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Daily Prelims Test – 06_October 2020

Dhaulasidh Hydro Project is proposed on which of the following river in india?

  1. Beas River
  2. Teesta River
  3. Damodar River
  4. Ganga River

Answer: (a) Beas River

Explanation:

In NEWS: Along with the inauguration of Atal Tunnel, another decision was taken for the people of Himachal, the PM said, adding that a 66 MW Dhaulasidh Hydro Electric Project in Hamirpur was recently approved.

  • The project is proposed on the horse shoe curve of the Beas and since there is a temple of local deity Dhaulasidh (see pic), it was named Dhaulasidh Hydro Electric Project. Hence option (a) is correct
  • It is planned on the flow of the Beas near the temple at Amli village in Nadaun sub-division of Hamirpur district.
  • The aim is to generate hydroelectricity and use water for irrigation in adjoining areas of both districts.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pm-modi-addresses-public-rally-at-himachal-pradesh-s-solang-after-atal-tunnel-inauguration-in-rohtang/story-O2IFmKJtxY3yVSkJ9fJjJJ.html


Sometimes the term SMART is seen in news, it is associated to

  1. Renewable Energy
  2. Carbon Storage
  3. Solid waste Management
  4. Torpedo

Answer: (d) Torpedo

Explanation:

In NEWS: India conducts successful flight test of SMART; ‘Game-changer,’ says DRDO chief

  • India on Monday conducted a successful flight test of the Supersonic Missile Assisted Release of Torpedo (SMART) from Wheeler Island off the coast of Odisha. Hence option (d) is correct
  • All mission objectives, including missile flight upto the range and altitude, separation of the nose cone, the release of Torpedo and deployment of Velocity Reduction Mechanism (VRM), were met perfectly in the flight test.
  • SMART is an anti-submarine Torpedo system and is the fastest in the world. It has a range of 650 km.
  • In SMART, two weapon capabilities have been combined to form one and thus Hybrid. The two weapon capabilities are the missile part and the torpedo part. The Torpedoes all over the world have launch range around 50 km and the rocket assisted one have till 140-150 km. However, SMART due to this hybrid technology has a range of 650 km.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/drdo-successfully-flight-tests-supersonic-missile-assisted-release-of-torpedo/story-W9pJlC9KtQiXslItHoRt9K.html


Consider the following statements regardingHS code

  1. It is a six-digit identification code.
  2. It was developed by World Customs Organization as a multipurpose international product nomenclature.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: GST Council meet key updates: ₹20,000 crore cess to be released soon, change in GST return filing

  • The compensation cess collected this year so far — amounting to ₹20,000 crore — will be disbursed to the states tonight, the finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman said after the 42nd Goods and Services Tax (GST) Council meet. The centre also extended the compensation cess beyond June 2022.
  • From 1 April 2021, taxpayers with turnover more than ₹5 crore will have to compulsorily mention HSN codes up to 6 digits. Those with turnover less than ₹5 crore will have to mention HSN code up to 4 digits, for B2B supplies, the finance ministry said

About Harmonized System

  • HS Stands for Harmonized System and it is a six-digit identification code.  Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was developed by the WCO (World Customs Organization) and customs officers use HS Code to clear every commodity that enters or crosses any international border. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • HS Code is also known as HSN Code in India. Goods are classified into Harmonized System of Nomenclature or HSN. It is used up to 8 digit level. HSN classification is widely used for taxation purposes by helping to identify the rate of tax applicable to a specific product in a country that is under review. It can also be used in calculations that involve claiming benefits.

Source: https://www.livemint.com/politics/policy/gst-council-meet-key-updates-rs-20-000-crore-cess-to-be-released-tonight-change-in-gst-return-filing-11601908530693.html


Consider the following statements regardingHepatitis C

  1. It is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus and is not a bloodborne virus
  2. It is not sexually transmitted and there is no known vaccine for hepatitis C

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Hepatitis C discovery earns trio Nobel Prize for Medicine

  • Two Americans and a Briton won the 2020 Nobel Prize for Medicine on Monday for identifying the Hepatitis C virus, in work spanning decades that has helped to limit the spread of the fatal disease and develop antiviral drugs to cure it.
  • In the late 1969, Alter showed that a non-A, non-B blood-borne virus also caused liver disease, and in 1989, Houghton successfully cloned the virus by introducing viral DNA from an infected animal into bacteria, and using human antibodies to screen for its genetic sequence. This pioneering molecular biology technique to identify a virus led to tests to screen blood for hepatitis C virus, which increased blood safety. Rice cloned the virus to demonstrate that it alone caused disease.

