1. With respect to Visva-Bharati, Consider the following statements:

1) It was founded by Rabindranath Tagore.

2) It is a central research university and an Institution of National Importance located in West Bengal.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: Explained: What is the fresh stand-off between Visva-Bharati University students and VC?

●        The Calcutta High Court, in an interim order on Friday, directed that there can be no protest by the students within 50 metres of academic buildings at Visva-Bharati University, and asked the police to ensure security to its Vice-Chancellor Bidyut Chakraborty.

●        The directive from the High Court came after Chakraborty filed a writ petition, seeking ‘normalisation of the situation’ inside the campus.


●        Visva-Bharati is a central research university and an Institution of National Importance located in Shantiniketan, West Bengal, India. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        It was founded by Rabindranath Tagore who called it Visva-Bharati, which means the communion of the world with IndiaHence statement (1) is correct.

●        In May 1951, it was declared a central university and ‘an Institution of National Importance’ by an Act of Parliament. The PM is the Chancellor of this university.

●        The origins of the institution date back to 1863 when Debendranath Tagore was given a tract of land by the zamindar of Raipur, zamindar of Kirnahar.

●        He set up an ashram at the spot that has now come to be called chatim tala at the heart of the town.

●        The ashram was initially called Brahmacharya Ashram, which was later renamed Brahmacharya Vidyalaya.

●        It was established with a view to encouraging people from all walks of life to come to the spot and meditate.

●        In 1901 his youngest son Rabindranath Tagore established a co-educational school inside the premises of the ashram.

●        From 1901 onwards, Tagore used the ashram to organize the Hindu Mela, which soon became a center of nationalist activity.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-fresh-stand-off-between-visva-bharati-university-students-and-vc-7487076/

2. Consider the following statement regarding Account Aggregators:

1) It is a non-banking financial company engaged in the business of providing, under a contract, the service of retrieving or collecting financial information pertaining to its customer.

2) The licence for AAs is issued by the SEBI.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: Account Aggregators: new framework to access, share financial data

Eight of India’s major banks — State Bank of India, ICICI Bank, Axis Bank, IDFC First Bank, Kotak Mahindra Bank, HDFC Bank, IndusInd Bank and Federal Bank — joined the Account Aggregator (AA) network that will enable customers to easily access and share their financial data.

What is an AA?

●        According to the Reserve Bank of India, an Account Aggregator is a non-banking financial company engaged in the business of providing, under a contract, the service of retrieving or collecting financial information pertaining to its customerHence statement (1) is correct.

●        It is also engaged in consolidating, organising and presenting such information to the customer or any other financial information user as may be specified by the bank.

●        The AA framework was created through an inter-regulatory decision by RBI and other regulators including Securities and Exchange Board of India, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority, and Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) through an initiative of the Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC).

●        The licence for AAs is issued by the RBI, and the financial sector will have many AAs. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        The AA framework allows customers to avail various financial services from a host of providers on a single portal based on a consent method, under which the consumers can choose what financial data to share and with which entity.

What does an AA do?

●        It reduces the need for individuals to wait in long bank queues, use Internet banking portals, share their passwords, or seek out physical notarisation to access and share their financial documents.

●        An Account Aggregator is a financial utility for secure flow of data controlled by the individual.

●        An AA is a financial utility for secure flow of data controlled by the individual.

●        AA is an exciting addition to India’s digital infrastructure as it will allow banks to access consented data flows and verified data.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/account-aggregators-new-framework-to-access-share-financial-data-7490966/

3. The Bhogdoi River is a tributary of the

a)  Brahmaputra River

b) Indus River

c)  Yamuna River

d) Narmada River

Answer: (a) Brahmaputra River


In NEWS: Coal mining, waste discharge, encroachment: River Bhogdoi has been dying a slow death

●        The rampant coal mining in Nagaland, coupled with waste discharge from tea estates and encroachment have been sounding death knells for River Bhogdoi in Assam. 

●        The river, one of the south bank tributaries of the mighty river Brahmaputra, originates from Mokokchung in Nagaland where it is also known as Tsujenyong nullah. 

●        The total catchment area of the inter-state river (flowing between Assam and Nagaland) is 1,545 square kilometres and travels 160 kilometres before joining Dhansiri river near its confluence with Brahmaputra.  

●        In 2019, the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change declared Bhogdoi as one of the most polluted rivers in Assam and 351st among the polluted rivers in the country. 

●        In June this year, dead fish were sighted in several areas along the banks. These deaths were linked to contamination. Locals in Jorhat city and neighbouring Mariani complained of water turning sticky and murky. 

Bhogdoi River:

●        The Bhogdoi River is a tributary of the Brahmaputra in India. Hence option (a) is correct.

●        From its origin in the Naga hills it flows through the City of Jorhat and then it merges with another river and its name becomes Gelabill.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/pollution/coal-mining-waste-discharge-encroachment-river-bhogdoi-has-been-dying-a-slow-death-78852

4. Consider the following statement regarding INS Dhruv:

1) It is the indigenously-developed surveillance ship built by Hindustan Shipyard Ltd.

