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Daily Prelims Test – 07_July

1.Consider the following statements

  • Compulsory licensing is a process where a government allows someone else to produce the patented product or process without the consent of the patent owner.
  • The provisions of compulsory licenses can be issued by the Government are provided in Section 92 of the Indian Patent Act,1970

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Issue compulsory licences for manufacture of an affordable generic version of Remdesivir, CPI(M) tells govt.

CPI(Marxist) has said that the government should issue compulsory licences for the manufacture of a generic version of Remdesivir, an antiviral drug being used to treat COVID-19 patients.

About compulsory licences in india:

  • Compulsory licensing (CL) is an where a government allows someone else to produce the patented product or process without the consent of the patent It is one of the flexibility on patent protection included in the WTO’s agreement on intellectual property – the TRIPS  Agreement. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • An application for grant of a compulsory license may be made under the provisions (Section 84, 91, 92, 92A) of Indian Patent act, 1970.
  • Section 84 of the (Indian) Patent Act,1970 provides that any time after three years from date of sealing of a patent, application for compulsory license can be made,provided:
  • If the patented product is not satisfying the public needs effectively
  • If patented invention is not available to the public at reasonably affordable price.
  • Patented invention is not worked in the territory of India
  • Section 92 of the (Indian) Patent Act,1970 provides that compulsory licenses can also be issued by the Government if there is either a “national emergency” or “extreme urgency” or in cases of “public non-commercial use”.Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/issue-compulsory-licences-for-manufacture-of-an-affordable-generic-version-of-remdesivir-cpim-tells-govt/article31994596.ece

2.Consider the following statements

  • The National parks of India are IUCN category II protected areas.
  • National Parks in India are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • No human activity is permitted inside the national park except for the ones permitted by the Chief Wildlife Warden of the state.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Assam government to upgrade Dehing Patkai wildlife sanctuary to national park

  • The Assam government on Monday decided to upgrade Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary into a national park.
  • The announcement comes just months after the National Board of Wildlife’s (NBWL) conditional clearance to a coal mining project by Coal India Limited (CIL) in the Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve sparked a spate of virtual protests in the state.

About National park in India:

  • A National park is an area with enough ecological, geo-morphological and natural significance with rich fauna and flora, which is designed to protect and to develop wildlife or its environment.
  • National Parks in India are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas.Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Activities like grazing, hunting, forestry or cultivation etc. are strictly prohibited.
  • No human activity is permitted insidethe national park except for the ones permitted by the Chief Wildlife Warden of the state. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • India’s first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand.
  • There are 104 existing national parks in India covering an area of 40501.13 km2, which is 1.23% of the geographical area of the country (National Wildlife Database, May 2019).

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/north-east-india/assam/assam-govt-to-upgrade-dehing-patkai-wildlife-sanctuary-to-national-park-6493214/

3.Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary is belongs to which of the following state in india?

  • West Bengal
  • New Delhi
  • Tripura
  • Assam

Answer: (d) Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS:Assam government to upgrade Dehing Patkai wildlife sanctuary to national park

Assam government has decided to upgrade the Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam, which is home to a vast variety of flora and fauna, to a national parkHence option (d) is correct.

About Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The Dehing Patkai Wildlife Sanctuary is spread across 111.42 sq km, while the Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve with 937 sq km of area surrounds the sanctuary in its periphery across Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts.
  • Dehingis the name of the river that flows through this forest and Patkai is the hill at the foot of which the sanctuary lies.
  • Dehing Patkai is a deciduous rainforestinterspersed with semi-evergreen and lush green flora, the only patch of virgin rainforest in Assam.
  • Rare fauna found in the region include Chinese pangolin, flying fox, wild pig, sambar, barking deer, gaur, serow and Malayan giant squirrels.
  • It is the only sanctuary in India which is home to seven different species of wild cats – tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, leopard cat, golden cat, jungle cat and marbled cat.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/north-east-india/assam/assam-govt-to-upgrade-dehing-patkai-wildlife-sanctuary-to-national-park-6493214/

4.Consider the following statements

  • Global e-waste is expected to increase by 38 per cent in the decade between 2020 and 2030
  • Asia generated the greatest volume of e-waste in 2019 followed by the Americas, Europe, Africa and Oceania.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:E-waste to increase 38% by 2030: Report

