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Daily Prelims Test – 06_September 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Zero Budget Natural Farming

  1. It is a method of chemical-free agriculture drawing from traditional Indian practices.
  2. M. S. Swaminathan is considered as the father of Zero Budget Natural Farming.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Zero-budget natural farming brought big gains for Andhra farmers, shows study

  • Agriculture is both the cause and victim of water scarcity. Excessive use of water threatened the sustainability of livelihoods dependent on water and agriculture, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization.
  • In the recent past, there was a global demand to shift to sustainable farming systems, such as zero-budget natural farming (ZBNF). India, too, introduced ZBNF in its Union Budget 2019-20
  • Researchers at Bengaluru-based technology-policy think-tank Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy conducted an exploratory study in Andhra Pradesh to compare ZBNF and non-ZBNF techniques in paddy, groundnut, chilli, cotton and maize farming.
  • About Zero Budget Natural Farming
  • Zero budget natural farming is a method of chemical-free agriculture drawing from traditional Indian practices. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a method of farming where the cost of growing and harvesting plants is zero.
  • This means that farmers need not purchase fertilizers and pesticides in order to ensure the healthy growth of crops.
  • It uses biological pesticides instead of chemical-based fertilizers.
  • Intensive irrigation and deep ploughing is not promoted in Zero Budget Farming.
  • ZBNF principles are in harmony with the principles of Agro ecology.
  • It requires only 10 % of water and electricity used in the former method.
  • Subash Palekar is considered as the father of Zero Budget Natural Farming.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • ZBNF is based on 4 pillars:
  • Jeevamrutha: It is a mixture of fresh cow dung and aged cow urine (both from India’s indigenous cow breed), jaggery, pulse flour, water and soil; to be applied on farmland.
  • Bijamrita: It is a concoction of neem leaves & pulp, tobacco and green chilies prepared for insect and pest management, that can be used to treat seeds.
  • Acchadana (Mulching): It protects topsoil during cultivation and does not destroy it by tilling.
  • Whapasa: It is the condition where there are both air molecules and water molecules present in the soil. Thereby helping in reducing irrigation requirement.
  • Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/zero-budget-natural-farming-brought-big-gains-for-andhra-farmers-shows-study-73127

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Consider the following statements regarding Mass spectrometry

1.It can directly detect the virus without amplifying the RNA for detection

2.It is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Detecting coronavirus using mass spectrometer

Using mass spectrometer, researchers at the Delhi-based Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB) and the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) have been able to detect novel coronavirus.

About Mass spectrometry (MS)

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. Hence statement 2 is correct

Mass spectrometry can detect the presence and quantity of various organic and inorganic compounds by detecting the ions released by them.Hence statement 1 is correct

The new method can directly detect the virus without amplifying the RNA for detection, as is the case with RT-PCR.

The benefit of this method is that we do not need the viral RNA to be intact after sample collection because we do not need to amplify the genetic material. 

Using mass spectrometer, it is able to detect novel coronavirus with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity with respect to RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction).

Detection of the virus takes less than three minutes; time from sample preparation to detection takes less than 30 minutes.

The mass spectrometer is expensive but it would cost only about ₹100 per test, and so cheaper than RT-PCR.

It can either complement RT-PCR or be used as an alternative to RT-PCR.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/detecting-coronavirus-using-mass-spectrometer/article32508000.ece

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Consider the following statements regarding Remission of Duties or Taxes on Export Product

1.It is a new scheme to replace the existing MEIS scheme for exports of goods from India

2.It is fully WTO compliant scheme

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Exports, imports are showing positive trends: Piyush Goyal

On the issue of recent changes in the Merchandise Export from India Scheme (MEIS), the minister said that the capping of Rs 2 crore will not affect 98 per cent of the exporters who claim benefit under the scheme.

The government has already announced the Remission of Duties or Taxes on Export Products (RoDTEP) scheme for exporters to replace MEIS.

The Indian government has announced a new WTO-compliant scheme called the Remission of Duties or Taxes on Export Product (RoDTEP) which will replace Merchandise Export from India Scheme (MEIS) starting 1 January, 2021.

About Remission of Duties or Taxes on Export Products

RoDTEP (Remission of Duties or Taxes on Export Products) is a Scheme for the Exporters to make Indian products cost-competitive and create a level playing field for them in the Global Market. 

