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Daily Prelims Test – 07_October 2020

Consider the following statements regardingDaring Cities

1.It is an action-oriented forum designed to empower urban leaders including mayors and other decision-makers to tackle the climate crisis.

2.It was established by ICLEI and the Federal City of Bonn

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Arvind Kejriwal to address global forum meet on climate change on Oct. 7

Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal has been invited to speak at ”Daring Cities 2020” virtual conference on the steps taken in the national capital regarding sustainability and climate change issues.

About Daring Cities

  • It is an action-oriented forum designed to empower urban leaders including mayors and other decision-makers to tackle the climate crisis.
  • It was established by ICLEI and the Federal City of Bonn (Germany).
  • Daring Cities 2020 will comprise high level and visionary speakers. The event will help to set the course to COP26, Daring Cities 2021 and beyond.
  • The 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be held in 2021 in Glasgow, UK.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/kejriwal-to-address-global-forum-meet-on-climate-change-on-oct-7/article32768145.ece

Consider the following statements regarding National Startup Awards

  • It was set up by the NITI Aayog
  • It aims to recognize and reward outstanding Startups and ecosystem enablers that are building innovative products or solutions and the awards will be given across 12 sectors

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Three startups from Kerala among winners of National Startup Awards 2020

Three startups from Kerala — Thiruvananthapuram-based Genrobotics, Aluva-based Jackfruit365, and Kochi-based Nava Design & Innovation — are among the winners of the National Startup Awards 2020

About National Startup Awards

  • It was set up by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • Aim: To recognize and reward outstanding Startups and ecosystem enablers that are building innovative products or solutions and scalable enterprises, with high potential of employment generation or wealth creation, demonstrating measurable social impact.
  • The awards will be given across 12 sectors namely Agriculture, Education, Enterprise Technology, Energy, Finance, Food, Health, Industry 4.0, Space, Security, Tourism and Urban Services.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/2020/oct/06/three-startups-from-kerala-among-winners-of-national-startup-awards-2020-2206684.html

Consider the following statements regarding Oussudu Bird Sanctuary

  • It is not identified as a wetland of national importance under the National Wetland Conservation Programme.
  • It lies near the Osudu Lake.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Oussudu bird sanctuary to get a facelift

  • With the migratory bird season all set to begin, the Tamil Nadu Forest Department has started upgradation of infrastructure at the Oussudu bird sanctuary in Poothurai to attract more visitors to the district’s primary eco-sensitive region.

About Oussudu Bird Sanctuary

  • Oussudu Bird Sanctuary is located in Tamil Nadu.
  • The sanctuary lies near the Osudu Lake.
  • The Oussudu Lake is identified as a wetland of national importance under the National Wetland Conservation Programme.
  • The Oussudu Lake is located between the Pulicat and Point Calimere wetlands.
  • Flamingoes, Oriental Darter, Spot-billed pelican, Great White Pelican, Painted Stork, Eurasian Spoon Bill and Pallid Harrier are frequent visitors to the lake.
  • Ousteri Lake is a man-made lake, which is considered as one of the important wetlands in Asia.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/oussudu-bird-sanctuary-to-get-a-facelift/article32765317.ece#:~:text=With%20the%20migratory%20bird%20season,district’s%20primary%20eco%2Dsensitive%20region.

The term ‘Cestrum aurantiacum and Lantana camara’ seen in news is a

  • A mushroom is growing in any tree
  • ModelOrganismin research
  • InvasiveAlienSpecies
  • ComputerMalware

Answer: (c) InvasiveAlienSpecies

Explanation:

In NEWS:Nilgiris’ flora being taken over by invasive weeds

  • The experts have warned that the iconic flora native to the Nilgiris, including more than 30 species of Strobilanthes, could be under threat of being displaced with the continuing advance of invasive flora such as Cestrum aurantiacum and Lantana camara.

