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Daily Prelims Test – 09_August

‘Milne Ice Shelf’ was in news recently. Where is it located?

  •  Canada
  •  Greenland
  •  Iceland
  •  Russia

Answer: (a) Canada

Explanation:

In NEWS: Canada’s last fully intact Arctic ice shelf collapses

  • The shelf’s area shrank by about 80 square kilometers. By comparison, the island of Manhattan in New York covers roughly 60 square kilometers.
  • The last fully intact ice shelf in the Canadian Arctic named Milne Ice Shelf has collapsed losing more than 40% of its area.
  • The Milne Ice Shelf is at the fringe of Ellesmere Island, in the sparsely populated northern Canadian territory of Nunavut. Hence option (a) is correct
  • Above normal air temperatures, offshore winds and open water in front of the ice shelf are all part of the recipe for ice shelf break up
  • The Arctic has been warming at twice the global rate for the last 30 years, due to a process known as Arctic amplification
  • The ice shelf collapse on Ellesmere Island also meant the loss of the northern hemisphere’s last known epishelf lake, a geographic feature in which a body of freshwater is dammed by the ice shelf and floats atop ocean water

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/canada-s-last-fully-intact-arctic-ice-shelf-collapses/story-sIcnbxddqNCXcmbwJrmBFK.html

Consider the following statements regarding Comptroller and Auditor General

  • It is a constitutional body established under Article 148 of the Constitution of India
  • It is appointed by the President of India following a recommendation by the Prime Minister
  • It shall not be eligible for further office either under the Government of India or under the Government of any State after he has ceased to hold his office.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: GC Murmu breaks the glass ceiling, first tribal to take charge as CAG

  • Former Jammu and Kashmir lieutenant governor Girish Chandra Murmu took oath as the comptroller and auditor general.
  • Murmu will be responsible for auditing all expenditures of the state and central governments and will hold the post for six years or till he turns 65 whichever comes first.

About Comptroller and Auditor General

  • Comptroller and Auditor General is a constitutional body established under Article 148 of the Constitution of India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • CAG audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government.
  • CAG is appointed by the President of India following a recommendation by the Prime Minister. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • CAG can be removed by the President only in accordance with the procedure mentioned in the Constitution that is the manner same as removal of a Supreme Court Judge.
  • The administrative expenses of the office of the Comptroller and Auditor-General including all salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of persons serving in that office shall be charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India.
  • The CAG shall not be eligible for further office either under the Government of India or under the Government of any State after he has ceased to hold his office. Hence statement 3 is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/former-j-k-lieutenant-governor-gc-murmu-takes-oath-as-comptroller-and-auditor-general/story-bVlcpLFdgTbXF2aiyygYSP.html

Consider the following statements regarding Consumer Confidence Index (CCI)

  • It is conducted by the Reserve Bank of India
  • It measures consumer perception on five economic variables of economic situation, employment, the price level, income and spending.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Consumers optimistic about the future as economy reboots, shows RBI survey

  • Consumer Confidence Index (CCI) for the current fiscal year came in at a measly 53.8 points in a Reserve Bank of India (RBI) survey, but jumped to 105.4 points for a year ahead.
  • Consumer Confidence Index (CCI) for the current fiscal year came in at a measly 53.8 points in a Reserve Bank of India (RBI) survey, but jumped to 105.4 points for a year ahead. The survey was based on responses from 5,342 households across 13 major cities.
  • The central bank said while consumer confidence plunged in July this year, with the current situation index (CSI) recording its all-time low of 53.8, it returned to positive territory for the year ahead, indicating signs of recovery.

About Consumer Confidence Index (CCI)

  • The Consumer Confidence survey is conducted by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in major cities of India over 5,000 respondents. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The survey measures consumer perception (current and future) on five economic variables – economic situation, employment, the price level, income and spending. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Consumer Confidence survey has two main indices – current situation index and future expectations index.
  • The current situation index measures the change in consumer perception over an economic issue in the last one year while the future expectations index measures what consumer thinks about the same variables, one year ahead.
  • A consumer confidence Index above 100 gives optimistic perception of the consumers.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/business-news/consumers-optimistic-about-the-future-as-economy-reboots-shows-rbi-survey/story-MOPx6RGhMFb4oMt9eBQe4H.html#:~:text=bank%20surveys%20found.-,Consumer%20Confidence%20Index%20(CCI)%20for%20the%20current%20fiscal%20year%20came,households%20across%2013%20major%20cities.

