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Daily Prelims Test – 07_November 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Fast radio bursts (FRB)

1.They are bright bursts of radio waves from astronomical objects across galaxies

2.They are detected by the NASA’s Wind mission and Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is a radio burst, spotted by NASA for the first time in the Milky Way?

  • NASA has reported that on April 28, it observed a mix of X-ray and radio signals never observed before in the Milky Way.

Who discovered the simultaneous bursts in the Milky Way?

  • The X-ray portion of the simultaneous bursts was detected by several satellites, including NASA’s Wind mission, and the radio component was discovered by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME), a radio telescope located at Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory in British Columbia, which is led by McGill University in Montreal, the University of British Columbia, and the University of Toronto. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • NASA-funded project called Survey for Transient Astronomical Radio Emission 2 (STARE2) also detected the radio burst seen by CHIME. STARE2 is operated by Caltech and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California and the team behind it determined that the burst’s energy was comparable to FRBs.

What is an FRB?

  • The first FRB was discovered in 2007, since when scientists have been working towards finding the source of their origin. Essentially, FRBs are bright bursts of radio waves (radio waves can be produced by astronomical objects with changing magnetic fields) whose durations lie in the millisecond-scale, because of which it is difficult to detect them and determine their position in the sky. Hence statement 1 is correct

What is the origin of the FRB detected in April?

  • The source of the FRB detected in April in the Milky Way is a very powerful magnetic neutron star, referred to as a magnetar, called SGR 1935+2154 or SGR 1935

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-a-radio-burst-spotted-by-nasa-for-the-first-time-in-the-milky-way-6968134/


Miya community is belonged to which of the following state in India?

1.Assam

2.Punjab

3.Gujarat

4.Karnataka

Answer: (a) Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: The Miyas of Assam, and their char-chapori culture

  • A proposed “Miya museum” reflecting the “culture and heritage of the people living in char-chaporis” has stirred up a controversy in Assam. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The museum has been proposed in the Kalakshetra, which is a cultural complex in Guwahati named after neo-Vaishnavite reformer Srimanta Sankardev.
  • According to Tamuli Phukan, the fact that the museum is proposed to be part of Kalakshetra, a product of the Assam Accord, hurts Assamese sentiments.

Who are the Miyas?

  • The ‘Miya’ community comprises descendants of Muslim migrants from East Bengal (now Bangladesh) to Assam. They came to be referred to as ‘Miyas’, often in a derogatory manner.
  • The community migrated in several waves, starting with the British annexation of Assam in 1826, and continuing into Partition and the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.
  • The migration of Miya community have resulted in changes in demographic composition of the region.
  • The years of discontent among the indigenous people led to the six-year-long (1979-85) anti-foreigner Assam Agitation to weed out the “illegal immigrant”, who was perceived as trying to take over jobs, language and culture of the indigenous population.

What are char-chaporis?

  • Char-chaporis are shifting riverine islands of the Brahmaputraand are primarily inhabited by the Muslims of Bengali-origin.
  • A charis a floating island while chaporis are low-lying flood-prone river banks.
  • A UNDP Assam Human Developmentreport from 2014 describes the char areas as suffering from communication deficits, lack of adequate schooling facilities beyond primary, girl child marriage, poverty and

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-the-miyas-of-assam-and-their-char-chapori-culture-6943279/


Consider the following statements regarding Tarballs

1.They are formed due to burning of biomass or fossil fuels that deposit on snow and ice.

2.Tarballs are formed from brown carbon

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Brown carbon ‘tarballs’ that hasten glacial melt found in Himalayan atmosphere: Study

  • Nearly 28 per cent of particles collected from the air samples from a research station in the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau were tarballs, a recent study has found. Tarballs are small light-absorbing, carbonaceous particles formed due to burning of biomass or fossil fuels that deposit on snow and ice. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The percentage of the tarballs increased on days of higher levels of pollution and could contribute to hastening of glacial melt and global warming, the study said.
  • Until now, black carbon was found to be transported long distances by wind to the Himalayan atmosphere; there was not sufficient direct evidence for primary BrC in the Himalayan atmosphere.
  • Primary brown carbon (BrC) co-emitted with black carbon (BC) from biomass burning is an important light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol. The black carbon from the Indo-Gangetic Plain can reach the Himalaya region and influence glacial melting and climatic change.
  • Air mass trajectories, satellite detection, and Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to Chemistry simulations indicated that the tarballs were emitted from biomass burning in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
  • Tarballs are formed from brown carbon, emitted during the burning of fossil fuels. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/brown-carbon-tarballs-that-hasten-glacial-melt-found-in-himalayan-atmosphere-study-74105


