KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 06_March 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Municipal Performance Index

It has released by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs

It seeks to examine local government practice in municipalities across five verticals are Services, Finance, Policy, Technology and Governance

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 

  • Three of the four cities from the State that were among the 111 cities assessed made it to the top 10, as per the rankings of the Ease of Living Index -2020 and the Municipal Performance Index – 2020 released by the Ministry for Housing and Urban Affairs. Hence statement 1 is correct

About Municipal Performance Index (MPI)

  • It was launched as an accompaniment to the Ease of Living Index.
  • It seeks to examine local government practice in municipalities across five verticals.
  • The five verticals under MPI are Services, Finance, Policy, Technology and Governance. Hence statement 2 is correct
    1. The municipalities are ranked across five verticals which comprise 20 sectors and 100 indicators in all totality.
  • It seeks to simplify and evaluate the complexities in local governance practice and promote the ethos of transparency and accountability.
  • It has classified municipalities based on their population: Million+ (municipalities having over a million population); and Less than Million Population
  • It examined the sectoral performance of 111 municipalities (with Delhi being assessed separately for NDMC, and the three Municipal Corporations).
  • In the Million+ category, Indore has emerged as the highest ranked municipality, followed by Surat and Bhopal.
  • In the Less than Million category, New Delhi Municipal Council has emerged as the leader, followed by Tirupati and Gandhinagar.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/top-honours-for-three-cities-in-state/article33992606.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding International North South Transport Corridor project

  1. It was originally decided between India, Iran and Russia in 2000 in St Petersburg.
  2. It envisions a 7,200-km-long multi-mode network of ship, rail and road route for transporting freight

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India proposes inclusion of Chabahar port in international north-south corridor

  • Chabahar port, where an Indian state-run firm operates a terminal, is a key part of India’s plans to enhance connectivity to Afghanistan and the Central Asian states
  • India proposed the inclusion of Iran’s Chabahar port in the International North South Transport Corridor (INSTC)
  • It also wants to expand INSTC membership by including Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
  • India is not at present part of the 628-km railway project, which Iran decided to develop on its own last year.
  • The railway project has stalled for the past few years due to sanctions from the U.S. under the Trump administration.

About International North South Transport Corridor (INSTC)

  • Russia, India, and Iran are the founding member states of INSTC. The agreement was signed in 2002. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It included 10 other central Asian and west Asian countries: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkey, Ukraine, Belarus, Oman, Syria and Bulgaria as an observer.
  • It  envisions a 7,200-km-long multi-mode network of ship, rail and road route for transporting freight, aimed at reducing the carriage cost between India and Russia by about 30% and bringing down the transit time from 40 days by more than half. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The transport and transit corridor is intended to ensure the unhindered flow of commerce throughout the region and to create a safe, secure and reliable route to trade initially with Afghanistan, and thereafter with Central Asia as a whole
  • The earlier trade route connecting India and Russia was through the Suez Canal. Hence the major objective of the INSTC corridor was to reduce the time taken, costs incurred, and increase connectivity between major cities like Mumbai, Moscow, Astrakhan(located in Russia), Baku (Azerbaijan), Tehran, Bandar Abbas and Bandar  Anzail (All located in Iran).

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-proposes-inclusion-of-chabahar-port-in-international-north-south-corridor-101614848496070.html


.Consider the following Statements regarding Space hurricane

  1. It rains electrons directly into Earth’s upper atmosphere instead of water
  2. It was invisible to the naked eye

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: First-ever ‘space hurricane’ detected over the North Pole

  • For the first time, astronomers have detected a powerful, 600-mile-wide (1,000 kilometers) hurricane of plasma in Earth’s upper atmosphere — a phenomenon they’re calling a “space hurricane.”
  • The space hurricane raged for nearly 8 hours on Aug. 20, 2014, swirling hundreds of miles above Earth’s magnetic North Pole
  • The hurricane was invisible to the naked eye however, four weather satellites that passed over the North Pole detected a formation, not unlike a typical terrestrial hurricane. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Using a 3D model of the hurricane, the researchers hypothesized that the formation resulted from a complex interaction between incoming solar wind (high-speed gales of plasma periodically released by the sun) and the magnetic field over the North Pole.
  • The phenomenon was noticed during a retrospective analysis led by the researchers at Shandong University in China.