About Lantana camara

  • Lantana camara is a small perennial shrub, which forms extensive, dense and impenetrable thickets.
  • It is a highly variable ornamental shrub, native of the neotropics.
  • It is native to Central and South America but its original distribution is unclear due to the introduction of a number of ornamental varieties.
  • It is an invasive species which was introduced in tropical regions as an ornamental plant (introduced in India in 1807).
  • It is generally deleterious to biodiversity and has been reported as an agricultural weed resulting in large economic losses.

About Cestrum aurantiacum

  • Cestrum aurantiacum is native to North and South America.
  • This plant is used as an ornamental plant, and it is a poisonous plant if eaten by animals.
  • It is native to North and South America.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/nilgiris-flora-being-taken-over-by-invasive-weeds/article32768348.ece

Constellation of maritime surveillance satellitesfor the Indian Ocean Region is to be jointly launched by:

1.India and United States of America

2.India and Japan

3.India and China

4.India and France

Answer: (d) India and France

Explanation:

In NEWS:Indo-French satellites to trace illegal spillage of oil by ships: French space agency

  • The constellation of maritime surveillance satellites for the Indian Ocean Region, to be jointly launched by India and France, will be able to trace illegal spillage of oil by ships, a senior French space agency CNES official.

About Constellation of maritime surveillance satellites

  • In 2019, CNES and ISRO committed to developing and building a constellation of satellites carrying telecommunications and radar and optical remote-sensing instruments.
  • The agreement between India and France called for constituting the first space-based system in the world capable of tracking ships continuously.
  • The constellation of maritime surveillance satellites will be able to trace illegal spillage of oil by ships.
  • The monitoring centre for maritime surveillance satellites will be based in India.
  • The satellites will be designed with a revisit capability which makes possible to task acquisitions several times a day.
  • The satellites will be operated jointly by France and India to monitor ships in the Indian Ocean.
  • The system will also cover a wide belt around the globe, benefiting a broad range of French economic interests.
  • The parts of the satellites will be built in both the countries and launched from India.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/indo-french-satellites-to-trace-illegal-spillage-of-oil-by-ships-french-space-agency/article32765678.ece

Consider the following statements regarding TRISHNA

  • It is a future high-resolution space-time mission in the thermal infrared led jointly by the French (CNES) and the Indian (ISRO) space agencies for a launch planned in 2025
  • It is dedicated to climate monitoring and will enhance the understanding of the water cycle and improve management of the planet’s precious water resources

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Indo-French satellites to trace illegal oil spillage: French space agency

The constellation of maritime surveillance satellites for the Indian Ocean Region, to be jointly launched by India and France, will be able to trace illegal spillage of oil by ships, a senior French space agency CENS.

About TRISHNA

  • TRISHNA (Thermal infraRed Imaging Satellite for High-resolution Natural resource Assessment) is a future high-resolution space-time mission in the thermal infrared (TIR) led jointly by the French (CNES) and the Indian (ISRO) space agencies for a launch planned in 2025.
  • The scientific objectives guiding the definition of the mission are, in order of priority, the monitoring of the water status and of the stress of continental ecosystems, the monitoring of coastal and inland waters, the urban environment, and applications to the solid Earth, the cryosphere and the atmosphere.
  • TRISHNA will be positioned on a polar orbit at an altitude of 761 km, providing a revisit of 3 passages over 8 days with global coverage.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/indo-french-satellites-to-trace-illegal-oil-spillage-french-space-agency-120100400517_1.html

When reference to carbon nanotubes, consider the following statements:

1.They can be used as carriers of drugs and antigens in the human body.

2.They can be made into artificial blood capillaries for an injured part of human body.

3.They can be used in biochemical sensors.

4.Carbon nanotubes are biodegradable.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical large molecules consisting of a hexagonal arrangement of hybridized carbon atoms, which may by formed by rolling up a single sheet of graphene (single-walled carbon nanotubes, SWCNTs) or by rolling up multiple sheets of graphene (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs).

