KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 05_October_2021

1. With respect to Air Defence Identification Zone, Consider the following statements

1) It is a zone which provides an early warning system to help a country detect possible incursions into its sovereign airspace.

2) It is not defined in any international treaty

3) India is yet to establish a ADIZ

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 only

c)   1 and 2 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nearly 60 Chinese Warplanes Enter Taiwan’s Air Identification Zone In 2 Days

Taiwan reported at least 58 Chinese warplanes had flown into its Air Identification Zone (ADIZ) in the last two days, with 20 of them flying

Air Defence Identification Zone

·         It is a zone which provides an early warning system to help a country detect possible incursions into its sovereign airspace.Hence statement 1 is correct

·         When an aircraft enters an ADIZ without warning, the country in question may scramble fighter jets to visually identify the aircraft and determine whether it poses a threat

·         In other words, ADIZ is airspace over land or water in which the identification, location, and control of civil aircraft are performed in the interest of national security.

·         The first ADIZ was established by the United States in 1950 when it created a joint North American ADIZ with Canada, citing the legal right of a nation to establish reasonable conditions of entry into its territory

·         The concept of an ADIZ is not defined in any international treaty and is not regulated by any international body. Hence statement 2 is correct

Air Defence Identification Zone in India

·         India established ADIZs in the mid-twentieth century. Among other rules, notifications are required 10 minutes prior to entry. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

·         India has demarcated six ADIZ near its territory. They are the international border with Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Myanmar, Over the Line of Actual Control with China and two in the southern region of India.

·         Military enforcement of ADIZs is solely the responsibility of the Indian Air Force and the task is executed through a chain of radars as well.

·         Aircraft and surface-to-air missiles of the IAF, with elements of the Army and the Navy participating in their specific areas, where required, carry out interceptions.

Source: https://www.ndtv.com/world-news/china-sends-52-jets-nuclear-capable-bombers-into-taiwan-defence-zone-in-another-record-incursion-2563756

2. Consider the following options:

1) Gambia

2) Guinea Bissau

3) Mauritania

4) Senegal

From the above options, arrange the countries from North to south direction?

a)  1-3-4-2

b) 3-4-1-2

c)   4-3-2-1

d) 1-2-3-4

Answer: (b) 3-4-1-2

Explanation:

In NEWS: In a first, 4 West African countries commit to cooperate on Senegalo-Mauritanian Aquifer Basin

·         The Senegalo-Mauritanian Aquifer Basin is the largest in West Africa; Four countries have now agreed to cooperate on sharing it peaceably, setting a template for the world

·         The four West African countries have, through the declaration, agreed to establish a legal and institutional framework for cooperation on SMAB, according to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Water Convention.

·         This would be the first such mechanism in West Africa and pave the way for strengthened collaboration on shared groundwater resources worldwide

·         The Senegalo-Mauritanian aquifer basin is the largest basin in the Atlantic margin of north-west Africa, having an area of 350,000 square kilometres.

·         More than 24 million inhabitants of the region are dependent on it for drinking water and other needs. This includes the capitals of Guinea Bissau and Senegal, namely Bissau and Dakar.Hence option (b) is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/africa/in-a-first-4-west-african-countries-commit-to-cooperate-on-senegalo-mauritanian-aquifer-basin-79463

3. Consider the following statements regarding United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

1) It is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the UNEP

2) It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:In a first, 4 West African countries commit to cooperate on Senegalo-Mauritanian Aquifer Basin

The four West African countries have, through the declaration, agreed to establish a legal and institutional framework for cooperation on SMAB, according to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Water Convention.

About UNECE

·         The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE or UNECE) is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council.  Hence statement 1 is incorrect

·         It was established in order to promote economic cooperation and integrations among its member States.

·         It was formed on 28 March 1947.

·         It is Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Hence statement 2 is correct

·         The commission is composed of 56 member States, most of which are based in Europe, as well as a few outside of Europe. 

·         Its transcontinental Eurasian and non-European member States include: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Canada, Georgia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, the USA and Uzbekistan.

About Water Convention-

·         The Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes  (Water Convention) is a unique international legal instrument and intergovernmental platform which aims to ensure the sustainable use of transboundary water resources by facilitating cooperation.

·         Initially negotiated as a regional instrument, it has been opened up for accession to all UN Member States in 2016.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/africa/in-a-first-4-west-african-countries-commit-to-cooperate-on-senegalo-mauritanian-aquifer-basin-79463

4.Consider the following statements

1) Tigers are categorised under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 with highest statutory protection against hunting.

