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Daily Prelims Test – 06 January 2022

1. With respect to Accredited Social Health Activist, consider the following statements:

1)   They must primarily be a woman resident of the village married/widowed/ divorced in the age group of 25 to 45 years.

2)   They will be the first port of call for any health related demands of deprived sections of the population, especially women and children.

3)   She will counsel women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breast-feeding and contraception.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 and 3 only

c)    1 and 2 only

d)   1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Odisha’s Ganjam district is now free of child marriages

●      Ganjam, known to be severely affected by child marriages, is Odisha’s first district to be declared child marriage free

●      Anganwadi workers and accredited social health activists (ASHA) organised meetings of adolescent girls at the village level every month to educate them about the ill impact of child marriage.

●      Committees were formed at the level of Gram Panchayats and notified area councils with Sarpanchs, Anganwadi workers and ASHAs as members.

ACCREDITED SOCIAL HEALTH ACTIVIST (ASHA):

  • ●      One of the key components of the National Rural Health Mission is to provide every village in the country with a trained female community health activist ASHA or Accredited Social Health Activist.
  • ●      Selected from the village itself and accountable to it, the ASHA will be trained to work as an interface between the community and the public health system.

Following are the key components of ASHA :

  • ●      ASHA must primarily be a woman resident of the village married/ widowed/ divorced, preferably in the age group of 25 to 45 yearsHence statement (1) is correct.
  • ●      She should be a literate woman with due preference in selection to those who are qualified up to 10 standard wherever they are interested and available in good numbers. This may be relaxed only if no suitable person with this qualification is available.
  • ●      ASHA will be chosen through a rigorous process of selection involving various community groups, self-help groups, Anganwadi Institutions, the Block Nodal officer, District Nodal officer, the village Health Committee and the Gram Sabha.
  • ●      Capacity building of ASHA is being seen as a continuous process. ASHA will have to undergo a series of training episodes to acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and confidence for performing her spelled out roles.
  • ●      The ASHAs will receive performance-based incentives for promoting universal immunization, referral and escort services for Reproductive & Child Health (RCH) and other healthcare programmes, and construction of household toilets.
  • ●      Empowered with knowledge and a drug-kit to deliver first-contact healthcare, every ASHA is expected to be a fountainhead of community participation in public health programmes in her village.
  • ●      ASHA will be the first port of call for any health related demands of deprived sections of the population, especially women and children, who find it difficult to access health services. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • ●      ASHA will be a health activist in the community who will create awareness on health and its social determinants and mobilise the community towards local health planning and increased utilisation and accountability of the existing health services.
  • ●      She would be a promoter of good health practices and will also provide a minimum package of curative care as appropriate and feasible for that level and make timely referrals.
  • ●      ASHA will provide information to the community on determinants of health such as nutrition, basic sanitation & hygienic practices, healthy living and working conditions, information on existing health services and the need for timely utilisation of health & family welfare services.
  • ●      She will counsel women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breast-feeding and complementary feeding, immunization, contraception and prevention of common infections including Reproductive Tract Infection/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs) and care of the young child. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • ●      ASHA will mobilise the community and facilitate them in accessing health and health related services available at the Anganwadi/sub-centre/primary health centers, such as immunisation, AnteNatal Check-up (ANC), Post Natal Check-up supplementary nutrition, sanitation and other services being provided by the government.
  • ●      She will act as a depot older for essential provisions being made available to all habitations like Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORS), Iron Folic Acid Tablet(IFA), chloroquine, Disposable Delivery Kits (DDK), Oral Pills & Condoms, etc.
  • ●      At the village level it is recognised that ASHA cannot function without adequate institutional support. Women’s committees (like self-help groups or women’s health committees), village Health & Sanitation Committee of the Gram Panchayat, peripheral health workers especially ANMs and Anganwadi workers, and the trainers of ASHA and in-service periodic training would be a major source of support to ASHA.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/governance/odisha-s-ganjam-district-is-now-free-of-child-marriages-80980