Consider the following statements regarding Indian leopard

  • It is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent
  • It is listed as an endangered on the IUCN Red List
  • In India, the leopard is found in all forest types

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Uttarakhand, Maharashtra had highest leopard poaching in India: TRAFFIC

  • Recently, TRAFFIC India conducted a study on the seizure and mortality of ‘common leopards’ (Panthera pardus fusca).
  • It revealed that of the total of 747 leopard deaths between 2015-2019 in India, 596 were linked to illegal wildlife trade and activities related to poaching.
  • The paper titled ‘‘SPOTTED’ in Illegal Wildlife Trade: A Peek into Ongoing Poaching and Illegal Trade of Leopards in India’ also revealed that the highest numbers of poaching incidents were reported from the States of Uttarakhand and Maharashtra.

About Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca)

  • The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The species Panthera pardus is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because populations have declined following habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching for the illegal trade of skins and body parts, and persecution due to conflict situations. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • It is distributed in India, Nepal, Bhutan and parts of Pakistan.
  • The Indian leopard is one of the big cats occurring on the Indian subcontinent, apart from the Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, snow leopard and clouded leopard.
  • In India, the leopard is found in all forest types, from tropical rainforests to temperate deciduous and alpine coniferous forests. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • It is also found in dry scrubs and grasslands, the only exception being desert and the mangroves of Sundarbans.
  • Threats: habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching for the illegal trade of skins and body parts, and persecution due to conflict situations.
  • A nocturnal animal, the leopard hunts by night.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/uttarakhand-maharashtra-had-highest-leopard-poaching-in-india-traffic-study/article32297736.ece

Korvai is an ancient technique of weaving and practiced in which of the following Indian state?

  • Kerala
  • Tamilnadu
  • Anadaman and Nicobar Island
  • Bihar

Answer: (b) Tamilnadu

Explanation:

In NEWS: The story of revival of korvai silk saris

  • These eighth generation Thanjavur-based weavers have been actively involved in revival and rejuvenation of korvai silk saris since 2009
  • The brothers belong to the eighth generation of heritage silk weaving Sourastrian community, and the loom was founded in 1885 in Thanjavur by their ancestors
  • An ancient weaving technique, korvai is labour-intensive and requires two weavers to handle the shuttles at the loom.
  • Korvai is an heritage weaving technique. The body of the sari is in a different colour contrasting with the border which is in one solid colour where the weft of the body colour does not interlock with the warp threads of the border making it a double shade.
  • In this technique the body of the sari is woven separately and the border separately on the same loom and the two interlocked by skilful weaving.
  • Korvai KanjivaramKorvai is an ancient and complex technique of weaving, practiced in Kanchipuram. Hence option (b) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/society/history-and-culture/the-korvai-weaving-revival-by-young-weavers-of-thanjavur/article32284829.ece

Consider the following statements

  • Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite.
  • The parasite density in P. vivax malaria is typically an order of magnitude lower than P. falciparum
  • Plasmodium vivax is a protozoal infection spread via the Anopheles mosquito.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Studying P. vivax malaria

  • The parasite Plasmodium vi- vax, responsible for 7.5 mil­ lion malaria cases world­ wide, remains understudied. Not much is known about its dormant stage in the liver.
  • An international team has developed a system to breed these para­ sites in the lab and then infect cultured human liver cells with it. This can help establish a robust liver stage assay in vivax-endemic re­gions such as India.
  • Mosquitoes inject the spo­rozoite (spore­like) stage of the parasite into the skin when they bite, and the spo­rozoites travel to the liver.
  • The parasite can remain in the liver in a dormant stage and relapse later. So there is an urgent need to find drugs for P. vivax which will kill both the blood and liver stages

About Plasmodium vivax

  • Plasmodium vivax is a protozoal parasite and a human pathogen. This parasite is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of recurring malaria. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The parasite density in P. vivax malaria is typically an order of magnitude lower than P. falciparum. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The plasmodium parasite is spread by female Anopheles mosquitoes, which are known as “night-biting” mosquitoes because they most commonly bite between dusk and dawn. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Plasmodium vivax – mainly found in Asia and South America, this parasite causes milder symptoms than Plasmodium falciparum, but it can stay in the liver for up to 3 years, which can result in relapses

Source: TH

Consider the following statements regarding Sun’s corona

  • It is the outermost part of the Sun’s atmosphere
  • It can be viewed during a total solar eclipse.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Sun’s coronal magnetic field measured

  • The Sun is our closest star and we have been studying it for a long time
  • The group has measured the global magnetic field of the sun’s corona, or outer atmosph­ ere, for the very first time.
  • There are two main puzzles about the Sun which this ad­vancement will help ad­ dress. First is the coronal heating problem. Though the core of the Sun is at a temperature of about 15 mil­ lion degrees, its outer layer, the photosphere is a mere 5700 degrees hot.
  • However, its corona or outer atmosphere, which stretches up to several mil­ lion kilometres beyond its surface, is much, much hot­ter than the surface. It is at a temperature of one million degrees or more. What caus­es the atmosphere of the Sun (corona) to heat up again, though the surface (photosphere) is cooler than the interior

