1. Consider the following statements:

1) Revised Estimates (RE) are mid-year review of estimates of projected amounts of receipts and expenditure until the end of the financial year.

2) Revised Estimates are voted by the Parliament.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only


In NEWS: Govt’s likely belt tightening leaves experts worried

●    Lower RE, truncated allocation may leave growth under-fuelled, they fear

●    Preparation for the Budget by the Finance Ministry is set in motion with issuance of the Budget circular.

●    The Budget Division of Economic Affairs Department issues this circular between the third and fourth week of September or by the first week of October.

●    The circular sets the timeline for submission of estimate, pre-Budget consultations with Ministries and other stakeholders and finalisation of revised estimate for the current fiscal and budget estimate for the next fiscal, besides

●    In order to contain the rising fiscal deficit it is likely that central ministries/departments may set lower revised estimates for the current fiscal (2021-22) along with a lower allocation for the next fiscal (2022-23).

About Revised Estimates

●    Revised Estimates are mid-year review of possible expenditure, taking into account the rest of expenditure, New Services and New instrument of Services etc. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    Revised Estimates are not voted by the Parliament, and hence by itself do not provide any authority for expenditure. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

●    Any additional projections made in the Revised Estimates need to be authorized for expenditure through the Parliament’s approval or by Re-appropriation order.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/govts-likely-belt-tighteningleaves-experts-worried/article36326367.ece

2. Consider the following statements:

1) The Bunker Convention ensures adequate, prompt and effective compensation for damage caused by oil spills.

2) In 2015, India ratified this Bunker Convention.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: Explained: What we know so far about the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico

●    Divers searching for the origin of a substantial oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico — one of several spotted off Louisiana’s coast after Hurricane Ida — have discovered three damaged pipelines near the leak, although murky conditions on the seafloor prevented the team from finding the source.

●    The Gulf of Mexico is covered with a tangle of pipes, wells and other energy infrastructure, much of it no longer used, as a result of generations of oil extraction there.

International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001 (Bunker Convention)

●        The Convention was adopted to ensure that adequate, prompt, and effective compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by spills of oil, when carried as fuel in ships’ bunkers. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        The Convention applies to damage caused on the territory, including the territorial sea, and in exclusive economic zones of States Parties.

●        The bunkers convention provides a free-standing instrument covering pollution damage only.

●        In 2015 India ratified the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001 (Bunker Convention). Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        Convention ensures adequate, prompt and effective compensation for damage caused by oil spills.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/oil-spill-in-the-gulf-of-mexico-what-we-know-7493584/

3. With respect to National Sports Development Fund, Consider the following statements:

1) It was established under the Charitable Endowments Act, 1890.

2) The Fund is managed by the Prime minister of India.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only


In NEWS: CIL to Contribute Rs. 75 crores to National Sports Development Fund (NSDF)

●    Under the MoU, CIL, under its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program will contribute Rs. 75 crores towards the National Sports Development Fund (NSDF). CIL’s contribution will be used for construction of three large hostels meant for sports persons.

●    The initiative is seen as a significant step towards reaping the sports atmosphere created through recent success in Olympics & Paralympics where India finished with the best ever medal tally.

National Sports Development Fund:

●    It was established in 1998 under the Charitable Endowments Act, 1890. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    Purpose of its creation was to impart momentum and flexibility in assisting the cause of sports.

●    The Fund helps sportspersons excel by providing them opportunities to train under coaches of international repute with technical, scientific and psychological support and giving them exposure to international competitions.

●    It also provides financial assistance for the development of infrastructure and other activities for the promotion of sports.

The Fund is managed by a Council constituted by the Central Government.

●    Chairperson: Union Minister in charge of Youth Affairs and Sports. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

●    Members: Senior Officers of the Department of Sports, Chairman & Managing Directors of Private and Public Sector Companies/Corporations, representatives of Sports Promotion Boards, etc.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1752894

4. SIMBEX is a maritime bilateral exercise between India and which one of the following countries?

a)  Saudi Arabia

b) Seychelles

c)  Singapore

d) Malaysia

Answer: (c) Singapore


In NEWS: India, Singapore conduct 3-day naval exercise

●    India and Singapore have carried out a mega naval wargame in the southern fringes of the South China Sea over the last three days, in reflection of their growing congruence of interests in the strategically key region

●    The 28th edition of the Singapore-India Maritime Bilateral Exercise (SIMBEX) took place from September 02 to 04, 2021. Hence option (c) is correct.

