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Daily Prelims Test – 06_August

Consider the following statements regarding Women Entrepreneurship and Empowerment

  • It aims to helps women ranging from college going students to middle-aged housewives to take up entrepreneurship as a viable, fulfilling career option.
  • It has been founded by IIT Delhi and is supported by the Department of Science and Technology.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 11 Women entrepreneurs awarded by Women Entrepreneurship and Empowerment cohort

  • The Women Entrepreneurship and Empowerment, WEE cohort initiative helps women ranging from college going students to middle-aged housewives to take up entrepreneurship as a viable, fulfilling career Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is India’s first of its kind initiative to strengthen women’s ecosystem at IIT Delhi, supported and sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The cash awards in the form of a grant totalling Rs 25 lakh have been presented to 11 Women entrepreneurs.
  • Aim: To focus and ignite a fire amongst women from a college going student to a middle-aged housewife to embrace entrepreneurship as a viable fulfilling career option.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=11-Women-entrepreneurs-awarded-by-Women-Entrepreneurship-and-Empowerment-cohort&id=396350

Consider the following statements regarding Ammonium nitrate

  • It is a white, crystalline chemical which is soluble in water.
  • It is the main ingredient in the manufacture of commercial explosives used in mining and construction.
  • It is not an explosive on its own

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is ammonium nitrate, which caused the massive explosion in Beirut?

  • A common chemical ingredient of agricultural fertilisers, the nitrogen rich compound is also the main component of the explosive composition known as ANFO — ammonium nitrate fuel oil.
  • In its pure form, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is a white, crystalline chemical which is soluble in wate Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is the main ingredient in the manufacture of commercial explosives used in mining and construction. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • In India, The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012, under The Explosives Act, 1884, define ammonium nitrate.
  • Pure ammonium nitrate is not an explosive on its own. It is classified as an oxidiser (Grade 5.1) under the United Nations classification of dangerous goods. If mixed with ingredients like fuel or some other contaminants, or because of some other external factors, it can be very explosive. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Large quantities of stored ammonium nitrate are regarded as a major fire hazard, with multiple reported cases across the world.
  • For the manufacture of ammonium nitrate, an Industrial licence is required under the Industrial Development and Regulation Act, 1951. A license under the Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012 is also required for any activity related to ammonium nitrate.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-ammonium-nitrate-which-caused-the-massive-explosion-in-beirut-6540646/

Consider the following statements regarding Sugarcane cultivation in India

  • It is a Kharif crop associated with the rainy season.
  • It needs hot and humid climate with an average temperature of 21°C to 27°C.
  • It requires rainfall in the range of 75-150 cm.
  • India is the second-largest producer of sugar.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1,2 and 3 only
  2. 2,3 and 4 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: Sustainability increases if ethanol is made from sugarcane juice: Study

  • Sugarcane cultivation has benefitted from entrenched policies that incentivised production for decades
  • Sugarcane — a cash crop that requires large amounts of water and land to cultivate — has enjoyed immense political patronage and while it was responsible for making India become the second-largest producer of sugar, the country has witnessed a tremendous challenge to its resources. Hence statement 4 is correct
  • Institutionalised political interests in sugar production have threatened India`s food, water and energy security over time.
  • The study found that sugarcane occupied only four per cent of Maharashtra’s total cropped area but consumed 61 per cent of the state’s irrigation water in 2010-11.
  • An indirect factor towards micronutrient deficiency prevalent in the Indian population.

Suggestions:

  • A transition towards more sustainable cultivation of sugarcane.
  • Producing ethanol from sugarcane juice instead of molasses can help India meet its nutrition requirements and make resources like land and water more sustainable.

About Sugarcane cultivation in India:

  • Sugarcane is grown as a Kharif Crop. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It needs hot and humid climate with an average temperature of 21°C to 27°C. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It requires rainfall in the range of 75-150 cm. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Sugarcane can grow in any soil which can retain moisture.
  • Ideal soil for sugarcane is rich loamy soil.
  • Farmers grow sugarcane and sell it to the sugar mills.
  • Farmers want the sugar cane price to increase even when the sugar price fall.
  • Sugar mills have to buy the sugarcane from farmers at a fixed rate called FRP which is decided by the government.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/sustainability-increases-if-ethanol-is-made-from-sugarcane-juice-study-72638

Consider the following statements

  • The prior wildlife clearance will be required by projects located within 10 km of national park/wildlife sanctuary
  • The prior wildlife nod be will be mandatory for projects within eco-sensitive zones outside protected areas which do not require environmental clearance

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Wildlife nod not required for railway projects: Ministry