  • Global e-waste — discarded electrical and electronic equipment — will increase by 38 per cent in the decade between 2020 and 2030, according to a new United Nations University (UNU) report.Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • There was 53.6 million tonnes (MT) e-waste in 2019, according to the report. That is a nearly 21 per cent increase in just five years.
  • Asia generated the greatest volumeof e-waste in 2019 — some 24.9 MT, followed by the Americas (13.1 MT) and Europe (12 MT). Africa and Oceania generated 2.9 MT and 0.7 MT respectively, the report said.Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The number of countries that have adopted a national e-waste policy, legislation or regulation has increased from 61 to 78 and includes India.
  • There are 312 authorized recyclers of e-waste in India, with the capacity for treating approximately 800 kilotonnes annually.
  • Less than 18 per cent of the e-waste generated in 2019 was collected and recycled, according to the report.
  • This means that e-waste consisting gold, silver, copper, platinum and other high-value,recoverable materials worth at least $57 billion was mostly dumped or burned rather than being collected for treatment and reuse.
  • The United Nations University (UNU) is a global think tank and postgraduate teaching organization headquartered in Japan.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/waste/e-waste-to-increase-38-by-2030-report-72114#:~:text=Global%20e%2Dwaste%20%E2%80%94%20discarded%20electrical,Nations%20University%20(UNU)%20report.&text=That%20is%20a%20nearly%2021%20per%20cent%20increase%20in%20just%20five%20years.

5.Consider the following statements regarding PM CARES Fund

  • Prime Minister is the ex-officio Chairman of the PM CARES Fund
  • The donations to PM CARES Fund will be tax exempt and doesn’t fall under corporate social responsibility.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:CPI(M) renews demand to make PM­CARES transparent

The CPI(M) has renewed its demand for making the PM­ CARES fund, set up in March in the wake of the COVID­19 pandemic by the Prime Mi­nister’s Office, transparent and accountable.

The party said the money collected with the fund should be im­mediately transferred to State governments.

About PM CARES Fund

  • The Prime Minister’s Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations Fund (PM CARES Fund) was created on 28 March 2020 following the COVID-19 pandemic in India.
  • The fund will be used for combating, containment and relief efforts against the coronavirus outbreak and similar pandemic like situations in the future.
  • Prime Minister is the ex-officio Chairman of the PM CARES Fundand Minister of Defence, Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Finance, Government of India are ex-officio Trustees of the Fund.Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The fund consists entirely of voluntary contributions from individuals/organizations and does not get any budgetary support. The fund will be utilised in meeting the objectives as stated above.
  • Donations to PM CARES Fund would qualify for 80G benefits for 100% exemption under the Income Tax Act, 1961. Donations to PM CARES Fund will also qualify to be counted as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) expenditure under the Companies Act, 2013. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • PM CARES Fund has also got exemption under the FCRA and a separate account for receiving foreign donations has been opened.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-cpim-renews-demand-to-make-pm-cares-transparent/article32005992.ece

The term Zardozi, recently seen in the news is associated with which of the following?

Awareness program for Protection of Biodiversity of North East India

An elaborate metal embroidery on a silk, satin, or velvet fabric base

A tall upright stone of a kind erected in prehistoric times

Set of rules followed by the Jain monks

Answer: (b) An elaborate metal embroidery on a silk, satin, or velvet fabric base

Explanation:

In NEWS:Bhopal’s zardozi artists hanging by a thread

  • Zardozi is a type of heavy and elaborate metal embroidery on a silk, satin, or velvet fabric base. Hence option (b) is correct.
  • Zardozi is form of embroidery that came to India from Persia. Its literal translation, “zar” meaning goldand “dozi” meaning embroidery, refers to the process of using metallic-bound threads to sew embellishment on to various fabrics. 
  • While the Indian city of Lucknow became a major center for this art form, its exact origin is unknown.
  • Zardozi is a style of embroidery that has its earliest mentions in Vedic literatures, the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata.
  • The original process, known as “Kalabatun”, used silk threads wrapped in real gold and silver wires to decorate satin and velvet fabrics.
  • A Persian embroidery form, Zardosi attained its summit in the 17th century, under the patronage of Mughal Emperor Akbar.
  • The Geographical Indication Registry has accorded all Zardosi textiles manufactured in Lucknow and its surrounding districts with the GI tag.