●    The SIMBEX-2021 annual bilateral maritime exercise was hosted by the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) in the southern fringes of the South China Sea.

●    The Indian Navy was represented by Guided Missile Destroyer INS Ranvijay with a shipborne helicopter, ASW Corvette INS Kiltan and Guided Missile Corvette INS Kora and one P8I Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft.

●    The exercise aimed to strengthen the bilateral defence ties between both countries. This year’s edition of SIMBEX is also a special occasion as it takes place during the ongoing celebrations of the 75th year of India’s independence.

●    The success of SIMBEX-2021 is yet another demonstration of the mutual resolve on both sides to strengthen the bilateral partnership further in the years ahead.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-singapore-conduct-3-day-naval-exercise/article36292876.ece

5. Consider the following statements regarding Unified Payments Interface:

1) It was developed by National Payment Corporation of India under the guidelines of RBI.

2) It is based on the Immediate Payment Service platform.

3) There is no transaction limit in UPI platforms.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only


In NEWS: Third-party apps turn on UPI autopay mode

●    The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) UPI Autopay service, which was launched last year, is gaining traction after a slow start with top merchants such as Netflix and Hotstar signing up. Unified Payments Interface (UPI) apps PhonePe and Google Pay are also in various stages of rollout and testing.

●    The build-up in transaction momentum comes ahead of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) rules for card-based transactions through standing instructions that take effect next month.

●    Autopay allows users to make recurring transactions below Rs 5,000 through UPI apps. Most of these currently take place through card-based mandates that are more sophisticated, and settlements more expensive. Autopay’s likely uses include loan repayments, rent payments, educational fees and subscriptions

About Unified Payments Interface (UPI):

●        Launched in 2016, as a payment system that allows money transfer between any two bank accounts by using a smartphone.

●        UPI is standardized across banks – it will help you to pay directly from your bank account to different merchants without the hassle of typing your net-banking password, credit card details or IFSC code.

●        UPI can be used as a digital payment option along with cards, net-banking and wallets.

●        It allows both payment and receipt of money.

●        UPI was developed by National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI) under the guidelines of RBI. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        It is based on the Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) platform. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        Transactions limit through UPI –1 lakh / transactionHence statement (3) is incorrect.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/technology/third-party-apps-turn-on-upi-autopay-mode/articleshow/85995539.cms

6. Consider the following statements regarding the Contempt of Courts Act 1971:

1) It confers upon certain courts power to punish individuals for contempt of themselves as also of subordinate courts.

2) It states that a person shall be guilty of contempt of court for publishing any comment on the merits of any case which has been heard and finally decided.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only


In NEWS: Supreme Court to hear contempt proceedings against advocate Prashant Bhushan and Twitter India

●    The court of chief judicial magistrate (CJM), Mohali, Pamalpreet Grewal Kahal, on Monday issued a show-cause notice to former Punjab director general of police (DGP) Sumedh Singh Saini and his counsels, asking why contempt proceedings shouldn’t be taken up against them for misleading the court in the WWICS land fraud case.

●    The criminal contempt of this court committed by Sumedh Singh Saini and anyone else be taken into account and in pursuance thereof, reference be made to the Punjab and Haryana high court for taking up proceedings against the said persons for punishing them under the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, in the interest of justice

Contempt of Courts Act 1971:

●    Contempt refers to the offence of showing disrespect to the dignity or authority of a court.

●    The Act divides contempt into civil and criminal contempt.

●    Civil contempt refers to the wilful disobedience of an order of any court.