2) Once the vessel is commissioned, India will be the only country outside the P-5 countries to have this capability.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: India’s 1st N-missile tracking ship Dhruv to be launched

●        National Security Advisor Ajit Doval is expected to commission India’s first satellite and ballistic missile tracking ship Dhruv from Visakhapatnam

●        Built by Hindustan Shipyard in collaboration with Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO), INS Dhruv has the capability to also map ocean beds for research and detection of enemy submarines. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        The nuclear missile tracking ship will be manned by Indian Navy personnel with the Strategic Forces Command (SFC). Such ships are operated by France, the US, the UK, Russia, and China only. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        The 10,000-tonne ship, which is part of a classified project, will be at the heart of India’s future anti-ballistic missile capability as it will act as an early warning system for enemy missiles headed towards Indian cities and military establishments.

●        The ship will be a vital key to maritime domain awareness in the Indo-Pacific and is being commissioned at the time when the era of underwater armed and surveillance drones has dawned.

●        INS Dhruv will act as a major force multiplier to India’s maritime security architecture as well as add to the capability to understand the true missile capability of the adversary when they test their ballistic missiles.

●        INS Dhruv is equipped with DRDO developed state of the art active scanned array radar or AESA with the ability to scan various spectrums to monitor spy satellites watching over India as well as monitor missile tests in the entire region.

●        This will add to the Indian Navy’s capability to monitor the region from the Gulf of Aden to the ingress routes to the South China Sea via Malacca, Sunda, Lombok, Ombai and Wetar straits.

●        INS Dhruv by mapping the Indian Ocean bed will also help the Indian Navy plan better military operations in all three dimensions—sub-surface, surface and aerial.

●        The Indian ship will help India’s electronic intelligence-gathering spy agency, the NTRO, to project threats to India in real-time.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-s-1st-n-missile-tracking-ship-dhruv-to-be-launched-on-sept-10-101630647404445.html

5. With respect to Biomethanation, consider the following statements:

1) It is a process by which organic material is microbiologically converted under anaerobic conditions to biogas.

2) Biogas has a higher calorific value than natural gas.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only


In NEWS: New high rate biomethanation technology for integrated treatment of sewage & organic solid waste useful for decentralized applications

●        A new high rate biomethanation technology for the integrated treatment of sewage and organic solid waste and concomitant generation of biogas and bio manure can treat groundwater and wastewater and convert it to potable water.

●        It can be used for sewage and organic solid waste treatment with decentralized applications in various parts of India.

●        Solid and liquid wastes are major challenges faced by big cities as also for the rapidly urbanizing areas, and sustainable technologies are needed for tackling them.

●        An integrated treatment of sewage along with organic solid waste in India could help evolve a sustainable technology to overcome the solid and liquid waste disposal issues.


●        It is a process by which organic material is microbiologically converted under anaerobic conditions to biogas. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        Three main physiological groups of microorganisms are involved: fermenting bacteria, organic acid oxidizing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea.

●        Biomethanation has strong potential for the production of energy from organic residues and wastes. It will help to reduce the use of fossil fuels and thus reduce CO(2) emission.

●        The energy content of the biogas is proportional to the CH4 content. Usually, the AD biogas contains between 40–75% CH4 and 25–60% CO2, besides other components in minor quantities such as H2, N2, NH3, H2S, H2O and others trace organic and inorganic components.

●        Because of the presence of CO2, the biogas has a lower calorific value than natural gas, and therefore cannot be directly injected into the natural gas gridHence statement (2) is incorrect.

Source: https://dst.gov.in/new-high-rate-biomethanation-technology-integrated-treatment-sewage-organic-solid-waste-useful

6. The MITRA Scheme is launched by which of the following ministries?

a)  Ministry of Law and Justice

b) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

c)  Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports

d) Ministry of Textiles

Answer: (d) Ministry of Textiles


In NEWS: FinMin panel likely to address ‘anomalies’ in RoDTEP rates: Piyush Goyal

●        The Finance Ministry is likely to set up a committee to review remission rates for exporters under the RoDTEP (Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products) scheme to address any “anomalies’’, Commerce Minister Piyush Goyal said

●        He also said the Mega Investment Textiles Parks (MITRA) scheme and the Production Linked Incentive scheme for the textiles sectors were at an advanced stage of approval.

MITRA Scheme:

●        MITRA aims to enable the textile industry to become globally competitive, attract large investments, and boost employment generation and exportsHence option (d) is correct.

●        It will create world-class infrastructure with plug and play facilities to enable create global champions in exports.

●        It will be launched in addition to the Production Linked Incentive Scheme (PLI).

●        It will give our domestic manufacturers a level-playing field in the international textiles market & pave the way for India to become a global champion of textiles exports across all segments”.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/economy/piyush-goyal-finmin-panel-likely-to-address-anomalies-in-rodtep-rates-7487991/

7. Consider the following statement regarding Nipah Virus:

1) It is not considered a zoonotic virus.