2. Project Beacon and Project Vijayak were seen in the news. The terms related to which of the following?

a)    Road infrastructure development and maintenance

b)   New cruise missiles

c)    Innovative technologies to help farmers

d)   New Drone Design

Answer: (a) Road infrastructure development and maintenance

Explanation:

In NEWS: Border Roads Organisation breaks record at ZojiLa battling extreme weather conditions:

  • ●      For the first time BRO has kept the formidable Zoji mountain pass (altitude 11,649 ft) open beyond 31st December.
  • ●      BRO’s frontline Projects Beacon and Vijayak have been working round the clock in extreme weather conditions to keep the logistic supply line open to the Union Territory of Ladakh. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • ●      BRO Karma Yogis have kept their detachments functional with great determination and induction of New Equipment helped BRO in achieving this unparalleled feat.
  • ●      The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) has raised its benchmark of excellence yet again by extending access to the formidable Zojila at an altitude of 11,649 ft, that links the Union Territory of Ladakh with the rest of the country.
  • ●      Project Beacon was launched in the 1960’s. This is the oldest project of the BRO. The project currently looks after road infrastructure development and maintenance in the important areas of Kashmir.
  • ●      Project Vijayak was launched by BRO in 2010. Project Vijayak along with Project Himank are responsible for the construction and maintenance of critical road infrastructure in Ladakh.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1787454

3. Consider the following statements regarding AT-1 bonds:

1)   They do not have a maturity date.

2)   These debt instruments offer higher returns to investors but they also carry a higher risk.

3)   These bonds were introduced by the Basel accord after the global financial crisis.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 and 3 only

c)    1 and 2 only

d)   1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Did RBI have a change of heart on Yes Bank’s AT-1 bonds?

  • ●      When news emerged in March 2020 that the restructuring of fraud-hit Yes Bank would involve the write off of ₹8,415 crore worth of a special category of bonds called additional tier one, or AT-1 bonds, investors rubbed their eyes in disbelief.
  • What are AT1 bonds?
  • ●      AT1 bonds, as these instruments are popularly known, are a type of perpetual debt instrument that banks use to augment their core equity base and thus comply with Basel III norms. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • ●      These bonds were introduced by the Basel accord after the global financial crisis to protect depositors. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • How are these bonds different from other debt instruments?
  • ●      These bonds are perpetual in nature — they do not carry any maturity date. They offer higher returns to investors but compared with other vanilla debt products, these instruments carry a higher risk as well. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • ●      If the capital ratios of the issuer fall below a certain percentage or in the event of an institutional failure, the rules allow the issuer to stop paying interest or even write down these bonds, as happened in the Yes Bank case. These bonds are subordinate to all other debt and senior only to equity.
  • What can investors do with AT1 bonds?
  • ●      As mentioned above, AT1 bonds do not have a maturity date. Banks have a call option that permits them to redeem these bonds after a certain period.
  • Are they safe for investors?
  • ●      Since these bonds can be written down by banks under the directions of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in the event of an institutional failure, they are seen as high-risk instruments.
  • ●      If the bank reaches the point of non-viability, AT1 bonds are the first part of debt that will be written down. 

Source: https://www.livemint.com/industry/banking/did-rbi-change-its-mind-on-yes-bank-s-at-1-bonds-11641232192570.html

4. Consider the following statements regarding Inner Line Permit system:

1)   It can be issued for travelling and property purchasing purposes.

2)   It is issued by the central government.

3)   It is mandatory for Lakshadweep, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 and 3 only

c)    1 and 2 only

d)   3 only

Answer: (d) 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Inner Line Permit: Supreme Court issues notices to Union, Manipur governments

  • ●      The Supreme Court asked the Union and the Manipur governments to respond to a plea challenging the Inner Line Permit (ILP) system in the State.
  • ●      Manipur is the fourth State after Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram where the ILP regime is applicable
  • ●      The plea has also challenged the Manipur Inner Line Permit Guidelines, 2019.
  • ●      It said the order violates the fundamental rights of the citizens guaranteed under Articles 14, 15, 19 and 21.