RoDTEP Scheme will replace the current MEIS scheme, which is not in compliance with WTO norms and rules. Hence statement 1 is correct

The new RoDTEP Scheme is fully WTO compliant schemeHence statement 2 is correct

It will reimburse all the taxes/duties/levies being charged at the Central/State/Local level which are not currently refunded under any of the existing schemes but are incurred at the manufacturing and distribution process

The rebate would be claimed as a percentage of the Freight On Board (FOB) value of exports.

Objectives of RoDTEP scheme:

To boost exports Scheme for enhancing Exports to International Markets.

To make Indian exports cost competitive and create a level playing field for Indian exporters in International market.

To give a boost to employment generation in various sectors.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/exports-imports-are-showing-positive-trends-piyush-goyal/articleshow/77937908.cms

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Consider the following statements regarding Vishnupad temple

1.It is located on the banks of Falgu River

2.It is an ancient temple in Gaya and is dedicated to Lord Vishnu

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Bihar: Patna High court reprimands pvt body managing Vishnupad temple

Patna High Court has reprimanded the private managing body of Vishnupad temple in Gaya asking it to manage the temple properly for lakhs of devotees who visit every year.

About Vishnupad Temple

The origin of the temple is unknown but it is believed that Ahilya Bai Holkarthe queen of Indore, had the present octagonal shrine built in 1787.

The temple is located on the banks of Falgu River and draws devotees from across the country.Hence statement 1 is correct

It is famous for the 40 cm long footprint, having nine symbols including Shankam, Chakram and Gadham.

It is an ancient temple in Gaya, Bihar, India. It is a Hindu temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=399091

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Consider the following statements

1.Gross Domestic Product is the final value of the goods and services produced within the geographic boundaries of a country during a specified period of time.

2.In India, Gross Domestic Product is measured as market prices and the base year for computation is 2011-12

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:High GDP contraction due to strict lockdown, economy witnessing sharp V-shaped recovery’: Finance Ministry

India imposed the most stringent lockdowns among the countries most affected by the Covid-19 pandemic, resulting in a sharp contraction of 23.9 per cent in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate in the April-June quarter, the monthly economic review by the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance

The higher contraction has resulted from the stringent lockdown that India enforced in the April-June quarter.

About Gross Domestic Product

GDP is the final value of the goods and services produced within the geographic boundaries of a country during a specified period of time, normally a year. Hence statement 1 is correct

GDP growth rate is an important indicator of the economic performance of a country. 

It can be measured by three methods, namely,

GDP (as per output method) = Real GDP (GDP at constant prices) – Taxes + Subsidies.

GDP (as per expenditure method) = C + I + G + (X-IM)

GDP (as per income method) = GDP at factor cost + Taxes – Subsidies.

In India, contributions to GDP are mainly divided into 3 broad sectors – agriculture and allied services, industry and service sector

In India, GDP is measured as market prices and the base year for computation is 2011-12. Hence statement 2 is correct

GDP at market prices = GDP at factor cost + Indirect Taxes – Subsidies 

India’s Central Statistic Office calculates the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP).

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/economy/gdp-contraction-lockdown-economy-finance-ministry-6583534/

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Consider the following statements regarding Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment

1.It is an ambitious double-spacecraft mission to deflect an asteroid in space

2.It is a joint mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: Why most asteroids do not pose a threat to Earth

Asteroid 465824 2010 FR, “twice as big as the Pyramid of Giza” and expected to cross the Earth’s orbit has invited similar reactions– clinching alarming descriptions such as “rocky horror” and “dangerous asteroid”.

The most drastic measure undertaken so far is the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA), which includes NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Hera. The mission’s target is Didymos, a binary near-Earth asteroid, one of whose bodies is of the size that could pose a significant threat to Earth.

About Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA)

It is an ambitious double-spacecraft mission to deflect an asteroid in space, to prove the technique as a viable method of planetary defence.Hence statement 1 is correct

The mission, which includes NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), is known as the Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA).Hence statement 2 is correct

The target is the smaller of two bodies in the “double Didymos asteroids” that are in orbit between Earth and Mars.

Didymos is a near-Earth asteroid system. Its main body measures about 780 m across; the smaller body is a “moonlet” about 160 m in diameter.

The project aims to deflect the orbit of the smaller body through an impact by one spacecraft.