About Hepatitis C

  • Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV): the virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness.
  • Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver cancer.
  • The hepatitis C virus is a bloodborne virus: the most common modes of infection are through exposure to small quantities of blood. This may happen through injection drug use, unsafe injection practices, unsafe health care, transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products, and sexual practices that lead to exposure to blood. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Hepatitis C virus causes both acute and chronic infection.
  • Hepatitis C viruses can also be transmitted sexually, but HBV is much more likely than HCV to be transmitted sexually. There is currently no effective vaccine against hepatitis C. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Hepatitis C is not spread through breast milk, food, water or casual contact such as hugging, kissing and sharing food or drinks with an infected person.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/hepatitis-c-discovery-earns-trio-nobel-prize-for-medicine/story-cfnLSEylOY4sk8v9rLjsqJ.html


Consider the following statements regardingPOCSO Act

  1. It says that when a person is prosecuted for committing an offence of sexual assault against a minor, the special court trying the case shall presume the accused to be guilty.
  2. National Commission for Human Rights is mandated to monitor the implementation of POCSO Act, 2012.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Section 29 of POCSO Act applicable only after trial begins: Delhi High Court

  • The Delhi High Court has ruled that the presumption of guilt engrafted in Section 29 of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act gets triggered and applies only once trial begins, that is after charges are framed against the accusedHence statement 1 is correct
  • The reverse burden on the accused to prove his innocence was incorporated in the POCSO Act keeping in view the low conviction rate of sexual offences against children.
  • The question of whether the presumption of guilt applies only at the stage of trial and also apply when a bail plea is being considered.

About Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO Act), 2012:

  • Ministry of Women and Child Development championed the introduction of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012.
  • The act was enacted by the Government of India to protect children from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography, while safeguarding the interest of the child at every stage of the judicial process.
  • The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) is mandated to monitor the implementation of POCSO Act, 2012. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Salient features:

  • The Act defines a child as any person below 18 years of age, and regards the best interests and well-being of the child as being of paramount importance at every stage, to ensure the healthy physical, emotional, intellectual and social development of the child.
  • The act defines different forms of sexual abuse, including penetrative and non-penetrative assault, as well as sexual harassment and pornography.
  • Establishment of Special Courts for trial of offences under the Act, keeping the best interest of the child as of paramount importance at every stage of the judicial process.
  • It deems a sexual assault to be “aggravated” under certain circumstances, such as when the abused child is mentally ill or when the abuse is committed by a person in a position of trust or authority.
  • People who traffic children for sexual purposes are also punishable under the provisions relating to abetment in the Act.
  • The Act prescribes stringent punishment graded as per the gravity of the offence, with a maximum term of rigorous imprisonment for life, and fine.
  • The POCSO Act is only applicable to child survivors and adult offenders.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/section-29-of-pocso-act-applicable-only-after-trial-begins-hc/article32768133.ece


Recently, the term Eriocaulon parvicephalum and Eriocaulon karaavalense is seen in news, it is related to :

  1. An eel fish species
  2. A paddy field small frog
  3. A new species of brackish water fish
  4. A pipeworts species

Answer: (d) A pipeworts species

Explanation:

In NEWS: 2 new species of pipeworts discovered by scientists in Western Ghats

  • Scientists from the Agharkar Research Institute in Pune have recently discovered two new species of pipeworts in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The species reported from Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra has been named Eriocaulon parvicephalum (due to its minute inflorescence size), and the other reported from Kumta, Karnataka is called Eriocaulon karaavalense (named after Karaavali, Coastal Karnataka region)
  • Pipeworts (Eriocaulon) is a plant group which completes its life cycle within a small period during monsoon. It exhibits great diversity in the Western Ghats.
  • Around 111 species of pipeworts are found in India. Most of these are reported from the Western Ghats and the eastern Himalayas, and around 70 per cent of them are endemic to the country.
  • The medicinal properties of the newly discovered species are yet to be explored

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/it-s-viral/2-new-species-of-pipeworts-discovered-by-scientists-in-western-ghats/story-j8mgJcZVbem6s36rEoDTkM.html


Consider the following statements regardingIndelible Ink in India

  1. It was first used during India’s first General Elections in 1951
  2. It is a semi-permanent ink and is made up of the chemical called silver nitrate.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ink used for COVID-19 quarantine stamp at Delhi airport raises concern

  • The Congress leader complained about pain and itchiness due to the chemical used in the ink to stamp international passengers at the airport
  • Senior govt officials said Delhi state authorities at the airport have started using a fresh batch of ink

About Indelible Ink in India

  • It is a semi-permanent ink that is applied on the finger of voters during elections as a deterrent against voting twice.
  • The ink was first used during India’s third General Elections in 1962. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The chemical used in indelible ink is silver nitrate. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Indelible ink remains bright for about 10 days, after which it starts fading.
  • Once applied on skin it cannot be washed off with soap, alcohol or bleach. It will disappear only when old skin cells are replaced.
  • When put on the skin, silver nitrate reacts with the salt present on it to form silver chloride.
  • Silver chloride is not soluble in water, and clings to the skin. It cannot be washed off with soap and water.
  • Mysore Paints and Varnish Ltd. was founded in 1937 by Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV. The company is the sole supplier of indelible ink for civic body, Assembly and Parliamentary polls. It also supplies ink to about 25 countries.