Consider the following statements

1.A magnetar is a type of neutron star believed to have an extremely powerful magnetic field which can be up to a thousand times stronger than a typical neutron star

2.Neutron stars are formed when the core of a massive star undergoes gravitational collapse when it reaches the end of its life.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is a radio burst, spotted by NASA for the first time in the Milky Way?

  • The FRB was part of one of the magnetar’s most prolific flare-ups with the X-ray bursts lasting less than a second.
  • The radio burst lasted for a thousandth of a second and was thousands of times brighter than any other radio emissions from magnetars seen in the Milky Way previously.
  • It is possible that the FRB-associated burst was exceptional because it likely occurred at or close to the magnetar’s magnetic pole.

About magnetar

  • A magnetar is a type of neutron star believed to have an extremely powerful magnetic field which can be up to a thousand times stronger than a typical neutron star. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The magnetic field decay powers the emission of high-energy electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-rays and gamma rays. 
  • Neutron stars are formed when the core of a massive star undergoes gravitational collapse when it reaches the end of its life. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Magnetars are a subclass of these neutrons and occasionally release flares with more energy in a fraction of a second than the Sun is capable of emitting in tens of thousands of years.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-a-radio-burst-spotted-by-nasa-for-the-first-time-in-the-milky-way-6968134/


 With reference to Gurudwara Darbar(Kartarpur) Sahib, Which of the following statement(s) is not correct?

1.It is located in Pakistan’s Narowal district across river Ravi.

2.Guru Nanak Dev, the first Sikh Guru had arrived in Kartarpur between 1520 and 1522 as per historians, and spent the last 18 years of his life there.

3.At Guru Nanak’s final resting place stands the gurdwara.

4.None of the above

Answer: (d) None of the above

Explanation:

In NEWS: Behind the fresh row over Kartarpur gurdwara: Move to control administration, donations

  • The Gurdwara Darbar Sahib, also known as Gurdwara Kartarpur Sahib, is located in Pakistan’s Narowal district across river Ravi, about five kilometres from the Dera Baba Nanak shrine in India’s Punjab.
  • Guru Nanak Dev, the first Sikh Guru had arrived in Kartarpur between 1520 and 1522, as per historians, and spent the last 18 years of his life there. It was in Kararpur that he laid the foundations of a Sikh religion. At his final resting place stands the gurdwara.
  • The Kartarpur Corridor was finally thrown open in 2019 with the two sides agreeing on visa-free travel for Indian pilgrims to the shrine. The corridor was shut in March this year in view of the coronavirus pandemic.
  • India has condemned the Pakistan government’s decision to transfer the management and administrative control of the Gurdwara Darbar Sahib in Kartarpur from a Sikh body — Pakistan Sikh Gurudwara Prabhandhak Committee (PSGPC) — to a trust under the Evacuee Trust Property Board, a non-Sikh body. Hence all the above statements are correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/behind-fresh-row-over-kartapur-gurdwara-move-to-control-administration-donations-6967072/


Consider the following statements regarding Ephemeral Messaging

1.It is the mobile-to-mobile transmission of multimedia messages that automatically disappear from the recipient’s screen after the message has been viewed.

2.The idea of ‘ephemeral’ messages is new and the WhatsApp is the first ever app to offer this service.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: WhatsApp disappearing messages: What it means for you, and the loopholes

  • Ephemeral messaging or disappearing messages is the mobile-to-mobile transmission of multimedia messages that automatically disappear from the recipient’s screen after the message has been viewed. The word “ephemeral” describes something that only lasts for a short period of time. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The idea of ‘ephemeral’ messages is not new, and WhatsApp is not the first app to offer this. Other encrypted messaging apps like Telegram, Signal, and Wire already offer such an option. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • WhatsApp says this will bring a new level of privacy to the app. By turning on disappearing messages, users will get some more control over which chats are getting saved.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/whatsapp-has-disappearing-messages-now-what-does-it-mean-for-you-what-are-the-loopholes-6964388/


Consider the following statements

1.Habeas Corpus is an order issued by the court to a person who has detained another person, to produce the body of the latter before it.