  • In its letters to the principal secretaries of states and UTs, who raised queries over applicability of consideration by National Board of Wildlife (NBWL), The prior wildlife clearance will be required by projects located within 10 km of national park/wildlife sanctuary where eco-sensitive zone (ESZ) has not been notified and which need environmental clearance. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The prior wildlife nod be will not be mandatory for projects within eco-sensitive zones outside protected areas which do not require environmental Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The National Board of Wildlife’s (NBWL) standing committee approval will be required for projects that are located in areas linking one protected area to another like tiger reserves.
  • The proposals involving project located within 10 km of national park/wildlife sanctuary wherein ESZ has not been finally notified and activities/projects falling outside protected areas linking one protected area or tiger reserve to another.
  • The state governments are requested not to insist upon wildlife clearance for developmental projects outside protected areas that are not covered.
  • The prior recommendation of Standing Committee of NBWL under the provisions of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 shall be obtained, if required, for taking developmental activities in/over an area falling within eco sensitive zones.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/industry/no-wildlife-clearance-required-for-projects-which-dont-need-environmental-clearance-environment-ministry/2044742/

Consider the following statements regarding India-UN Development Partnership Fund

  •  It is managed by the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation
  •  It aims to contribute to the efforts of developing countries towards the realization of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India contributes over $15 mn to India-U.N. Development Partnership Fund

  • India contributes over $15 mn to India-U.N. Development Partnership Fund. India has contributed $15.46 million to the India-U.N. Development Partnership Fund, underscoring the country’s commitment to supporting developing nations in their developmental priorities across all the Sustainable Development Goals.

About India-UN Development Partnership Fund

  • The India-UN Development Partnership Fund is a dedicated facility within the United Nations Fund for South-South Cooperation established in 2017.
  • It is supported and led by the Government of the Republic of India, managed by the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation, and implemented in collaboration with the United Nations system. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The India-UN Development Partnership Fund supports Southern-owned and led, demand-driven, and transformational sustainable development projects across the developing world, with a focus on least developed countries and small island developing states. United Nations agencies implement the Funds projects in close collaboration with partnering governments.
  • The India-UN Development Partnership Fund established in 2017, has an ambitious agenda of promoting multilateralism and shared prosperity.
  • The Fund project portfolio aims to contribute to the efforts of developing countries towards the realization of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Fund responds directly to the national priorities and development objectives of partner countries, contributing financial resources and technical knowledge to support partner governments in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-contributes-over-15-mn-to-india-un-development-partnership-fund/article32277072.ece

Consider the following statements regarding National Cooperative Development Corporation 

  •  It is a statutory corporation under the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.
  •  Sahakar Cooptube channel is a new initiative by the National Cooperative Development Corporation

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tomar launches NCDC’s YouTube channel to amplify benefit of cooperatives

  • Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar launched the National Cooperative Development Corporation’s YouTube channel, ‘Sahakar Cooptube NCDC India’, to encourage farmers and the youth to take benefit of cooperatives. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The guidance videos in different languages covering 18 states would also strengthen and deepen the major initiatives of our government to promote and form 10,000 farmer-producer organisations (FPOs)

About National Cooperative Development Corporation

  • The National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) was established by an Act of Parliament in 1963 as a statutory Corporation under the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Sources of Funds of NCDC includes internal accruals, market borrowings and allocations from Government of India including International assistance.
  • The management vests in 51 members widely represented General Council to give shape to its policies and programmes and the Board of Management with 12 members to cater to day-to-day activities.

Functions:

  • Planning, promoting and financing programmes for production, processing, marketing, storage, export and import of agricultural produce, foodstuffs, certain other notified commodities etc.
  • Finance projects in the rural industrial cooperative sectors and for certain notified services in rural areas like water conservation, irrigation and micro-irrigation, agri-insurance, agro-credit, rural sanitation, animal health, etc.
  • Loans and grants are advanced to State Governments for financing primary and secondary level cooperative societies and direct to the national level and other societies having objects extending beyond one State.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/tomar-launches-ncdc-s-youtube-channel-to-amplify-benefit-of-cooperatives-120080401727_1.html

Consider the following statements regarding Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act

  • It introduces 10% reservation for Economically Weaker Sections of society for admission to Central Government-run educational institutions and for employment in Central Government jobs
  • It inserted Article 14 (6) and Article 19 (6) in the Constitution to allow reservation for the economically backward in the unreserved category.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: EWS quota challenge referred to Constitution Bench

