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Daily Prelims Test – 05_September 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)

  1. It is a regional organization comprising more than 10 Member States.
  2. It came into being in 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Germany launches Indo-Pacific strategy with ‘key role’ for India

  • Germany, current EU president and Europe’s biggest economy, has launched its Indo-Pacific strategy with India that is expected to play a key role in Berlin’s outreach in the region where China’s aggressive foreign policy has rattled countries.
  • Berlin’s strategy also suggested opening dialogue with institutions where India plays a key role — Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation and Indian Ocean Rim Association — in the areas of business and maritime safety, as well as disaster risk management.

ABOUT BIMSTEC:

  • The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is a regional organization comprising seven Member States lying in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • It came into being in 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • It constitutes seven Member States: Five deriving from South Asia: [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka] and Two from Southeast Asia: [Myanmar and Thailand].
  • The main objective of BIMSTEC is technological and economic cooperation among South Asian and South East Asian countries along the coast of the Bay of Bengal.
  • The headquarters of BIMSTEC is in Dhaka.
  • The whole region which constitutes the BIMSTEC is home to over 1.5 billion people. The population counts for around 22 percent of the total world population. These countries have a combined GDP of $2.7 trillion.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/germany-launches-indo-pacific-strategy-with-key-role-for-india/articleshow/77922462.cms


Consider the following statements regarding Election commission of India

1.It is an autonomous constitutional body which oversees the conduct of free and fair elections in the country.

2.It consists of one Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners.

3.The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only through a process of removal similar to that of a Supreme Court judge for by Parliament.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: ECI formally welcomes Election Commissioner Shri Rajiv Kumar

Chief Election Commissioner, Shri Sunil Arora, and Election Commissioner Shri Sushil Chandra, formally welcomed Election Commissioner Shri Rajiv Kumar

About Election Commission of India

  • The Election Commission of India was established in 1950.
  • It is an autonomous constitutional body which oversees the conduct of free and fair elections in the country. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Article 324 to 329 of the constitution deals with powers, function, tenure, eligibility, etc of the commission and the member
  • The commission consists of one Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The secretariat of the commission is located in New Delhi
  • The President appoints Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners
  • They have a fixed tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
  • They can resign at any time by addressing their resignation to the president. The president can remove any of the commissioners following the procedure provided in the constitution.
  • The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only through a process of removal similar to that of a Supreme Court judge for by Parliament. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1651088


Consider the following statements regarding Finance Commission

1.It is constituted by the President under article 280 of the Constitution

2.The recommendations made by the Finance Commission are binding on the government.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Finance Commission to consider recommending a range for fiscal deficit

The 15th Finance Commission will consider a suggestion to recommend a range instead of a fixed number for fiscal deficit and debt-to-GDP ratio in its report for award period of FY22-FY26, Commission Chairman NK Singh

About Finance Commission

  • The Finance Commission is constituted by the President under article 280 of the Constitution. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The recommendations made by the Finance Commission are only advisory in nature and hence, not binding on the governmentHence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The 15th Finance Commission was constituted by the President of India in November 2017, under the chairmanship of NK Singh.
  • The 15th Finance commission makes recommendations for the period of 2020-2025 (5 years).
  • Composition : Heads the Commission and presides over the activities and Four Members.
  • The Parliament determines legally the qualifications of the members of the Commission and their selection methods.
  • The 4 members should be or have been qualified as High Court judges, or be knowledgeable in finance or experienced in financial matters and are in administration, or possess knowledge in economics.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/economy/finance-commission-to-consider-recommending-a-range-for-fiscal-deficit-6583571/


Recently, the term Novichok is seen in news, it is related to

  1. A nuclear submarine
  2. A new arctic research centre
  3. A disputed area near Crimea and Russia border
  4. A family of highly toxic nerve agents.

Answer: (d) A family of highly toxic nerve agents.