2) It first broke out in Malaysia and Singapore.

3) The disease spreads through fruit bats who are natural reservoir hosts of the Nipah virus.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 only

c)  1 and 2 only

d) 2 and 3 only

Answer: (d) 2 and 3 only


In NEWS: Nipah virus: Centre suggests measures to Kerala, more contacts of boy identified

●        The ministry directed the state officials to strengthen hospital-based and community-based surveillance.

●        At least 11 of those have been admitted to hospital with symptoms, according to state health minister Veena George. The conditions of all the 11 people are stable

Nipah Virus:

●        It is a zoonotic virus. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.

●        The organism which causes Nipah Virus encephalitis is an RNA or Ribonucleic acid virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus, and is closely related to Hendra virus.

●        It first broke out in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998 and 1999. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        It first appeared in domestic pigs and has been found among several species of domestic animals including dogs, cats, goats, horses and sheep.

●        The disease spreads through fruit bats or ‘flying foxes,’ of the genus Pteropus, who are natural reservoir hosts of the Nipah and Hendra viruses. Hence statement (3) is correct.

●        The virus is present in bat urine and potentially, bat faeces, saliva, and birthing fluids.

●        Currently, there are no vaccines for both humans and animals.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/nipah-virus-latest-updates-centre-suggests-measures-to-kerala-more-contacts-of-boy-identified-101630974667923.html

8. Recently, the term Inspiration4 is seen in news, it is related to

a)  It is the Arab world‘s first mission to Mars

b) It is the world’s first all-civilian mission to orbit

c)  It is a new marine information dissemination system

d) It is NASA‘s first mission to visit a near-Earth asteroid, survey its surface and collect a sample from it

Answer: (b) It is the world’s first all-civilian mission to orbit


In NEWS: Explained: What is Inspiration4, SpaceX’s first all-civilian space mission?

Entrepreneur Elon Musk’s SpaceX announced Friday that ‘Inspiration4’, its first all-civilian, non-governmental spaceflight, is on track for launch.

What is Inspiration4?

●        The mission involves circling the Earth for three days, and then splashing down into the Atlantic Ocean.

●        Inspiration4 will orbit the Earth at 575km, higher than the International Space Station (408km) and the Hubble space telescope (547km). Hence option(b) is correct.

●        This will be the farthest distance travelled by a crewed mission since 2009, when astronauts last went to repair the Hubble.

●        The Dragon module will be usually, the SpaceX module is used for travelling to the ISS, where it has to dock or join the floating laboratory.

●        Inspiration4 is not going to the ISS, the docking port has been removed and has been replaced with a dome window instead.

●        This dome window will offer breath-taking views of the Earth for the four travellers. The window has been inspired by the Cupola, a module on the ISS used to make observations about our planet.

●        According to a report, the journey will present an opportunity for collecting large amounts of health data that will aid in planning future crewed space missions.

●        As per the report, they will collect data on ECG (electrocardiograph) activity, movement, sleep, heart rate and rhythm, blood oxygen saturation, cabin noise and light intensity, which will help in assessing behavioural and cognitive changes over the journey.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/inspiration4-spacex-first-all-civilian-space-mission-7490823/

9. Consider the following statements regarding Manda Buffalo:

1) It is found in the Eastern Ghats and Odisha.

2) They are resistant to parasitic infections, less prone to diseases and can live, produce and reproduce at low or nil input systems.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: Odisha: Koraput’s Manda buffalo gets unique, indigenous tag

●        The National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR) has recognised the Manda buffalo, found in the Eastern Ghats and plateau of Koraput region of Odisha, as the 19th unique breed of buffaloes found in India.

●        The small, sturdy buffaloes are used for ploughing in their native habitat of the Koraput, Malkangiri and Nabarangpur districts.

●        There are around 1,00,000 buffaloes of this breed in the native tract mostly contributing to the family nutrition of households and assisting in all the agricultural operations in the undulated hilly terrain for generations.

Manda Buffalo:

●        The Manda are resistant to parasitic infections, less prone to diseases and can live, produce and reproduce at low or nil input systems.

●        These buffaloes have ash grey and grey coats with copper-coloured hair.

●        The lower part of the legs up to the elbow is light in colour with copper-colored hair at the knee. Some animals are silver-white in colour.

●        Four breeds of cattle — Binjharpuri, Motu, Ghumusari and Khariar — and two breeds of buffalo — Chilika and Kalahandi — and one breed of sheep, Kendrapada, have already received NBAGR recognition.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/koraputs-manda-buffalo-gets-unique-indigenous-tag/article36319950.ece

10. The Government of India Act of 1919 clearly defined

a)  The separation of power between the judiciary and the legislature.

b) The jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments.

c)  The powers of the Secretary of State for India and the Viceroy

d) None of the above

Answer: (b) The jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments


GOI Act,1919, relaxed the central control over the provinces by demarcating and separating the central and provincial subjects. The central and provincial legislatures were authorised to make laws on their respective list of subjects. Hence option (b) is correct.