Inner Line Permit (ILP) system:

  • ●      The concept originates from the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act (BEFR), 1873. This was done to protect the interest of the Crown in some states by preventing Indians (British Subjects) from trading within these regions.
  • ●      It is a document that allows an Indian citizen to visit or stay in a state that is protected under the ILP system.
  • ●      An ILP is issued by the state government concerned. It can be obtained after applying either online or physically. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • ●      It states the dates of travel and also specifies the particular areas in the state which the ILP holder can travel to. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • ●      It can be issued for travel purposes solely. Visitors are not allowed to purchase property in these regions.
  • ●      It is mandatory for Lakshadweep, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • ●      Duration of stay and areas allowed to be accessed for any non-native are decided by ILP.
  • ●      This was to address concerns about protecting the interests of the indigenous people from outsiders belonging to other Indian states.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/inner-line-permit-supreme-court-issues-notices-to-union-manipur-governments/article38101902.ece

5. Consider the following statements regarding Immediate Payment Service:

1)   This facility is provided by NPCI.

2)   It is an interbank electronic fund transfer service that can be accessed on multiple channels like Mobile, Internet, ATM and SMS.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 only

c)    Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: SBI not to levy service charge on IMPS transactions done through digital banking channels

  • ●      Informing its customers, State Bank of India (SBI) said that it has increased the IMPS transaction limit to Rs 5 lakh with NIL charges for transactions done through digital channels.
  • ●      The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) had in October last year raised the transaction limit of IMPS from Rs 2 lakh to Rs 5 lakh. IMPS offers instant domestic funds transfer facility 24×7 through banking channels.

Immediate Payment Service:

  • ●      Only NEFT & RTGS were available to users for fund transfer during banking hours.
  • ●      IMPS provides robust & real time fund transfer which offers an instant, 24X7, interbank electronic fund transfer service that could be accessed on multiple channels like Mobile, Internet, ATM, SMSHence statement (2) is correct.
  • ●      IMPS is an emphatic service which allows transferring of funds instantly within banks across India which is not only safe but also economical.
  • ●      The IMPS service is managed by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) and comes under the purview of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • ●      This facility is provided by NPCI through its existing NFS switch. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • ●      The eligible criteria for the Banks who can participate in IMPS is that the entity should have valid banking or prepaid payment instrument license from Reserve Bank of India to participate in IMPS.

Objectives of IMPS

  • ●      To enable bank customers to use mobile instruments as a channel for accessing their banks accounts and remit funds
  • ●      Making payment simpler just with the mobile number of the beneficiary
  • ●      To sub-serve the goal of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in electronification of retail payments
  • ●      To facilitate mobile payment systems already introduced in India with the Reserve Bank of India Mobile Payment Guidelines 2008 to be interoperable across banks and mobile operators in a safe and secured manner
  • ●      To build the foundation for a full range of mobile based Banking services.
  • The participants for IMPS will be as follows:
  • ●      Remitter (Sender)
  • ●      Beneficiary (Receiver)
  • ●      Banks
  • ●      National Financial Switch – NPCI

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/banking-and-finance/sbi-imps-charges-2022-nil-up-to-rs-5-lakh-state-bank-of-india-immediate-payment-service-7707164/

6. Takht was seen in the news. The terms related to which of the following?

a)    Iran’s nuclear missile

b)   Imperial throne

c)    Martial arts

d)   Ancient Drawing Technique

Answer: (b) Imperial throne

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: The significance of Delhi government’s recognition to fifth Sikh Takht

  • ●      Ahead of the Punjab Assembly elections, the Aam Aadmi Party(AAP)-led Delhi Assembly on Monday passed an amendment Bill to the Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Act, 1971, recognising Takht Damdama Sahib as the fifth Takht of Sikhs.