Picture3-Jul-18-2020-12-53-14-98-PMSource: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-lockdown-bhopals-zardozi-artists-hanging-by-a-thread/article32005177.ece

7.Consider the following statements regarding Eulophia obtuse

  • It is a rare orchid species
  • In India, it is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of endangered species

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Days after sighting of ‘critically endangered’ rare orchid species Eulophia obtuse

at two locations in DTR, officials now find it blooming at 47 other location

  • rare orchid plant variety has been found in the DudhwaNational Park in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Popularly known as Ground Orchid(eulophiaobtusa), the variety is categorised as an ‘Critically endangered species’ under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Hence statement 1 and 2 are correct.
  • It was 118 years back when Kew Herbarium of England had documented the orchid. This species was last sighted in Pilibhit in 1902.
  • Never in the history of Dudhwa or any other forest area in the state, has this orchid been seen.
  • The species was originally described from Uttarakhand in the 19th century. It was collected by botanists from Gangetic plains but there have been no sightings in the past 100 years. In 2008, the plant species was sighted in Bangladesh for the first time.
Picture4-Jul-18-2020-12-52-53-51-PM

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bareilly/days-after-sighting-of-critically-endangered-rare-orchid-species-eulophia-obtuse-at-two-locations-in-dtr-officials-now-find-it-blooming-at-47-other-locations/articleshow/76821145.cms

8.Consider the following statements regarding International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

  • It is a specialized agency of the World Bank Group
  • It provides loans and other assistance primarily to middle income and poor countries
  • India is not a member of this bank

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Govt, World Bank ink 750 million US dollar agreement for MSME Emergency Response Programme

  • The Government and the World Bank today signed a 750 million US dollar agreement for the MSME Emergency Response Programme.
    It aims at supporting increased flow of financeinto the hands of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) which are severely impacted by the COVID-19 crisis.
  • The USD 750 million loan which is being granted from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), has a maturity of 19 years including a 5-year grace period.

About International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

  • IBRD provides loans and other assistance primarily to middle income andpoor but credit worthy countries at interest rates slightly lower than that offered by other financial institutions but with long term maturityHence statement 2 is correct
  • It is a part of the WB group. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • IBRD as the name suggest was created in 1944 to help Europe reconstruct/ rebuild after World War II.
  • The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is a global development cooperative owned by 189 member countries.
  • India is the founder-banker of the Bank. Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • India has been the single largest borrower of the Bank
  • IBRD earns income every year from the return on its equity and from the small margin it makes on lending.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Govt%2C-World-Bank-ink-750-million-US-dollar-agreement-for-MSME-Emergency-Response-Programme&id=393096

9.Consider the following statements

  • Golden Crescent comprises of areas of Myanmar, Laos and Thailand.
  • Golden Triangle region of the South Asia comprises Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Opium seizures: India in top five list

  • The fourth highest seizure of opium in 2018 was reported from India, after Iran, Af­ghanistan and Pakistan, according to the latest World Drug Report of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
  • The maximum of 644 tonnes of opium was seized in Iran, followed by 27 tonnes in Afghanistan and 19 tonnes in Pakistan. In India, the figure stood at four tonnes in 2018. In terms of heroin seizure (1.3 tonnes), India was at the 12th position in the world.

About Triangle:

  • India is sandwiched between the ‘Golden Crescent’ and the ‘Golden Triangle’, the major opium production regions in the world
  • The Golden Crescent is Asia’s principal areas of illicit opium production, located at the crossroads of Central, South, and Western Asia.The region is comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan, where opium hasbeen grown for hundreds of years.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The mountainous peripheries of these region define the crescent.
  • The Golden Triangle is a mountainous area of Burma, Laos and Thailand justsouth of the Chinese border, where opium has been grown for hundreds of years.It has been one of the most extensive opium-producing areas of Asia and of the world since the 1950s.Hence statement 1 is incorrect
Picture5-Jul-18-2020-12-52-49-80-PM

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/fourth-highest-opium-seizure-in-2018-reported-from-india-world-drug-report/article32005672.ece

10.As per the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 in India, which one of the following statements is correct?

(a) Waste generator has to segregate waste into five categories.

(b) The Rules are applicable to notified urban local bodies, notified towns and all industrial townships only.

(c) The Rules provide for exact and elaborate criteria for the identification of sites for landfills and waste processing facilities.

(d) It is mandatory on the part of waste generator that the waste generated in one district cannot be moved to another district.

Answer: (c) The Rules provide for exact and elaborate criteria for the identification of sites for landfills and waste processing facilities.

Explanation:

  • Under the Solid Waste Management, Rules 2016, waste processing facilitieswill have to be set up by all local bodies having 1 million or more population within two years.
  • In case of census towns below 1 million population, setting up common, or stand-alone sanitary landfills by, or for all local bodies having 0.5 million or more population and for setting up common, or regional sanitary landfills by all local bodies and census towns under 0.5 million population will have to becompleted in three years. Hence, rules provide for exact and elaborate criteria for identification of landfill sites and waste processing facilities. Hence option C is correct.
  • Waste generators would now have to now segregate waste into three streams- Biodegradables, Dry (Plastic, Paper, metal, Wood, etc.) and Domestic Hazardous waste(diapers, napkins, mosquito repellants, cleaning agents etc.) before handing it over to the collector.