About sun corona

  • The corona is the outermost part of the Sun’s atmosphere. It is the aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Sun’s corona extends millions of kilometres into outer space and is most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but it is also observable with a coronagraph. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Spectroscopy measurements indicate strong ionization in the corona and a plasma temperature in excess of 1000000 Kelvin much hotter than the surface of the Sun.
  • The glowing white corona can then be seen surrounding the eclipsed Sun.
  • The corona reaches extremely high temperatures. However, the corona is very dim. The corona is about 10 million times less dense than the Sun’s surface.
  • This low density makes the corona much less bright than the surface of the Sun.
  • The corona extends far out into space. From it comes the solar wind that travels through our solar system.

Source: TH

Consider the following statements regarding Eravikulam National Park

  • It is a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
  • It has special Neelakurinji flowers that bloom once every 12 years
  • It is located in the Kannan Devan Hills of the Southern Western Ghats

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Idukki landslip: 8 more bodies found

  • Landslides have been reported at the Nayamakkad tea estate at Pettimudy which is located about 30 km from Munnar, adjacent to the Eravikulam National Park (ENP), Kerala.

About Eravikulam National Park (ENP)

  • It is located in the High Ranges (Kannan Devan Hills) of the Southern Western Ghats in Devikulam Taluk of Idukki District, Kerala. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • It also has South India’s highest peak, Anamudi (2695 m). It is a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It has special Neelakurinji flowers that bloom once every 12 years. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Rajamalai region of the park is open to the public and from here; the exotic Nilgiri Tahr can be viewed. The Rajamalai region falls under the tourism zone of the area.
  • Three major types of plant communities are found in the Park i.e grasslands, shrublands and forests. The terrain above 2000m is covered primarily by grasslands.
  • It was declared as Eravikulam-Rajamala Wildlife Sanctuary in 1975 and was elevated to the status of a National Park in 1978.
  • It is regionally important as a catchment area for both east (tributaries of River Pambar) and west (tributaries of River Periyar and Chalakkudy) flowing rivers.

Source: TH

Consider the following statements regarding Arabian sea humpback whale

  • They are the only non-migratory population of humpback whales in the world.
  • They are listed under the endangered category in the IUCN Red List.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Development not at cost of ecology, says CM at first wildlife board meet

  • The CM approved three key projects in the state including the declaration of the 2,011 square kilometre (sqkm) Angria Bank as a protected area, appointing Sonneratia alba as state mangrove tree, and a recovery programme for Arabian Sea humpback whale.
  • Maharashtra became the first state in the country to declare a state mangrove tree. Sonneratia alba is one of the important evergreen mangrove tree species in the coastal districts of Maharashtra, known as white chippi in local parlance as it bears beautiful white flowers.
  • Angria Bank, a submerged plateau 120km off Malvan coast, if approved by the Centre, will be the first such marine protected zone in India. SBWL approved the recommendation to the Central government to notify Angria Bank as a designated area.

About Arabian humpback whales

  • Arabian humpback whales, inhabiting the Arabian Sea, are a small sub population of humpback whales, which are most genetically distinct humpback whales and are considered to be the most isolated whale population on Earth.
  • Arabian Sea humpback whales are the only non-migratory population of humpback whales in the world. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a species found in all of major oceans. This species migrates from the Oman coast through the Arabian sea, along the Indian coasts till the Sri Lankan coast.
  • Ship strikes, unforgiving fishing gear and siesmic exploarations pose grave threat to it.
  • The whale, currently classified as “Endangered” on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List of threatened Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/mumbai-news/development-not-at-cost-of-ecology-says-cm-at-first-wildlife-board-meet/story-KVcE0M18e42FMyAIikDFNK.html

He wrote biographies of Mazzini, Garibaldi, Shivaji and Shrikrishna; stayed in America for some time; and was also elected to the Central Assembly. He was

  • Aurobindo Ghosh
  • Bipin Chandra Pal
  • Lala Lajpat Rai
  • Motilal Nehru

Answer: (c) Lala Lajpat Rai

Explanation:

  • Lala Lajpat Rai was gifted with a perceptive mind, he was a prolific writer and authored several works like – “Unhappy India”, “Young India: An Interpretation”, “History of Arya Samaj”, “England’s Debt to India” and a series of popular biographies His biographies of Mazzini, Garibaldi and. Shivaji were published in 1896 and those of Dayanand and. Shri Krishna in 1898. Hence option (c) is correct