2.Prohibition is issued by a higher court to a lower court or tribunal either to transfer a case pending with the latter to itself or to squash the order of the latter in a case.

3.Certiorari is issued by a higher court to a lower court or tribunal to prevent the latter from exceeding its jurisdiction or usurping a jurisdiction that it does not possess.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Bombay HC hears Arnab Goswami’s habeas corpus plea

  • Habeas Corpus is an order issued by the court to a person who has detained another person, to produce the body of the latter before it. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Certiorari is issued by a higher court to a lower court or tribunal either to transfer a case pending with the latter to itself or to squash the order of the latter in a case. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • Prohibition is issued by a higher court to a lower court or tribunal to prevent the latter from exceeding its jurisdiction or usurping a jurisdiction that it does not possess. Hence statement 3 is incorrect.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Bombay-HC-hears-Arnab-Goswami%26%2339%3bs-habeas-corpus-plea&id=403740


Consider the following statements regarding Paris Agreement on Climate Change

1.Parties to UNFCCC agreed to strive to limit the rise in global warming to well under 2 degrees Celsius, over pre-industrial levels by 2100, under Paris Agreement 2015.

2.Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) were conceived at Paris summit which require each Party to prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions (NDCs) that it intends to achieve.

3.Recently, United States formally exited from the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change.

Which of the given above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: US formally exits the Paris climate accord, American pledge.

  • Parties to UNFCCC agreed to strive to limit the rise in global warming to well under 2 degrees Celsius, over pre-industrial levels by 2100, under Paris Agreement 2015. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) were conceived at Paris summit which require each Party to prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions (NDCs) that it intends to achieve. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with the aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions.
  • Paris Agreement replaced earlier agreement to deal with climate change, Kyoto Protocol.
  • Though the US under President Donald Trump had announced his decision to withdraw from the Agreement in 2017, the formal withdrawal could technically happen only a day after the US presidential election as per the UN climate body’s exit procedures for the deal.
  • It made the US the first country to withdraw from the Agreement. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • With contributing 14% of total carbon emission, the US is currently the second biggest emitter after China (26%). The EU nations collectively contribute to 9% of total emission followed by India at 7%.
  • Recently, countries such as China, Japan and South Korea had announced their intentions to raise climate action ambition to reach respective ‘net zero targets’, aligning themselves with the EU’s similar plan.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/us/us-presidential-elections/us-formally-exits-the-paris-climate-accord-american-pledge-depends-on-president-poll-outcome/articleshow/79043615.cms


With reference to United Nations Industrial Development Organizations (UNIDO), consider the following statements

1.UNIDO is the specialized agency of the United Nations.

2.The mission of the UNIDO is to promote and accelerate Inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) in Member States.

3.All the United Nations Members are member of UNIDO

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In News: Regional Cluster concept of economic development playing important role in Indian success story: UNIDO Representative

  • UNIDO is the specialized agency of the United Nations. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • As of 1 April 2019, 170 States are Members of UNIDO. Hence statement 3 is incorrect.
  • The mission of the UNIDO, as described in the Lima Declaration adopted at the fifteenth session of the UNIDO General Conference in 2013, is to promote and accelerate Inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) in Member States. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • UNIDO was established in 1966 by the UN General Assembly.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Regional-Cluster-concept-of-economic-development-playing-important-role-in-Indian-success-story%3a-UNIDO-Representative&id=403734


With reference to the Parliament of India, which of the following Parliamentary Committees scrutinizes and reports to the House whether the powers to make regulations, rules, sub -rules, by -laws, etc. conferred by the Constitution or delegated by the Parliament are being properly exercised by the Executive within the scope of such delegation?

1.Committee on Government Assurances

2.Committee on Subordinate Legislation

3.Rules Committee

4.Business Advisory Committee

Answer: (b) Committee on Subordinate Legislation

Explanation:

  • The Committee on Subordinate Legislation examines and reports to the House whether the powers to make rules, regulations, bye – laws, schemes or other statutory instruments conferred by the Constitution or delegated by Parliament are being properly exercised. In both the Houses, the committee consists of 15 members. It was constituted in 1953.Hence option (b) is correct