.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/how-some-people-can-pretend-to-live-on-mars-for-a-year-7443432/

  • 9. Consider the following statements regarding National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT):
  • 1. It is a statutory body constituted under the Companies Act, 2013.
  • 2. It is a quasi-judicial authority incorporated for dealing with corporate disputes that are of civil nature.

Whichof the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Panel points out NCLT vacancies to MCA: How appointment delays are affecting resolutions

  • The committee has also recommended that the IBC be amended to prevent frivolous litigation and non-adherence to deadlines under the IBC that can lead to value destruction
  • The committee noted that delays in the admission of insolvency cases by NCLTs and the approval of resolution plans were the key reasons behind the non-adherence of timelines under the IBC.
  • The committee also recommended that the IBC be amended to provide micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), which are operational creditors under the IBC, with greater protection in the current economic environment. The IBC currently prioritises financial creditors over operational creditors.
  • The committee called out the Ministry of Corporate Affairs on persistent vacancies in National Company Law Tribunals (NCLTs) leading to delays in corporate insolvency under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC).The combined strength of the current NCLT benches around the country is currently only 29 members against the total sanctioned strength of 63 members.
  • NCLT:
  • It is a statutory body constituted under the section 408 of the Companies Act, 2013. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The current NCLT traces its formation to the recommendations of the Justice Eradi Committee which was set up by Central Government in the year 1998
  • It is a quasi-judicial authority incorporated for dealing with corporate disputes that are of civil nature arising under the Companies Act. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It has power to regulate its own procedures.
  • The NCLT composition is of the President and other Judicial and Technical members, to exercise and discharge powers and functions as prescribed by the Act or any other power delegated to them by way of any other enactment or a Notification by the Ministry Of Corporate Affairs.
  • Appeals against the order of the NCLT will go to NCLAT, exclusively dedicated for this purpose.
  • It has been given jurisdiction over:
  • Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction. (“BIFR”)
  • The Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction. (“AAIFR”)
  • Jurisdiction and powers relating to winding up restructuring and other such provisions, vested in the High Courts.
  • Company Law Board (“CLB”).

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/panel-points-out-nclt-vacancies-to-mca-how-appointment-delays-are-affecting-resolutions-7443644/

 The Government of India Act of 1919 clearly defined

  1. The separation of power between the judiciary and the legislature.
    1. The jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments.
    1. The powers of the Secretary of State for India and the Viceroy
    1. None of the above

Answer: (b) The jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments

Explanation:

  • GOI Act,1919, relaxed the central control over the provinces by demarcating and separating the central and provincial subjects. The central and provincial legislatures were authorised to make laws on their respective list of subjects. Hence option (b) is correct.