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Daily Prelims Test – 07_August

With reference to Bru community of India, consider the following statement

  • They live mainly in the State of Uttarakhand
  • They are recognized as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Brus reject resettlement site offer

  • Three organisations repre­senting the Bru community displaced from Mizoram have rejected the sites pro­posed by the Joint Move­ment Committee ( JMC), an umbrella group of non­Brus in Tripura, for their resettlement.
  • The three refugee groups insisted on resettling some 6,500 families in clusters of at least 500 families at each of the sites of their choice — seven in North Tripura dis­trict and five in the adjoining Dhalai district. The sites pro­ posed by the JMC, they said, are unconnected by road and electricity and too far from hospitals, schools and other facilities.

About Bru

  • The Bru or Reang is a community indigenous to Northeast India, living mostly in Tripura, Mizoram, and Assam. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • In Tripura, they are recognised as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Hojagiri folk dance of the Reang sub tribe is well known all over the world.The most popular festival of reang tribes is Buisu.
  • They speak the Reang dialect of Bru language which is of Tibeto-Burmese origin and is locally referred to as Kau Bru.
  • Over two decades ago, they were targeted by the Mizo groups who demanded that the Bru be excluded from electoral rolls in the state.
  • In October 1997, following ethnic clashes, nearly 37,000 Bru fled Mizoram’s Mamit, Kolasib, and Lunglei districts to Tripura, where they were sheltered in relief camps.
  • Since then, over 5,000 have returned to Mizoram in nine phases of repatriation, while 32,000 people from 5,400 families still live in six relief camps in North Tripura.

Source: TH

Consider the following statements regarding National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)

  • It is one of the pioneer institutes under the Union Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • It has been mandated to promote capacity building interventions in Disaster Risk Management

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) Webinar Series on “Hydro-Meteorological Hazard Risk Reduction” concludes

National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) in collaboration with India Meteorological Department organized a webinar series on Hydro-Meteorological Hazards Risk Reduction.

About National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)

  • The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) is one of the pioneer institutes under the Union Ministry of Home Affairs. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It has been mandated to promote capacity building interventions in Disaster Risk Management (DRM). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Institute owes its origin in 1995 when a National Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM) was set up within Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) by the Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives.
  • Following the transfer the subject of disaster management from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Home Affairs, the NCDM was delinked from the IIPA and rechristened as the ‘National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)’ under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • The NIDM acquired a statutory status after the promulgation of Disaster Management Act in 2005.
  • The prime mandates of the NIDM under the Act are: training, capacity building, research, documentation and policy advocacy on disaster management.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1643535

Consider the following statements regarding H1B visa

  • It is an employment-based, non-immigrant visa category for permanent workers given by the United States of America
  • This visa holders cannot apply for permanent residency in the US and
  • This visa holders can buy property in the country.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Green Card waitlist for Indians runs into 200 years’: US senator on country cap

  • Indian IT professionals, most of whom are highly skilled and come to the US mainly on the H-1B work visas, are the worst sufferers of the current immigration system.
  • The per-country cap on legal permanent residency punishes immigrants from India and the wait for the coveted Green Card for Indians runs into 200 years.
  • Green Card, known officially as a Permanent Resident Card, is a document issued to immigrants to the US as evidence that the bearer has been granted the privilege of residing permanently.

About H1B visa

  • The H1B visa is an employment-based, non-immigrant visa category for temporary workers given by the United States of America. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • This non-immigrant visa lets a firm employ foreigners for up to six years in positions for which they have been unable to find American employees.
  • The H-1B visa holders can apply for permanent residency in the US and buy property in the country. Hence statement 2 is incorrect and Hence statement 3 is correct
  • The H-1B visa is a work permit that allows a foreign worker to go to the United States and work for an American company.
  • The foreign worker must specifically work in a field which requires specialized knowledge for which the employer cannot find a US-based worker.
  • When applying for an H-1B visa, the applicant is sponsored by the American company that has hired them.
  • The employer pays the visa fees and submits the required paperwork on behalf of the applicant.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/indians-abroad/green-card-waitlist-for-indians-runs-into-200-years-us-senator-on-country-cap/story-gm1TIJOCV4xdFvpjHX5SiN.html

Consider the following statements regarding Habitat Model for Efficiency and Comfort

  • It aims to provide Indian building market with external shading products that can reduce direct solar heat gain inside a building by more than 75%.
  • It is an initiative of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in partnership with the Department of Science and Technology

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:

  • The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in partnership with the Department of Science & Technology has developed novel external shading solution for windows in residential and commercial buildings under the project Habitat Model for Efficiency and Comfort.