●    Criminal contempt includes any act or publication which: (i) ‘scandalises’ the court, or (ii) prejudices any judicial proceeding, or (iii) interferes with the administration of justice in any other manner. ‘Scandalising the Court’ broadly refers to statements or publications which have the effect of undermining public confidence in the judiciary.

●    The Act confers upon certain courts power to punish individuals for contempt of themselves as also of subordinate courts. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    A person shall not be guilty of contempt of court for publishing any fair comment on the merits of any case which has been heard and finally decidedHence statement (2) is incorrect.

●    A contempt of court may be punished with: Simple imprisonment which may extend to six months or Fine which may extend to two thousand rupees or With both.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/chandigarh-news/mohali-cjm-issues-show-case-notice-to-sumedh-saini-for-misguiding-court-101630948065809-amp.html

7. Consider the following statements:

1) The El Nino period is characterised by warming or increased sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

2) The La Nina event causes the water in the eastern Pacific Ocean to be colder than usual.

3) These both events are together called the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3


IN news: Supercomputer simulates what will happen to El Niño, La Niña in a warmer world… results are worrying

There is a growing body of research suggesting that climate change can cause extreme and more frequent El Niño and La Niña events.

A study was conducted recently on this using one of South Korea’s fastest supercomputers.

El Niño and La Niña, the two natural climate phenomena occurring across the tropical Pacific Ocean, influence the weather conditions all over the world. While the El Niño period is characterised by warming or increased sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, a La Niña event causes the water in the eastern Pacific Ocean to be colder than usual. Together, they are called ENSO or El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Hence all the statements are correct.

Findings of the latest study:

  1. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide can cause a “weakening of future simulated ENSO sea surface temperature variability.”
  2. Future El Niño events will lose heat to the atmosphere more quickly due to the evaporation of water vapour.
  3. In the future there will be a reduced temperature difference between the eastern and western tropical Pacific, inhibiting the development of temperature extremes during the ENSO cycle.
  4. Also, there can be a weakening of tropical instability waves in the projected future, which can cause a disruption of the La Niña event.

What are the Niño and La Niña?

●    They are two natural climate phenomena occurring across the tropical Pacific Ocean and influence the weather conditions all over the world.

●    While the El Niño period is characterised by warming or increased sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, a La Niña event causes the water in the eastern Pacific Ocean to be colder than usual.

●    Together, they are called ENSO or El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

What causes El Nino?

●    El Nino sets in when there is an anomaly in the pattern.

●    The westward-blowing trade winds weaken along the Equator and due to changes in air pressure, the surface water moves eastwards to the coast of northern South America.

●    The central and eastern Pacific regions warm up for over six months and result in an El Nino condition.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-supercomputer-simulates-what-will-happen-to-el-nino-la-nina-in-a-warmer-world-results-are-worrying-7489557/

8. The recently launched initiatives during the celebration of Shiksha Parv includes which of the following?

1) Indian Sign language dictionary

2) Talking books

3) School Quality Assessment and Accreditation Framework

4) Samagra Shiksha Scheme 2.0

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)                     1 and 2 only

(b)                    1, 2 and 3 only

(c)                     2, 3 and 4 only

(d)                    1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer:(b) 1, 2 and 3 only


In News: Shikshak Parv 2021: PM Modi launches five new initiatives for accessible education

The Prime Minister launched multiple key initiatives in the education sector on the occasion.

Five Initiatives Launched:

1.  Indian Sign Language Dictionary:

●    It was launched for the Children and persons with hearing impairments. It has 10,000 words in it.

2.  Talking Books:

●    These are audiobooks for the visually impaired.

3.  School Quality Assessment and Accreditation Framework (SQAA):

●    SQAA is a quality initiative proposed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) to provide global parameters of attainment as standards in schools affiliated to it.

●    It would address the deficiency of the absence of a common scientific framework for dimensions like curricula, pedagogy, assessment, infrastructure, inclusive practices and governance process.

4.  NISHTHA Teachers’ Training programme for NIPUN Bharat:

●    National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement (NISHTHA) is a capacity building programme for improving the quality of school education through integrated teacher training.