What is Space Hurricane ‘?

  • A ‘space hurricane’ is a swirling mass of plasma.
  • It rains electrons directly into Earth’s upper atmosphere instead of waterHence statement 1 is correct
  • Hurricanes often cause loss of life and property through high winds and flooding resulting from the coastal storm surge of the ocean and the torrential rains.
  • They are characterised by a low-pressure centre (hurricane eye), strong winds and flow shears, and a spiral arrangement of towering clouds with heavy rains.
  • The studies of space hurricane will help in understanding important space weather effects such as satellite drag, disturbances in high frequency (HF) radio communications, and errors in over-the-horizon radar location, satellite navigation and communication systems better.

Source: https://www.livescience.com/space-hurricane-over-north-pole.html


Consider the following Statements regarding Central Bureau of Investigation

  1. It was set up by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1963 after Santhanam committee recommendation.
  2. The Director of the CBI is appointed as per section 4A of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act of 1946.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Plea in Supreme Court seeks appointment of regular CBI Director through high-power panel

  1. A writ petition has been filed in the Supreme Court seeking the appointment of a regular CBI Director through the high-power selection committee of the Prime Minister, the Chief Justice of India and the Leader of the Opposition.
  2. The government has failed to appoint the Director of the CBI as per Section 4A of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act of 1946 on the expiry of the term of the last incumbent, Rishi Kumar Shukla. Hence statement 2 is correct
  3. The petition pointed out that instead of a regular appointment to the top CBI post, the government-appointed Praveen Sinha  as an “interim/acting CBI Director.”
  4. CBI director being the sensitive post, it is the final authority in the organization in several sensitive investigations therefore it will hamper the functional autonomy of the CBI and limit the extent of executive discretion.

About Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

  • It is the main investigation agency of the central government for cases relating to corruption and major criminal probes. 
  • It has its origin in the Special Police Establishment set up in 1941 to probe bribery and corruption during World War II.
  • CBI was set up by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1963 after Santhanam committee recommendation. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Superintendence of CBI rests with CVC in corruption cases and with Department of personnel and training in other matters.
  • Presently it acts as an attached office under DOPT.

Although DSPE Act gives legal power to CBI, CBI is not a statutory body as:

  • Word ‘CBI’ is not mentioned in the DSPE act.
  • Executive order of MHA did not mention CBI to be constituted under DSPE Act.
  • Functions of CBI include solving:
  • Corruption Cases
  • Economic Crimes like financial frauds, narcotics, antiques,smuggling etc.
  • Special Crimes like Terrorism,ransom for kidnapping etc

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/plea-in-supreme-court-seeks-appointment-of-regular-cbi-director-through-high-power-panel/article33991882.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Genome

It refers to an organism’s complete set of DNA, which includes all its genes

Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: First project to map genomes in Indian Ocean

  • The 90-day long expedition will start from the east coast of India, travelling all the way to the Southern hemisphere up to 30 degrees south, touching upon waters between Australia Maldives and ending at Goa, covering over 9000 nautical miles.
  • Scientists expect to go as deep as six kilometres into the Indian ocean to collect samples using the non-metallic system to avoid any biological contamination.
  • The scientists will use next-generation sequencing (massively parallel sequencing of DNA fragments) and Sanger sequencing techniques (single DNA fragments at a time) to extract genetic information of the organisms they come across.
  • They will also collect sediments and use piston and gravity coring techniques in the ocean.
  • It aims to identify and characterise the genes and proteins in the ocean to understand the cellular level operations of organisms in the ocean.
  • It may help in strengthening the country’s research into commercial biotechnology applications including anticancer treatments as well as help understand new climate change patterns.
  • The Indian Ocean is the third-largest in size and plays a great role in the functioning of climate, regulating atmospheric oxygen.