Hence structurally, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be viewed as wrapped from graphene sheets. Carbon nanotubes were once considered to be resistant to chemical damage due to their rigid and perfect chemical structure, which rendered them immune to biodegradation.

However, enzymes like peroxidase were found to play an important role in the process of biodegradation of carbon nanotubes. Hence option 4 is correct.

NASA has demonstrated the use of carbon nanotube arrays as biosensors. Hence option 3 is correct. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are characterized by unique chemical and biological properties. CNTs have a large surface area that allows them to attach a wide range of biological substances. In addition, CNTs are able to penetrate through cell membranes, capillaries, and accumulated in cells and tissues. It is expected that enabling technology would facilitate the making of nanodevices using these blood -compatible nanomaterials as building blocks for biomedical applications such as artificial implants, including structural tissue replacements, that is, artificial blood vessels, or functional devices such as drug delivery matrixes. Hence statements 1 and 2 are correct.

Consider the following activities:

1.praying pesticides on a crop field

2.Inspecting the craters of active volcanoes

3.Collecting breath samples from spouting whales for DNA analysis.

At the present level of technology, which of the above activities can be successfully carried out by using drones?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

Drone technology has been used by defense organizations for quite some time. However, the benefits of this technology extends well beyond just these sectors e.g. emergency response, humanitarian relief, healthcare, disease control, weather forecasting etc. Recently, Australian scientists used drones (that flew 200 metres above the blowholes of whales) to collect the mucus of whales from their water sprays to examine their health.The whale spray collected by a drone contains DNA, proteins, lipids and types of bacteria. Hence option 3 is correct.

Drones have also been used to study the craters of active volcanoes to know about their recent activities, a place which human beings cannot directly access. Hence option 2 is correct.

Recently, the use of drones to spray pesticides (in Telengana) was in the news. It is considered illegal in India. But in the US it is legally practised in many states. Hence option 1 is correct. Hence option (d) is the correct answer

The experiment will employ a trio of spacecraft flying in formation in the shape of an equilateral triangle that has sides one million kilometers long, with lasers shining between the craft.” The experiment in question refers to

(a) Voyager – 2

(b) New Horizons

(c) LISA Pathfinder

(d) Evolved LISA

Answer: (d) Evolved LISA

Explanation: The experimental research on black holes using gravitational waves expanded following the second detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO detector. After the success of the LISA Pathfinder experiment, the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) project is a plan of setting into space three spacecraft, a mother and two daughter spacecraft, which will fly in a triangular formation, trailing the earth in its orbit around the sun at a distance of over 50 million km. Each arm of the imaginary triangle, from the mother to each daughter spacecraft, will measure about a million km. Inside these spacecraft will float “freely falling” test masses – cubes with sides measuring abut 46 mm. Laser interferometers will accurately measure changes in the distance between these cubes. If they should be affected by a gravitational wave, the minute changes in this distance are measure by the interferometer. Hence option (d) is the correct answer

Consider the following statements:

1.Genetic changes can be introduced in the cells that produce eggs or sperms of a prospective parent.

2.A person’s genome can be edited before birth at the early embryonic stage.

3.Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be injected into the embryo of a pig.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 2 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

Germline gene therapy targets the reproductive cells, meaning any changes made to the DNA will be passed on to the next generation. Consequently, the practice has dramatically divided opinion. Germline gene therapy is when DNA is transferred into the cells that produce reproductive cells, eggs or sperm, in the body. Hence statement 1 is correct.

Although germline gene therapy is illegal, embryonic genetic editing is different from that and is possible to make genome changes to eliminate the vertical trasfer (through inheritance) of certain diseases and medical conditions. Hence statement 2 is correct. Human -animal chimeras are animals bearing human cells and organs. They offer insights into early human development and disease onset and provide a realistic drug -testing platform. Researchers have experimented by injecting several different forms of human stem cells into pig embryos to see which cell -type would survive best. The cells that survived longest and showed the most potential to continue to develop were intermediate human pluripotent stem cells. Hence statement 3 is correct.