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: The toxic history of nerve agent Novichok

  • Two years after coming in the spotlight after the alleged poisoning of former Russian spy Sergei Skirpal and his daughter Yulia Skirpal in Britain, the Soviet-era nerve agent Novichok is back in the news. This time it is reported to been used to poison Russian opposition leader and anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny.
  • The name Novichok means “newcomer” in Russian and applies to a group of advanced nerve agents developed by the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s.
  • It is used for a family of highly toxic nerve agents. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Novichok was developed under a Soviet programme codenamed Foliant. It can be delivered as a liquid, powder or aerosol and is said to be more lethal than nerve agents that are better known in the West, like VX and sarin.
  • Novichok too is absorbed through the lungs or skin and interferes with the nervous system, leading to paralysis. Nerve gases block the action of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters.
  • In November 2019, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) added Novichok to its list of banned toxins, in one of the first major changes to the treaty since it was signed in the 1990s.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/nerve-agent-novichok-russia-alexei-navalny-6581702/


Consider the following statements regarding Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

  1. It is the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention 
  2. It has 193 members including India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:

About Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

  • The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention, which entered into force on 29 April 1997. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The OPCW, with its 193 Member States, oversees the global endeavour to permanently and verifiably eliminate chemical weapons.
  • All states who are members of the CWC are automatically members of this organization.
  • The Organisation oversees the global endeavour to permanently and verifiably eliminate chemical weapons.
  • Headquarter of the organisation is at The Hague, Netherlands.
  • The organisation was awarded the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize “for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons with most recent being in Syria civil war”.
  • India is a signatory and party to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/nerve-agent-novichok-russia-alexei-navalny-6581702/


Recently, a report titled “Enhancing Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) for Food Systems” is released by

1.World Wildlife Fund(WWF)

2.UN Environment Programme (UNEP)

3.Climate Focus

4.All of the above

Answer: (d) All of the above

Explanation:

In NEWS:UN report flags changes in food system to boost climate action

  • World Wildlife Fund(WWF), UN Environment Programme (UNEP), EAT and Climate Focus has released a report titled “Enhancing Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) for Food Systems”. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The world has missed out on significant opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but it is not too late, a report published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) on strengthening food systems in the age of climate crisis
  • Food loss and waste has been ignored widely, according to the report.
  • Currently, diets and food loss and waste are widely ignored in national climate plans, but by adding them, policymakers can improve their mitigation and adaptation contributions from food systems, by as much as 25 per cent
  • The report was put forward to help policymakers adopt food systems solutions and set more ambitious targets and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, in turn, improve biodiversity, food security, and public health.
  • Food security, hunger and food wastage are being discussed largely, especially in the wake of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID -19) pandemic, which exposed the fragility of the food supply chain. On the other hand, the pandemic has demonstrated how business need to rebuild food systems.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/food/un-report-flags-changes-in-food-system-to-boost-climate-action-73182


Consider the following statements

  1. Type 1 diabetes is/are characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin.
  2. Type 2 diabetes results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:The ‘rice of diabetes’: an undeniable link

  • Higher consumption of white rice regularly is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, finds study. Higher consumption of white rice regularly is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, observes a paper published after studying 1,32,373 individuals from 21 countries over 9.5 years.

Type-1 diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent) is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Neither the cause of Type 1 diabetes nor the means to prevent it are known.
  • Symptoms include excessive excretion of urine, thirst, constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue.
  • Type-1 diabetes needs lifelong insulin injections.
  • Type 2 diabetes:
  • Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The majority of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.
  • This type of diabetes is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity.
  • Until recently, this type of diabetes was seen only in adults but it is now also occurring increasingly frequently in children.
  • Type-2 diabetes often being managed with diet or tablet treatment.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/the-rice-of-diabetes-an-undeniable-link/article32516022.ece#:~:text=Photo%20Credit%3A%20AP-,Higher%20consumption%20of%20white%20rice%20regularly%20is%20associated%20with%20an,21%20countries%20over%209.5%20years.