Source: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/delhi-airport-changes-quarantine-stamp-ink-after-congress-leader-posts-this-photo-11601896803945.html


What is Xoo infection?

  1. It is an bacterial leaf blight disease in rice.
  2. It is a chilblains occur due to inflammation of blood vessels and response to repeated exposure of cold air
  3. It is a common children’s virus causing sores in the mouth and a rash on the hands and feet.
  4. It is a lethal fungal disease in Indian banana

Answer: (a) It is an bacterial leaf blight disease in rice.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Moving towards a vaccine to reduce yield loss due to diseases in rice

  • A scientist has uncovered the mechanism by which a bacterium called Xoo (Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae) that causes a serious bacterial leaf blight disease in rice interacts with rice plant and cause disease.
  • The researchers at the Centre for Plant Molecular Biology (CPMB) Hyderabad are working to identify and develop few molecules which are derived from either the Xoo bacterium or from the infected rice cell walls.
  • The team is developing new disease control strategies which they can use as vaccines that activate the rice immune system and provide resistance to rice plants from subsequent infections by pathogens.

About Xoo infection

  • Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is commonly known as Xoo infection. It is an bacterial leaf blight disease in rice. It causes huge yield losses to rice cultivation in both temperate and tropical regions especially in Asia. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The treatment of rice with cellulase, a cell wall degrading enzyme secreted by Xoo induces rice immune responses and protects rice from subsequent infections by Xoo.
  • It is a bacterial pathovar which causes a serious blight of rice, other grasses and sedges.
  • The bacterial blight of rice has high epidemic potential and is destructive to high-yielding cultivars in both temperate and tropical regions.

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1661596#:~:text=We%20may%20be%20close%20to,rice%20plant%20and%20cause%20disease.


In which one of the following States is Suchindram Theroor Bird Sanctuary located?

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Kerala

Answer: (a) Tamil Nadu

Explanation:

In NEWS: Housing projects pose threat to Suchindram Theroor Bird Sanctuary in Tamil Nadu

  • Lush, green paddy fields interspersed with banana and coconut groves stretch endlessly from one side of Parakkai Kulam, Kooni Kulam and Suchindram kuluam in Kanyakumari district
  • They offer a habitat for native and migratory birds around the protected zone of the Suchindram Theroor Bird Sanctuary. However, with real estate sharks in the process of converting some wetlands into housing plots, the bird habitat has come under threat.

About Suchindram Theroor Bird Sanctuary

  • It is a protected area comprising the Suchindram Kulam wetlandsand the Theroor Kulam wetlands in Tamil Nadu. Hence option (a) is correct
  • It is located between Nagercoil and Kanyakumari.
  • Being at the extreme southern tip of India, this area underlies the southernmost continental range of the Central Asian Flyway.
  • It is an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) of India.
  • Suchindram is noted for the wide variety of migratory waterbirds.
  • In 2015, the southernmost wintering ground of the migratory birds in the country comprising a host of wetlands in Suchindram, Theroor and Manakudi estuary in Kanyakumari district has been declared as a conservation reserve.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/housing-projects-pose-threat-to-suchindram-theroor-bird-sanctuary-in-tamil-nadus-kanniyakumari-district/article32767615.ece


Siachen Glacier is situated to the

  1. East of Aksai Chin
  2. East of Leh
  3. North of Gilgit
  4. North of Nubra Valley

Answer: (d) North of Nubra Valley

Explanation:

Siachen Glacier:

  • The Siachen Glacier is located in Northern Ladakh in the eastern Karakoram Range of the Himalayas. Siachen Glacier lies to the north of the valley. Hence option (d) is correct
  • It is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world’s non-polar areas.
  • It is the highest battle field in the world and lies on LoC (Line of Control) between India and Pakistan.
  • The Siachen Glacier lies south of the great drainage divide that separates the Eurasian Plate from the Indian subcontinent in the extensively glaciated portion of the Karakoram sometimes called the “Third Pole”.