  • The Supreme Court on Wed­nesday referred to a five­ judge Bench the “substantial question of law” whether grant of 10% reservation to economically weaker sec­tions of the society is uncon­stitutional and violates the 50% ceiling cap on quota de­clared by the court itself.
  • The three­judge Bench had refused to stay the implementation of the Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act, which provides the 10% quota, when it had reserved for orders a year ago
  • The Centre had argued that it was every State’s prerogative to provide 10% eco­ nomic reservation in State government jobs and admissions in State­run education institutions

About Constitution (103rd Amendment) Act

  • It introduces 10% reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) of society for admission to Central Government-run educational institutions and private educational institutions (except for minority educational institutions), and for employment in Central Government jobs. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It inserted Article 15 (6) and Article 16 (6) in the Constitution to allow reservation for the economically backward in the unreserved category. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • It was enacted to promote the welfare of the poor not covered by the 50% reservation policy for SCs, STs and Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC).
  • It enables both Centre and the states to provide reservation to the EWSs of society.

Source: TH

Which of the following is the important features of the Pokkali Rice recently seen in the news?

  • It is a saltwater resistant variety of rice
  • It is a red rice endemic to Gujarat state
  • It is bio-fortified rice for Protein Quality and Provitamin-A Content
  • It is healthy rice used to treat diabetes

Answer: (a) It is a saltwater resistant variety of rice

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pokkali rice seedlings travel from Kerala to the Sunderbans

Farmers from West Bengal are betting on the Pokkali variety of rice from Kerala to tide over a crisis-like situation created by severe seawater incursion into paddy fields in vast areas of the Sundarbans after the cyclone Amphan.

  • The pokkali variety, known for its saltwater resis­tance, flourishes in the pad­dy fields of coastal Alappuz­ ha, Ernakulam and Thrissur districts. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The uniqueness of the rice has brought it the Geographical Indication (GI) tag and is the subject of con­tinuing research.
  • It is endemic to Kerala and was given Geographical Indication (GI) tag.
  • It grows to a height of up to 2 m and it survived the recent devastating floods in farmlands across the State.
  • The single-season paddy is raised in saltwater fields between June and November followed by a season of fish-farming.

Source: TH

Consider the following statements regarding Nagara style of temple architecture

  • Garbhagriha, Mandapa, Shikhara and Gopurams are the basic form of this style of temple architecture
  • There is no water tank in the temple premises
  • It is found in northern India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Double the size, 5 domes and 3 years to build: Here’s how Ram temple will look

Chandrakant Sompura, the architect of the grand temple had stated that the proposed Ram temple in Ayodhya will be almost double the size of what was originally planned.

The grand temple at Rama Janmabhoomi in Ayodhya will follow the Nagara style of temple architecture

What is Nagara style of temple architecture?

  • The Nagara style of temple architecture is found in northern India. Nagara school is further subdivided into different schools based on region like Odisha, Khajuraho, Solanki etc. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • In the Nagara style, the temple is generally constructed on a upraised platform called  Mandapas are present in front of the Garbhagriha. These are adorned with the Shikhara, the tallest one being above theGarbhagriha.

The basic form of a Hindu temple contains the following architectural elements:

  • Garbhagriha – the small room where the principle deity/deities of the temple reside
  • Mandapa – the portico or hall at the entrance of the temple generally designed to house a large number of people
  • Shikhara – the mountain like spire which can have different shapes from pyramidal to curvilinear
  • Vahana– the mount of the main deity placed generally in line of sight from  Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Unlike the temples in south India, Nagara style doesn’t usually have elaborate boundary walls or gateways (South Indian temples often sport magnificent Gopurams).
  • Generally, there is no water tank in the temple premises and the pradakshina pathais covered. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Reportedly, the stones from Banshi mountains in Rajasthan will be used for the construction.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/unique-example-of-indian-architecture-temple-trust-tweets-photos-of-ram-temple-in-ayodhya/story-Um6yPf2CZNaQAcyDwbYAOI.html

What explains the eastward flow of the equatorial countercurrent ?

  •  The Earth’s rotation on its axis
  •  Convergence of the two equatorial currents
  •  Difference in salinity of water
  •  Occurrence of the belt of calm near the equator

Answer: (d) Occurrence of the belt of calm near the equator

Explanation:

  • The easterly Equatorial Counter-Current between about 40 and 100 N may be explained as follows, The overall effect of the Trade Winds is to drive water towards the west, hut the flow is blocked by the land masses along the western boundaries. Hence option (d) is correct
  • As a result, in equatorial regions the sea-surface slopes up towards the west, causing an eastward horizontal pressure gradient force.
  • Because winds are light in the Doldrums, water is able to flow down the horizontal pressure gradient in a current that is contrary (i.e. ‘counter’) to the prevailing wind direction. The zone of calm is the necessary and dominant factor here, though other factors play their role as well.