What is a Genome?

  • Every organism’s genetic code is contained in its Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA), the building blocks of life. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Genome refers to an organism’s complete set of DNA, which includes all its genes and mapping these genes simply means finding out the location of these genes in a chromosome.
  • Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/first-project-to-map-genomes-in-indian-ocean/articleshow/81302675.cms


In the context of mitigating the impending global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, which of the following can be potential sites for carbon sequestration? 

Abandoned and uneconomic coal seams 

Depleted oil and gas reservoirs 

Subterranean deep saline formations 

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only 
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3 

Explanation:

  • Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide. 
  • Geological sequestration involves the storage of CO2 underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, saline formations or deep, unmineable coal beds. Hence option (d) is correct.

Consider the following Statements regarding Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre

  1. It has been established under Ministry of Home affairs
  2. It aims to create an ecosystem that brings together academia, industry, public and government in prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of cybercrimes.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Cyber crime volunteers plan fraught with dangers: Internet Freedom Foundation

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs’ (MHA) controversial “cyber crime volunteers” programme targets to rope in around 500 persons to flag unlawful content on the Internet for “improvement in the cybercrime ecosystem of India”.
  • The programme will include 200 “cyber awareness promoters” and 50 “cyber experts”, according to the output outcome monitoring framework of the MHA’s budget 2021-22.
  • The output outcome framework developed by the NITI Aayog was adopted in the 2019-20 budget to define and evaluate government schemes below ₹500 crore in terms of outcomes.
  • The National Cybercrime Ecosystem Management Unit is part of the Indian Cybercrime Coordination Centre (I4C) scheme launched by Union Home Minister Amit Shah in January 2020.
  • The project was approved in October 2018 at an estimated cost of ₹415.86 crore.
  • The I4C scheme that includes other components also has been allocated ₹69.80 crore in the budget.

About Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre

  • Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) has been established under the Ministry of Home affairs (MHA). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It will act as a nodal point at National level in the fight against cybercrime.
  • It aims to provide a platform to deal with cybercrimes in a coordinated and comprehensive manner.
  • One of the important objectives of I4C is to create an ecosystem that brings together academia, industry, public and government in prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of cybercrimes.
  • I4C has envisaged the Cyber Crime Volunteers Program to bring together citizens with passion to serve the nation on a single platform and contribute in the fight against cybercrime in the country. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Good Samaritans are welcome to register as Cyber Crime Volunteers in the role of Unlawful Content Flaggers for facilitating law enforcement agencies in identifying, reporting and removal of illegal / unlawful online content.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/cyber-crime-volunteers-plan-fraught-with-dangers-internet-freedom-foundation/article33973393.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Dandi March

It was a direct-action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly under the 1882 British Salt Act.

Civil disobedience movement was started with Dandi March by Mahatma Gandhi on 12th March, 1930

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM to launch events on March 12, may flag off ‘Dandi March’

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi is expected to launch the celebrations of the 75 years of Independence — Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav — on March 12 by flagging off a ‘Dandi March’ from the Gandhi Ashram in Sabarmati
  • The National Committee which includes dignitaries and eminent citizens from all walks of life, “will provide policy direction and guidelines for formulation of programs for the commemoration of 75th anniversary of Indian Independence, at the national and international levels”.

