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Daily Prelims Test – 08_July

1.The ’90-90-90 targets initiative’ is associated with which of the following diseases/disorders?

Non-communicable Diseases

Swine Flu

Malaria

HIV/AIDS

Answer: (d) HIV/AIDS

Explanation:

In NEWS: Coronavirus pandemic hit HIV treatment: UN report

  • Around 1.7 million people were infected by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in 2019 alone, said the Unaids report, adding that the progress in prevention, diagnosis and treatment was being impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • At the end of 2019, there were 38 million people living with HIV, which causes AIDS, across the world. Of them, 7.1 million did not know that they were infected, the report said.
  • In 2019, 690,000 people died of AIDS-related illnesses, and 12.6 million people with HIV were not on life-saving antiretroviral therapy used to treat HIV/AIDS.
  • In 2019, 690,000 people died of AIDS-related illnesses, and 12.6 million people with HIV were not on life-saving antiretroviral therapy used to treat HIV/AIDS.
  • This is the first time UNAIDS has admitted to a collective failure of countries and multinational agencies in failing to meet the 2020 targets

About 90-90-90 Target:

  • The targets propose that to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. Hence option (d) is correct
  • WHO predicts that Sweden will be first country to achieve this target.
  • To achieve this target, the UN has called the countries to take measures in their own countries.
  • The term 90-90-90 refers to a target set by UNAIDS programme. This target is:
  • By 2020, 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status.
  • By 2020, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy.
  • By 2020, 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pandemic-hit-hiv-treatment-un-report/story-gSubzpF4qniQ0MdNONiocN.html

2.Consider the following statements regarding United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

It is leading the global effort to end AIDS as a public health threat by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goals.

It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Coronavirus pandemic hit HIV treatment: UN report

  • In India, there were 2.14 million people living with HIV at the end of 2017 (the last year for which data was released) with new infections rising in Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Uttarakhand, and declining in Nagaland, Manipur, Delhi and Chhattisgarh. Just eight states accounted for two-thirds of the 87,580 annual new HIV infections in India.
  • Among high-risk groups in India, HIV incidence was the highest among injecting drug users compared to other high-risk groups such as female sex workers, and gay, lesbian, bisexual and tans people.
  • Southern Africa have greatly curbed new infections, but they’re rising in Latin America, Middle East, Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

About United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

  • UNAIDS is leading the global effort to end AIDS as a public health threat by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
  • Established in 1994, it started its operations in 1996.
  • The mission of UNAIDS is to lead, strengthen and support an expanded response to HIV and AIDS that includes preventing transmission of HIV, providing care and support to those already living with the virus, reducing the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV and alleviating the impact of the epidemic.
  • UNAIDS seeks to prevent the HIV/AIDS epidemic from becoming a severe pandemic.
  • UNAIDS is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, where it shares some site facilities with the World Health Organization. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
  • The agency promotes the GIPA principle (greater involvement of people living with HIV) formulated in 1994, and endorsed by the United Nations in 2001 and 2006.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pandemic-hit-hiv-treatment-un-report/story-gSubzpF4qniQ0MdNONiocN.html

3.Consider the following statements regarding Bubonic plague

It is a rare and serious bacterial infection transmitted by fleas from rodents.

It is not a zoonotic disease

There is no vaccine available for this disease

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1 only

Answer: (d) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Chinese city issues alert for bubonic plague: What you need to know about the infection

A Chinese city in the country’s Inner Mongolia region on Saturday reported its first suspected case of bubonic plague or ‘Black Death’.

About bubonic plague

  • The bubonic plague first appeared in the 14th century in Central Asia and claimed millions of lives as it spread through the countries. Bubonic plague is also known as ‘Black Death’
  • It is a rare but serious bacterial infection transmitted by fleas from rodentsHence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a zoonotic disease and itcan be transmitted to other animals or humans. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • It may also result from exposure to the body fluids from a dead plague-infected animal.
  • It is one of the three plagues caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis. The other two being Septicaemic plague and Pneumonic plague.
  • It is characterised by symptoms such as headache, chills, fever, malaise and pain generally around the affected areas on the body. The first symptoms may appear 2 to 6 days after a person contacts the plague.
  • According to the WHO, a vaccine for the bubonic plague is availablefor individuals with high exposure to the plague. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

Source: https://www.indiatoday.in/world/story/chinese-city-issues-alert-for-bubonic-plague-what-you-need-to-know-about-the-infection-1697532-2020-07-06

4.Consider the following statements regarding the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016

The types of disabilities have been increased from existing 7 to 21

It includes Speech and Language Disability, Specific Learning Disability, Acid Attack Victims and Dwarfism

The bill claimed that every child with benchmark disability between the age group of 6 and 18 years shall have the right to free education

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Govt looks to ‘amend’ parts of Disabilities Act, community protests

  • The Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment’s notification proposing amendment of the Right of Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act, 2016, to de-criminalise “minor offences for improving business sentiment and unclogging court processes’’ has met with protests from the community of disabled persons, activists and organisations.
  • One of the sections under review of the Act has a provision for imprisonment for ‘intentionally insulting or intimidating a person with disability with intent to humiliate in public view’. Under the new proposal, this provision is to be taken out.

About Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016

  • It replaced the 1995 Act.
  • It brought the Indian law in line with the United National Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), to which India is a signatory.
  • The types of disabilities have been increased from existing 7 to 21 and the Central Government will have the power to add more types of disabilities. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It includes Speech and Language Disability, Specific Learning Disability, Acid Attack Victims, Dwarfism, muscular dystrophy. It also included threeblood disorders: Thalassemia, Hemophilia and Sickle Cell disease have been added for the first time. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Every child with benchmark disability between the age group of 6 and 18 years shall have the right to free education. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • The Bill provides for penalties for offences(imprisonment of 6 months to 2 years along with fine of 10000 to 5 lakh) committed against persons with disabilities and also violation of the provisions of the new law.
  • It seeks reservation in vacancies in government establishments has been increased from 3% to 4% for certain persons or class of persons with benchmark disability

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/govt-looks-to-amend-parts-of-disabilities-act-community-protests-6490577/

5.Sustainable Space Heating Solutions in the Himalayan Region is released by which of the following?

UN Environment and NITI Aayog

Food and Agriculture Organization and Forest Survey of India

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Central Pollution Control Board

WWF India and The Energy and Resources Institute

Answer: (d) WWF India and The Energy and Resources Institute

Explanation:

In NEWS: Sustainable heating can cut CO2 by 30% in Himalayan region

  • The use of sustainable heating systems can reduce carbon emissions in the Indian Himalayan region by 30 per cent in the next 10 years, a new study has said while noting that burning of wood by local population to fight cold conditions is adversely affecting the region.
  • The study conducted by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and TERI has found that the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions for the year2020 stands at 15.9 million tons for the entire Himalayan region. Hence option (d) is correct
  • It suggests that sustainable heating systems like rocket stoves and LPG/PNG based technologies have potential of reducing emissions in space heating.
  • The report said use of efficient sustainable heating systems can bring down CO2 emissions by 30 per cent in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) from the projected 17.8 million tons (MT) in 2030.
  • According to the report, 71.4 per cent of the CO2 is emitted by the northern states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It said the limited financial capacities of households and lack of awareness are the primary barriers to a slower than required transition from traditional fuel wood-based heating to more efficient and clean energy-based sustainable space heating technologies despite their availability.
  • The report said MSMEs, innovators and start-ups can play a key role in developing and mainstreaming sustainable technologies

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/nagpur/sustainable-heating-can-cut-co2-by-30-in-himalayan-region/articleshow/76738397.cms

6.often seen in news the term ‘Ex-pat quota bill’ is associated with which of the following countries?

Iran

Oman

Kuwait

Abu Dhabi

Answer: (c) Kuwait

Explanation:

In NEWS: Over 8 lakh Indians may be forced to leave Kuwait as country approves Expat quota bill

  • The legal and legislative committee of Kuwait`s national assembly has approved the draft ex-pat quota bill which could result in 8 lakh Indians leaving the country. Hence option (c) is correct
  • The National Assembly`s legal and legislative committee has determined that the draft ex-pat quota bill is constitutional, Gulf News reported citing local media reports.
  • The Bill, according to which Indians should not exceed 15 percent of the population, is to be transferred to the respective committee so that a comprehensive plan is created.
  • The outlet reported that `this could result in 800,000 Indians leaving Kuwait, as the Indian community constitutes the largest ex-pat community in Kuwait, totaling 1.45 million`.
  • Of the 4.3 million population of Kuwait, ex-pats account for 3 million. The anti-expat rhetoric has spiked since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic with lawmakers and government officials call for reducing the number of foreigners in Kuwait.
  • According to the latest data from Johns Hopkins University, more than 49,000 cases of coronavirus have been reported in the country.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/eight-lakh-indians-may-be-forced-to-leave-kuwait-as-the-country-approves-expat-quota-bill/article32000615.ece

7.Which of the following statements with respect to ‘Golden birdwing ’?