About Habitat Model for Efficiency and Comfort

  • It is an initiative of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in partnership with the Department of Science and Technology. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The project aims to provide Indian building market with external shading products that can reduce direct solar heat gain inside a building by more than 75%, while allowing natural daylight. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • To design and demonstrate the potential of low energy radiant slab cooling, integrated with natural heat sinks and establish their operational mechanism for optimum comfort and energy efficiency.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1643490

Consider the following statements regarding Geographical Indication Tag

  • It is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin
  • It have been defined under Article 22 of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement
  • Darjeeling tea became the first GI tagged product in India

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Madhya Pradesh should not get GI tag for basmati rice’, Punjab CM writes to Prime Minister

  • Amid Madhya Pradesh government’s push for the Geographical Indication (GI) tag for basmati rice, Punjab Chief Minister has written to the Prime Minister seeking his personal intervention against allowing this in the larger interest of Punjab and other States which are already basmati GI tagged.
  • Apart from Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh and select districts of Jammu and Kashmir have GI tagging for basmati.
  • Madhya Pradesh has sought inclusion of its 13 districts for GI tagging for basmati.

About GI Tag

  • A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g., a town, region, or country). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • India, as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 has come into force with effect from 15 September 2003.
  • GIs have been defined under Article 22 (1) of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement as: “Indications which identify a good as originating in the territory of a member, or a region or a locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographic origin.“ Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The GI tag ensures that none other than those registered as authorised users (or at least those residing inside the geographic territory) are allowed to use the popular product name.
  • Darjeeling tea became the first GI tagged product in India, in 2004–2005. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • GI protection systems restrict the use of the GIs for the purpose of identifying a particular type of product, unless the product and/or its constituent materials and/or its fabrication method originate from a particular area and/or meet certain standards.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/madhya-pradesh-should-not-get-gi-tag-for-basmati-rice-punjab-cm-writes-to-prime-minister/article32279435.ece

Doctrine of Repugnancy’ was in news recently. What is it associated with?

  • It is widely used when deciding whether a state is within its rights to create a statute that involves a subject mentioned in Union List of the Constitution
  • It is related to separation of power among executive, legislature and judiciary so that no one branch of govt wields excessive absolute power
  • If a state passes any law on concurrent list subject which is inconsistent with the central law on that subject
  • None of the above

Answer: (c) If a state passes any law on concurrent list subject which is inconsistent with the central law on that subject

Explanation:

In NEWS: A.P. HC stays operation of three-capital Act

The Andhra Pradesh Assembly earlier passed The Andhra Pradesh Decentralisation and Equal Development of All Regions Bill, 2020, paving the way for three capitals for the state.

Amaravati will now be only the legislative capital, while Visakhapatnam will be the executive capital and Kurnool the judicial capital.

  • It said the matter required status quo as the petitioners feared that the government might start shifting offices to Visakhapatnam and Kurnool by taking advantage of the Bill becoming an Act upon its clearance by the Governor.
  • The court was hearing a writ petition against the decentralisation Act filed by farmers who parted with their land for the development of Amaravati capital city.
  • They prayed for recognising Amaravati as the Capital City in accordance with Sections. 5, 6 and 94 of the AP Reorganisation Act, 2014 and consequentially declaring the Act repugnant and void under Article 254 and violative of Articles 256 and 257 of the Constitution.
  • The said Act posed a threat to the farmers’ livelihood and it would affect the economy of the entire State.

Article 254 of the Indian Constitution

  • Article 254(1) has been neatly summarized by the Supreme Court in M. Karunanidhi versus Union of India as, “where the provisions of a Central Act and a State Act in the Concurrent list are fully inconsistent and absolutely irreconcilable, the Central Act will prevail and the State Act will become void in view of the repugnancy.
  • Article 254(2) is that it allows state law to prevail under certain circumstances ie. assent by the President after a state legislature passes a bill. Hence option (c) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/ap-hc-stays-operation-of-three-capital-act/article32270426.ece

Consider the following statements regarding Innovation Hub

  • It is launched by the Reserve Bank of India
  • It is aimed at roping in start-ups to come up with ideas for addressing issues related to financial inclusion and efficient banking services.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: RBI to set up innovation hub

  • To rope in start-ups for IT solutions for financial inclusion, efficient banking services
  • The Reserve Bank will set up an innovation hub aimed at roping in start-ups to come up with ideas for addressing issues related to financial inclusion and efficient banking services. Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The new innovation hub will encourage solutions in areas such as cyber security, data analytics and delivery platform.
  • To promote innovation across the financial sector by leveraging technology and create an environment which would facilitate and foster innovation, Reserve Bank will set up an innovation hub in India.
  • The innovation hub will support, promote and hand-hold cross-thinking spanning regulatory remits and national boundaries