Then a second spacecraft will survey the crash site and gather the maximum possible data on the effect of this collision.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-most-asteroids-do-not-pose-a-threat-to-us-6584605/

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Consider the following statements regarding Start-Up Village Entrepreneurship Programme

1.It is implemented by Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana –National Urnban Livelihoods Mission

2.It aims to support the rural poor come out of poverty, supporting them setup enterprises and provide support till the enterprises stabilize.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Start-Up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP) is propelling enterprises in rural areas and building rural entrepreneurs

Start-Up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP) is implemented by Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana –National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM), Ministry of Rural Development, as a sub-scheme since 2016. Hence statement 1 is incorrect

With an objective to support the rural poor come out of poverty, supporting them setup enterprises and provide support till the enterprises stabilize, SVEP focusses on providing self-employment opportunities with financial assistance and training in business management and soft skills while creating local community cadres for promotion of enterprises.Hence statement 2 is correct

SVEP addresses three major pillars of rural start-ups namely – finances, incubation and skill ecosystems. 

Activities under SVEP are strategically designed to promote rural enterprises, one of the key areas is to develop pool of community resource persons – enterprise promotion (CRP-EP) who are local and support entrepreneurs setting-up rural enterprises.

SVEP promotes both individual and group enterprises, set-up and promote enterprises majorly on manufacturing, trading and service sectors.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1651525

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Dongria Kondh is a particularly vulnerable tribal group inhabitingin which of the following state in india?

1.Kerala

2.Tamilnadu

3.Gujarat

4.Odisha

Answer: (d) Odisha

Explanation:

In NEWS:Many hands ensure green fields among Odisha’s tribal villages

Eight years ago when MindaKadarka, a tribal woman from Odisha’s Rayagada district, lost her husband, she had very little money to rely on.

They are known to practice at least 10 types of cooperative labour sharing within the community.

The concept of labour cooperatives is still in practice in almost all tribal communities, including the DongriaKondh, Juanga, LanjiaSaura, Saura, Didayi, PaudiBhuyan and Kandh in Odisha.

The DongriaKondh is a particularly vulnerable tribal group inhabiting Odisha’s Niyamgiri Hill range.Hence option (d) is correct.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/many-hands-ensure-green-fields-among-odishas-tribal-villages/article32532422.ece

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Basic structure of Indian Constitution as a new doctrine was laid down by which of the following? 

1.Kesavananda Bharati case 

2.Golaknath case 

3.Minerva Mills case 

4.Berubari Union case

Answer: (a) Kesavanandha Bharati Case

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: What was the Kesavananda Bharati case, the landmark SC judgment that established ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution?

Kesavananda Bharati, the head of the Edaneer Mutt in Kasargod who passed away on Sunday (September 6) morning, will forever be remembered for the legal challenge that he mounted against the government of Kerala, which is considered by the majority of legal scholars as the greatest constitutional case in India’s judicial history.

About the basic structure doctrine

  • The basic structure doctrine is an Indian judicial principle that the Constitution of India has certain basic features that cannot be altered or destroyed through amendments by the parliament. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • The basic structure doctrine applies only to constitutional amendments.
  • The basic features of the Constitution have not been explicitly defined by the Judiciary,
  • and the claim of any particular feature of the Constitution to be a “basic” feature is
  • determined by the Court in each case that comes before it.
  • Basic structure is interpreted to include the supremacy of the Constitution, rule of law, independence of the judiciary, doctrine of separation of powers, federalism, secularism, sovereign democratic republic, the parliamentary system of government, principle of free and fair elections, welfare state, etc.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/kesavananda-bharati-case-basic-structure-of-the-constitution-supreme-court-6585110/


In India, the use of carbofuran, methyl parathion, phorate and triazophos is viewed with apprehension. These chemicals are used as

  1. pesticides in agriculture
  2. preservatives in processed foods
  3. fruit-ripening agents
  4. moisturizing agents in cosmetics

Answer: (a) pesticides in agriculture

Explanation: Carbofuran, Phorate and Triazophos are pesticides used in agriculture.

  • To promote organic farming in Kerala, the state agriculture department had ordered a ban on the use of pesticides on May 7. Kerala Agriculture University was asked to provide alternatives to the banned pesticides, which include carbofuran, phorate, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, methyl demethon, prophenophos and triazophos. The university suggested less hazardous pesticides, like acephate, carbaryl, dimethoate and flubendiamide. Hence option (a) is correct.