What is a Sikh Takht?

  • ●      A Takht, which means a throne, is a seat of temporal authority for Sikhs. There are five Sikh Takhts, three in Punjab and one each in Maharashtra and Bihar. Hence option (b) is correct.

Akal Takht: 

  • ●      Located in Amritsar, it is the oldest of the Takhts, and considered supreme among the five.
  • ●      It was set up in 1606 by Guru Hargobind, whose succession as the sixth Guru after the execution of his father, Guru Arjan Dev, is considered a turning point in Sikh history.
  • ●      The Akal Takht, a raised platform that he built in front of the causeway leading to the sanctum sanctorum of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), symbolised the coming together of the temporal authority and the political sovereignty of the Sikh community (miri) with the spiritual authority (piri). It is seen as the first marker of Sikh nationalism.
  • ●      The Akal Takht is a five-storey building today; the first storey houses the Guru Granth Sahib.

The other four Takhts are linked to Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru.

  • ●      Takht Keshgarh Sahib: Located in Anandpur Sahib in Punjab. It was here that Guru Gobind Singh raised Khalsa, the initiated Sikh warriors, in 1699.
  • ●      Takht Patna Sahib: Guru Gobind Singh was born here in 1666.
  • ●      Takht Hazur Sahib: In Nanded, where Guru Gobind Singh spent time and where he was cremated in 1708.
  • ●      Takht Damdama Sahib: In Talwandi Sabo of Bathinda. Guru Gobind Singh spent several months here.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-the-significance-of-delhi-governments-recognition-to-fifth-sikh-takht-7708653/

7. Consider the following statements:

1)   Saint Chavara was a pioneer of education reforms.

2)   Saint Chavara established a Sanskrit school in Mannanam in Kerala.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 only

c)    Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara: a true karma yogi

  • ●      History often fails to do justice to social reformers who have also been religious leaders. Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara, who triggered a renaissance in Kerala in the 19th century, was one such reformer who was also a man of faith.
  • ●      The 150th death anniversary of this saint-reformer — which was commemorated on January 3 — is an occasion to revisit his life and works.

Saint Chavara:

  • ●      He was a social reformer, an educationist, a social entrepreneur, and a prolific poet.
  • ●      He deserves a place in the pantheon of socio-religious reformers that includes Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekananda, Jyotirao Phule, Swami Dayananda Saraswati and Sree Narayana Guru.
  • ●      Millions, irrespective of caste and creed, benefited from his work, which triggered a social, cultural and intellectual awakening in Kerala.
  • ●      Saint Chavara was a pioneer of education reforms. When education was the privilege of the social elites, his Pallikkoodam movement (setting up schools in church premises) enabled universal access to education. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • ●      He also started free mid-day meals and provided clothes and books to reduce drop-outs among the poor and Dalit students.
  • ●      For this purpose, he mobilised resources by collecting pidiyari (a handful of rice) and tithe from well-off families.
  • ●      The practice initiated by Saint Chavara in Christian schools influenced the diwan of Travancore, C P Ramaswamy Iyer, to plan mid-day meals in government schools in 1936.
  • ●      In 1846, Saint Chavara established a Sanskrit school in Mannanam in Kerala that enabled ordinary people to study the sacred Hindu literature in Sanskrit. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • ●      The first indigenous Catholic religious congregation for men (CMI) he founded in 1831 supplied dedicated and highly-skilled personnel for managing the schools and institutions.
  • ●      The first religious congregation for women (CMC-CTC) he founded in 1866 established schools to promote education for women with boarding facilities. It was a starting point for women’s empowerment in Kerala.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/saint-chavara-karma-yogi-renaissance-kerala-7706589/

8. Which one of the following articles provided the languages which are to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts and Bills?

a)    Article 348

b)   Article 333

c)    Article 313

d)   Article 365

Answer: (a) Article 348

Explanation:

In NEWS: English is the language in High Court: Gujarat HC

  • ●      A Division Bench of the Gujarat High Court has asked a journalist facing contempt of court proceedings to speak only in English as that was the language in the higher judiciary.
  • ●      The Bench comprising Chief Justice Aravind Kumar and A.J. Shastri made the directive to Vishal Vyas, a local journalist who runs Samna Bhrashtachar Ka, against which the contempt of court proceedings was initiated in 2014.
  • ●      In the High Court, there is a rule even if any party who does not hire a lawyer and appears in person has to speak and argue in English only.