It refers to colorful motifs done by hands

It is the india’s largest butterfly

It is an pathogen found in international space station

All the above given statements are incorrect

Answer: (b) It is the india’s largest butterfly

Explanation:

In NEWS: Himalayan butterfly is India’s largest after 88 years

  • Himalayan butterfly named golden birdwing is now India’s largest, a record the southern birdwing held for 88 years. Hence option (b) is correct
  • With a wingspan of 194 mm, the female of the species is marginally larger than the southern birdwing (190 mm) that Brigadier William Harry Evans, a British military officer, and lepidopterist, recorded in 1932. But the male golden birdwing (Troides Aeacus) is much smaller at 106 mm.
  • The new measurements of this and 24 other species of butterflies were published in the latest issue of Bionotes, a quarterly newsletter for research on life forms.
  • The hitherto largest Indian butterfly that Brigadier Evans recorded in 1932 was an individual of the southern birdwing (Troides minos), which was then treated as a subspecies of the common birdwing
  • The updated wingspan of three species — all from Uttarakhand — after the golden birdwing is the common windmill (Byasa polyeuctes) at 98 mm, the great windmill (Byasa dasarada) at 96 mm, and the common peacock (Papilio bianor) at 78 mm.
  • The smallest is the quaker (Neopithecops zalmora) with a wingspan of 18 mm and a forewing length of a mere 8 mm.
  • The largest female golden birdwing’s forewing length is 90 mm.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/himalayan-butterfly-is-indias-largest-after-88-years/article32012652.ece

8.Consider the following statements regarding Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act

It is a US federal law that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea, china and Russia.

It will directly affect India’s arms procurement S-400  air defence system from Russia.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: U.S. position on CAATSA unchanged despite China’s actions in neighbourhood

  • The U.S message to countries, including India, on sanctions for the purchase of Russian arms, has not changed. This message was reiterated in the context of India’s planned jet fighter deal with Russia at an estimated ₹18,148 crores.
  • The US has urged all his allies and partners to forgo transactions with Russia that risk triggering sanctions under the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA)
  • Last week, the Defence Acquisition Council approved the procurement of 21 MiG­29 fighter jets for the Indian Air Force (IAF), an upgrade for 59 of these Russian aircraft, and the acquisition of 12 Su­30 MKI aircraft. Defence Minister Rajnath Singh had discussed defense cooperation with Russia while on a visit to Moscow two weeks ago.
  • The U.S. President was given the authority in 2018 to waive CAATSA sanctions on a case by case basis for the fiscal year 2019. However, U.S. officials have repeatedly stated that India should not assume it will get a waiver. These remarks were made in the context of India’s planned purchase of the S­-400 Triumf missile defense system from Russia for about $5 billion. Hence statement 2 is correct

About CAATSA

  • The US Congress passed Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) in 2017. It was signed by current US President Donald Trump on 02 August 2017 with an aim to counter the aggressions by Russia, Iran and North KoreaHence statement 1 is incorrect
  • US President has delegated his powers through CAATSA to ban 39 Russian entities, dealings with which could make third parties liable to sanctions. Its major objective is to discourage exports of Russian defence equipment.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/us-position-on-caatsa-unchanged-despite-chinas-actions-in-neighbourhood/article32010144.ece

9.Consider the following statements regarding Border Roads Organisation

It works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence.

It is a statutory organization

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India keeps focus on building border infrastructure, Rajnath Singh chairs crucial meet to review projects

  • India’s push to improve the infrastructure in the border areas was the primary reason for clash between Indian and Chinese soldiers in Ladakh’s Galwan Valley on June 15. Beijing was opposed to a bridge in Ladakh that would consolidate India’s hold of the sensitive sector. The bridge was completed last month.
  • Defence minister Rajnath Singh held a meeting with Border Roads Organisation (BRO) chief Lt Gen Harpal Singh and other officials about the progress in ongoing infrastructure projects on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China and Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan

About Border Roads Organisation

  • The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) develops and maintains road networks in India’s border areas and friendly neighbouring countries. The Ministry of Defenceis the parent organisation of the body. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Currently, the organisation maintains operations in twenty-one states, one UT (Andaman and Nicobar Islands), and neighbouring countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.
  • The organisation is involved in the construction of border roads, road bridges and tunnels.
  • Border Roads Organization is not a statutory organization. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-keeps-focus-on-building-border-infrastructure-rajnath-singh-chairs-crucial-meet-to-review-projects/story-Ar1BNZOKmq1uf1frBD56hP.html

10.Which one of the following National Parks lies completely in the temperate alpine zone?

(a) Manas National Park

(b) Namdapha National Park

(c) Neora Valley National Park

(d) Valley of Flowers National Park

Answer: (d) Valley of Flowers National Park

Explanation:

  • The Valley of Flowers national park located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand and is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora.Situated approximately 3255m above sea level, this splendid park is spread across 87.5 sq km of land. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The valley has three sub-alpine between 3,200m and 3,500m which is the limit for trees, lower alpine between 3,500m and 3,700m, and higher alpine above 3,700m.
  • The rich diversity of species reflects the valley’s location within a transition zone between the Zanskar and Great Himalayas ranges to the north and south, respectively, and between the Eastern Himalaya and Western Himalaya flora.