Consider the following statements regarding Quadrilateral (Quad) Grouping

  1. It is the informal strategic dialogue between India, USA, Japan and Australia
  2. The idea of Quad was first mooted by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2007

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:A new dimension

  • India U.S. Australia Japan Quadrilateral (Quad), Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) General Bipin Rawat stated on Thursday that India believes the Quad would be a “good mechanism” to “ensure Freedom of Navigation Operations” (FONOPs) in the Indian Ocean and surrounding oceans including the Indo-Pacific. 
  • India is the only country in the Quad that shares a land boundary with China, and it is unclear how the militarisation of the Quad in Indo-Pacific waters would alleviate the territorial threat it faces. 

About Quad

  • The full form of ‘Quad’ is Quadrilateral Security Dialogue.
  • It is an informal strategic dialogue between four countries i.e. United States, Japan, Australia and India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The idea of Quad or Quadrilateral grouping was first proposed by Japanese prime minister in 2007.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Quad could be, therefore, seen as a coalition of maritime democracies seeking to strengthen each other on the basis of shared values and interests. However, its formation indirectly isolated China as a non-democratic power and eroded its diplomatic standing in international gatherings.
  • Quad was ceased following the withdrawal of Australia. However, during the 2017 ASEAN Summits, all four former members rejoined in negotiations to revive the quadrilateral alliance.

Source: TH


Consider the following statements regarding Young Child Outcome Index (YCOI)

1.According to this index, Kerala, Goa, Tripura and Tamil Nadu to be among the top performers

2.It is brought by the NITI Aayog

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Vice President calls for well-strategized, collective action on multiple fronts to ensure well-being of young children

  • The report has been prepared by Mobile Creches a policy advocacy organisation which works with the underprivileged children across India.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • It has been mentioned in the just released report that of the 159 million children aged below 6 years in India, 21 per cent are undernourished, 36 per cent are underweight and 38 per cent do not receive full immunization. These figures underline the crucial importance to invest in early childhood for realizing the full potential in later years.
  • The report also pointed to the insurmountable evidence of the huge returns on investment in Early Childhood Development (ECD) at the individual, household and country levels. “Proper nutrition, stimulation and care during the first 1,000 days of life (from conception to the second birthday) has a profound impact on the child’s ability to grow, learn and rise out of poverty, and in the process shape society’s long term stability and prosperity”

Young Child Outcome Index (YCOI)

  • Based on ranking and values on the Young Child Outcome Index (YCOI), the report named Kerala, Goa, Tripura and Tamil Nadu to be among the top performers, while eight states– Assam, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar– with scores below the national average lagged behind.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The young child out comes index measures health, nutrition and cognitive growth with the help of indicators such as infant mortality rate, stunting and net attendance at the primary school level. 

Young child environment index 

  • The report has also developed another index called the young child environment index to understand the policy and environment enablers that influence a child’s wellbeing. According to the environment index Kerala, Goa, Sikkim, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh se cured the top five positions. 
  • It uses five policy enablers that influence child wellbeing outcomes, including poverty alleviation, strengthening primary healthcare, improving education levels, safe water supply and pro motion of gender equity. 

Source: TH


With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)’ sometimes mentioned in the news while forecasting Indian monsoon, which of the following statements is/are correct? 

1.IOD phenomenon is characterised by a difference in sea surface temperature between tropical Western Indian Ocean and tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. 

2.An IOD phenomenon can influence an El Nino’s impact on the monsoon. 

Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

  1. 1 only 
  2. 2 only 
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

Statement 1 is not correct: The Indian Ocean Dipole is an irregular oscillation of sea-surface temperatures in which the western Indian Ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the ocean. 

Statement 2 is correct: an IOD can either aggravate or weaken the impact of El Nino on Indian monsoon. If there is a positive IOD, it can bring good rains to India despite of an El Nino year.