●    NIPUN (National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy) Bharat Scheme was launched to create an enabling environment to ensure universal acquisition of foundational literacy and numeracy, so that every child achieves the desired learning competencies in reading, writing and numeracy by the end of Grade 3, by 2026-27.

5.  Vidyanjali 2.0 Portal:

●    For facilitating education volunteers, donors and CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) contributors for school development.

●    Vidyanjali Scheme is one of the innovative schemes that focus towards the improvement of literacy by offering volunteer teachers in government schools. It was launched in 2017.

Other Related Recent Initiatives:

●    The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has approved the school education programme Samagra Shiksha Scheme 2.0 till the 2025-26 financial year. Hence option (b) is correct.

●    Earlier, to mark the first anniversary of National Education Policy 2020, the Prime Minister launched the Academic Bank of Credit that will provide multiple entry and exit options for students in Higher education; 1st Year Engineering Programmes in Regional Languages and Guidelines for Internationalization of Higher Education.

●    The initiatives launched also included Vidya Pravesh, a three month play based school preparation module for Grade 1 students; Indian Sign Language as a Subject at secondary level; NISHTHA 2.0, an integrated programme of teacher training designed by NCERT; and SAFAL (Structured Assessment For Analyzing Learning Levels), a competency based assessment framework for Grades 3, 5 and 8 in CBSE schools.

●    The event also witnessed the launch of National Digital Education Architecture (NDEAR) and National Education Technology Forum (NETF).

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/education/shikshak-parv-2021-pm-modi-launches-five-new-initiatives-for-accessible-education-7493678/

9. Which one of the following governments has already made the provision “ Right to sit” as a legal right for the employees?

(a)                     Tripura

(b)                    Karnataka

(c)                     West Bengal

(d)                    Kerala

Answer: (d) Kerala


In news: ‘Right to sit’: Tamil Nadu tables Bill mandating establishments to provide seating for employees

In a move that would benefit thousands of employees of large and small establishments, particularly those working in textile and jewellery showrooms, the Tamil Nadu government on Monday tabled a Bill in the Legislative Assembly making it mandatory for establishments to provide seating facilities for employees.

The Bill introduced by Labour Welfare Minister and Skill Development C.V. Ganesan sought to amend the Tamil Nadu Shops and Establishments Act, 1947 by adding a subsection to mandatorily provide seating facilities for the staff.

The proposed Section 22-A to the Act reads: “The premises of every establishment shall have suitable seating arrangements for all employees so that they may take advantage of any opportunity to sit which may occur in the course of their work and thereby avoid ‘on their toes’ situation throughout the working hours.”

The Bill said that persons employed in shops and establishments in the State “are made to stand throughout their duty time” resulting in varied health issues.

“Considering the plight of the employees who are on their toes throughout their duty time, it is felt necessary to provide seating facilities to all the employees of the shops and establishments,” it said.

The subject of providing seating facility to the employees was placed in the State Labour Advisory Board Meeting held on September 4, 2019 and was unanimously approved by the members of the Board.

A few years ago, workers of textile showrooms in Kerala had gone on a protest demanding the ‘Right to Sit’, prompting the government there to amend the Kerala Shops and Establishments Act in 2018 to provide seating arrangements for them. Hence option (d) is correct.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/tn-tables-bill-mandating-establishments-to-provide-seating-for-employees/article36317057.ece

10. Which of the following are the reasons for the occurrence of multi-drug resistance in microbial pathogens in India?

1) Genetic predisposition of some people

2) Taking incorrect doses of antibiotics to cure diseases

3) Using antibiotics in livestock farming

4) Multiple chronic diseases in some people

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)                     1 and 2

(b)                    2 and 3 only

(c)                     1, 3 and 4

(d)                    2, 3 and 4

Answer: (d) 2, 3 and 4


●    Antimicrobial resistance occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes. However, the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials is accelerating this process.

●    In many places, antibiotics are overused and misused in people and animals, and often given without professional oversight. Examples of misuse include when they are taken by people with viral infections like colds and flu, and when they are given as growth promoters in animals or used to prevent diseases in healthy animals. Hence option (d) is correct.