Article 348

  • ●      It provides for languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • ●      Article 348 (1) provides that all proceedings in the Supreme Court and in every High court shall be in English Language until Parliament by law otherwise provides.
  • ●      Under Article 348 (2), the Governor of the State may, with the previous consent of the President, authorize the use of the Hindi language or any other language used for any official purpose of the State.
  • ●      It states that in the proceedings of the High Court having its principal seat in that State provided that decrees, judgments or orders passed by such High Courts shall be in English.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/english-is-the-language-in-high-court-gujarat-hc/article38126026.ece

9. Consider the following statements regarding Chilika Lake:

1)   It is the largest wintering ground of the birds in the Indian subcontinent.

2)   It is the largest freshwater lake in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)   2 only

c)    Both 1 and 2

d)   Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: 10.74 lakh birds flock to Chilika, largest wintering ground in Indian subcontinent

  • ●      Chilika Lake, the largest brackish water lake and wintering ground of the birds in the Indian subcontinent, saw a million of birds, including an uncommon Mongolian gull, visiting the waterbody this year. Hence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is incorrect.
  • ●      As per the water bird status survey-2022 conducted in the Chilika, a total of 10,74,173 birds of the 107 water bird species and 37,953 individuals of 76 wetland dependent species were counted at the entire lagoon.
  • ●      Last year, the count in Chilika was over 12 lakh. Bird census members reported rare sightings of the uncommon Mongolian gull.
  • ●      The census was undertaken jointly on Tuesday by the Odisha State Wildlife Organisation, the Chilika Development Authority (CDA) and the Bombay Natural History Society.
  • ●      A total of 106 personnel, including bird experts from government and non-government organisations, were deployed. The Chilika Lagoon was divided strategically into 21 segments for the census
  • ●      A total of 3,58,889 birds (97 species) were counted in Nalabana Bird Sanctuary inside Chilika – a decrease by 65,899 from the previous year.
  • ●      The decrease is attributed to high water level and presence of water in cultivated fields in adjoining areas. Water birds love to flock on large mudflats.
  • ●      The increase in numbers for the greater flamingo at Nalabana mudflat indicates that the restoration at Nalabana is effective.
  • ●      This year’s greater flamingo count was the highest in the last one decade. It is largely due to appropriate management of mudflats

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/1074-lakh-birds-flock-to-chilika-largest-wintering-ground-in-indian-subcontinent/article38123554.ece

10. Consider the following animals:

1)   Hedgehog

2)   marmot

3)   Pangolin

To reduce the chance of being captured by predators, which of the above organisms rolls up/roll up and protects/protect its/their vulnerable parts?

a)    1 and 2

b)   2 only

c)    3 only

d)   1 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 3

Explanation:

●      Hedgehogs are small nocturnal spiny mammals. When they are frightened, or annoyed, hedgehogs will roll into a ball so that a predator will feel the full brunt of its sharp spines and will then leave the hedgehog aloneOption (1) is correct.

●      Marmots are relatively large ground squirrels with 15 species living in Asia, Europe, and North America.  They are the heaviest members of the squirrel family. It does not roll up to protect itself. Option (2) is incorrect. 

●      Pangolins are actually mammals. They are the only mammals wholly-covered in scales and they use those scales to protect themselves from predators in the wild. Under threat, a pangolin will immediately curl into a tight ball and will use their sharp-scaled tails to defend themselves.Option (3) is correct.