The hub act as a centre to create viable and innovative financial products. This will provide the following benefits:

  • The hub will help achieve efficient banking
  • Business continuity in times of emergency
  • Strengthening consumer protection

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/info-tech/rbi-to-set-up-innovation-hub/article32283796.ece

Consider the following statements regarding India Water Resources Information System

  • It provides a single window solution for all water resources data and information in a standardized national Geographic Information System (GIS) framework.
  • It is managed by the National Water Informatics Centre

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ministry of Jal Shakti launches new version of India Water Resources Information System

  • The Ministry of Jal Shakti has launched a new version of the India Water Resources Information System (India-WRIS) with new functionalities and features.
  • India-WRIS was initiated through a MoU signed in 2008 between the Central Water Commission (CWC), Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation (now Ministry of Jal Shakti) and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Department of Space.
  • This project was funded by the Central Water Commission.
  • Under the National Hydrology Project launched in 2016, India WRIS has been fundamentally revised and improved, new modules and functionalities have been added and technologies have been updated.
  • India-WRIS provides a single window solution for all water resources data and information in a standardized national Geographic Information System (GIS) framework. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It allows users to Search, Access, Visualize, Understand and Analyze comprehensive and contextual water data for the assessment, monitoring, planning and development of water resources in the context of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).
  • India WRIS is managed by the National Water Informatics Centre (NWIC), a unit of the Ministry of Jal Shakti. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1643776

Consider the following statements regarding Tsunami Ready

  • It is initiated by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO.
  • It aims to promote tsunami preparedness through active collaboration of public, community leaders, and national and local emergency management agencies.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: On Friday, two Odisha villages will be first in the country to get Tsunami-Ready certificate

  • Tsunami Ready certification will help coastal areas prepare to minimise damage to life and property in the event of a Tsunami.
  • More than 15 years after one of the devastating Tsunamis of history killed over 10,000 people in southern India, two coastal villages of Odisha would be declared ‘Tsunami-Ready’, the first in India as well as the Indian ocean region.

About Tsunami-Ready

  • ‘Tsunami-Ready’ tag is a community performance-based programme initiated by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO that promotes Tsunami preparedness through collaboration of public, community leaders, and national and local emergency management agencies. Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • To implement and monitor the implementation of ‘Tsunami-Ready’, Ministry of Earth Sciences had established a National Board that went around the country and selected 6 villages in Odisha for a pilot programme.
  • Tsunami-Ready parameters include conduction of community Tsunami-risk reduction programme, designation and mapping of Tsunami hazard zones, public display of Tsunami information, easily understood Tsunami evacuation maps, outreach and public education materials, participation in mock drills, community emergency plans and presence of reliable 24 hours early warning systems
  • The Indian Tsunami Early Warning Centre (ITEWC), INCOIS is the nodal agency to provide tsunami advisories to India.
  • INCOIS is also providing tsunami advisories to Indian Ocean region as a Tsunami Service Providers as the responsibility assigned by IOC-UNESCO.
  • The Ministry of Earth Sciences established a National Board to implement and monitor the implementation of Tsunami Ready and IOWave Exercises in India.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/on-friday-two-odisha-villages-will-be-first-in-the-country-to-get-tsunami-ready-certificate/story-Ph0LJQ7OewiYey0NDrOhlL.html

Regarding Wood’s Dispatch, which of the following statements are true?

  • Grants-in-Aid system was introduced.
  • Establishment of universities was recommended.
  • English as a medium of instruction at all levels of education was recommended

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In 1854, Charles Wood prepared a despatch on an educational system for India. Considered the “Magna Carta of English Education in. India”, this document was the first comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India.

  • It asked the Government of India to assume responsibility for education of the masses, thus repudiating the ‘downward filtration theory’, at least on paper.
  • It systematised the hierarchy from vernacular primary schools in villages at bottom, followed by Anglo –Vernacular High Schools and an affiliated college at the district level, and affiliating universities in the presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. Statement 3 is not correct.
  • It recommended English as the medium of instruction for higher studies and vernaculars at school level.
  • It laid stress on female and vocational, education, and on teachers’ training.
  • It laid down that the education imparted in government institutions should be secular. Statement 1 is correct.
  • It recommended a system of grants – in -aid to encourage private enterprise. Statement 2 is correct