About Dandi March

  • Salt March is also known as Salt Satyagraha, Dandi March or Civil Disobedience Movement. The Salt Satyagraha was initiated by Mahatma Gandhi against the salt tax that was imposed by the British Government in India. It was a mass civil disobedience movement.  Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Indians had been making salt from seawater free of cost until the passing of the 1882 Salt Act that gave the British monopoly over the production of salt and authority to impose a salt tax. It was a criminal offence to violate the salt act. Gandhiji also hoped to unite Hindus and Muslims as the cause was common to both groups.
  • The salt tax accounted for 8.2% of the British Raj revenue from tax and Gandhiji knew that the government could not ignore this.
  • Gandhiji informed Lord Irwin of his plan on 2nd March 1930.
  • He would lead a group of people from his Ashram at Sabarmati on 12th March 1930 and walk through the villages of Gujarat. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • On reaching the coastal village of Dandi, he would make salt from seawater thereby breaking the salt act. Gandhiji started the march as planned with 80 of his followers. They were given strict instructions not to resort to any kind of violence.
  • Thousands of people thronged the path from Sabarmati Ashram to Ahmedabad to witness the historic event.
  • At the end of every day, Gandhiji would address thousands of people and attack the government in his speeches.
  • Gandhiji talked to foreign journalists and wrote articles for newspapers on the way. This pushed the Indian independence movement into the forefront of world media. Gandhiji became a household name in the West.
  • Sarojini Naidu joined him on the way. Every day more and more people joined him and on 5th April 1930, they reached Dandi.
  • Around 60,000 people including Gandhi himself were arrested by the government.
  • There was widespread civil disobedience carried on by the people. Apart from the salt tax, other unpopular tax laws were being defied like the forest laws, chowkidar tax, land tax, etc.
  • The government tried to suppress the movement with more laws and censorship.
  • The Congress Party was declared illegal. But this did not deter the satyagrahis who continued the movement.
  • There were some incidents of violence in Calcutta and Karachi but Gandhiji did not call off the movement, unlike the previous time with the non-cooperation movement.
  • C Rajagopalachari led a similar march on the southeast coast from Trichy to Vedaranyam in Tamil Nadu. He too was arrested for making salt.
  • K Kelappan led a march in the Malabar region from Calicut to Payyanur.
  • There were similar marches and salt was produced illegally in Assam and Andhra Pradesh.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/pm-to-launch-events-on-march-12-may-flag-off-dandi-march-7216559/


Consider the following Statements regarding Solid Fuel Ducted Ramjet

  1. It is a missile propulsion system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation
  2. It is a missile propulsion system that comprises the thrust modulated ducted rocket along with the reduced smoke nozzle-less missile booster.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: DRDO tests Solid Fuel Ducted Ramjet technology

  • The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) on Friday successfully carried out a flight demonstration based on Solid Fuel Ducted Ramjet (SFDR) technology from Integrated Test Range (ITR) Chandipur off the coast of Odisha.

About Solid Fuel Ducted Ramjet (SFDR)

  • It is a missile propulsion system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).  Hence statement 1 is correct
  • DRDO developed the project with the aim of developing the critical technologies which are required in the propulsion systems of future long range air-to-air missiles of India. 
  • It is a missile propulsion system that comprises the thrust modulated ducted rocket along with the reduced smoke nozzle-less missile boosterHence statement 2 is correct
  • Thrust modulation of the system is achieved through a hot gas flow controller. 
  • SFDR uses a solid fuelled air-breathing ramjet engine.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/drdo-conducts-successful-flight-test-of-sfdr-technology/article33996244.ece


The object of the Butler Committee of 1927 was to 

  1. Define the jurisdiction of the Central and Provincial Governments.
  2. Define the powers of the Secretary of State for India. 
  3. Impose censorship on the national press. 
  4. Improve the relationship between the Government of India and the Indian States.

Answer: (c) Improve the relationship between the Government of India and the Indian States.

Explanation:

  • The Report of the Butler Committee on the relations between the Indian States and British India . The Committee advised that the Viceroy (instead of the Governor-General in Council) should represent the Crown in all dealings with the States. This proposed change is comparable with the new Imperial arrangement by which the Governor-General of a Dominion is High Commissioner for the Dominion’s Protectorates. The Committee sympathize with the fear of the Native Princes that their States might pass without their consent under a new Government in British India responsible to an Indian Legislature, and they plainly express the opinion that no such transference should be made without the consent of the Princes.Hence option (c) is correct