2) Under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, the Chief Wildlife Warden of a State alone has the authority to permit hunting of animals.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nilgiris: Orders issued to ‘hunt down’ man-eater tiger that killed 4 people, 20 cattle

The decision to kill the problematic tiger was taken after an intense operation to capture it alive for the past one week failed to yield any result.

Principal Chief Conservator of Forests and Chief Wildlife Warden Dr Shekhar Kumar Niraj issued orders to “hunt down” a man-eater tiger that had killed at least four people and more than 20 cattle in the surrounding areas of Gudalur forest range in the Nilgiris district.

§  In January 2013, the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change as well as the National Tiger Conservation Authority came out with the “Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)” to deal with emergencies arising due to straying of tigers in human-dominated landscapes.

§  Tigers as well as leopards are categorised under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, with highest statutory protection against hunting under Section 9 (1) of the said Act. Hence statement 1 is correct

§  Such species can be killed if they become dangerous to human life or are so disabled / diseased beyond recovery.

§  The declaration of an aberrant tiger / leopard as a man eater requires considerable examination based on field evidence. 

§  It can be established only after confirming the habituation of the aberrant animal for deliberate stalking of human beings, while avoiding its natural prey.

§  The document says that under no circumstances should an animal resorting to cattle depredation be declared as a “man eater”, despite the fact it may venture close to human settlements.

§  Under Section 11 (1) (a) of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, the Chief Wildlife Warden of a State alone has the authority to permit hunting of such animals.Hence statement 2 is correct

§  However, she or he has to state in writing the reasons for permitting elimination before hunting.

§  The elimination of a tiger / leopard as a man eater should be the last option, after exhausting the option of capturing the animal live as detailed in the Standard Operating Procedure. 

§  The capture can be done by chemical immobilisation or use of traps and should be sent to a nearest recognised zoo and NOT released in the wild.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/chennai/nilgiris-orders-issued-to-hunt-down-man-eater-tiger-7546870/

5. Thenneri inscription is closely associated with which of the following option?

a)  Cholaslocal administration

b) Pandyas Legal System

c)   Pallavas Water Conservation system

d) Vijayanagara empire administration

Answer: (a) Cholaslocal administration

Explanation:

In NEWS: Chola inscriptions detail qualifications for civic officials

·         At a time when the rural local bodies in nine newly constituted districts are going to the polls, some Chola-era inscriptions bear testimony to the qualifications required for members of the village administrative council.

·         The inscriptions of Uthiramerur in Kancheepuram district that dwells upon ‘Kudavolai’ — a system to elect members to annual committee (‘variyam’), garden committee, tank committee and other committees for 30 wards — are well-known.

·         But very little is known about the Thenneri inscriptions laying down qualifications for candidates to village administrative committees (‘perumkuri sabai’). The village is located between Walajah and Sunkuvarchathiram.Hence option (a) is correct

·         The inscriptions are on the walls of the Kanthaleeswarar temple . The Kanthaleeswarar temple and the Abathsaheswarar temple are on the banks of the 3.80-km-long Thenneri.

·         They were constructed by Sembian Mahadevi, the grandmother of Chola King Rajaraja, in memory of her son Uthama Chola.

The inscriptions at Thenneri village in Kancheepuram district also shed light on how farm produce was taxed. The rulers were considerate while taxing agricultural produce.

·         For areca nuts, only 50% tax would be collected for the first 10 years after cultivation.

·         Farmers would pay full tax only after the trees started yielding fruits. Similarly, 50% tax was imposed on banana crops until the yield

The lake bears testimony to Thenneri’s ancientness.

·         Perumpanattrupadai, a Sangam-era literary work, refers to the king who created the lake as ‘Thondaiman Ilanthiraiyan’.

·         The copper plates of the Pallava period found at Kaasakudi refer to the lake as ‘Thiraiyan Eri’.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/chola-inscriptions-detail-qualifications-for-civic-officials/article36814677.ece

6.Consider the following statements

1) Termination of citizenship is possible in four ways according to the citizenship Act 1955

2) Any citizen of India of full age and capacity can make a declaration renouncing Indian Citizenship

3) Declaration of renouncing Indian Citizenship may not be accepted during war

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  2and 3 only

b) 2 only

c)   1 and 2 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Process of renunciation of Indian citizenship simplified

·         Some of the simplified provisions in the new guidelines include- Uploading of documents online and completion of the process of renunciation within 60 days

·         The new form also has a provision mandating the Indian citizen to indicate the reason for renouncing the citizenship

·         The uploaded documents have to be submitted to the District Magistrate in case of citizen living in India or an Indian Mission abroad. The applicant will be interviewed before issuing the final certificate

·         The guidelines are not clear if minors would also lose citizenship if only one of the parents gives up her/his Indian citizenship.

Termination of citizenship is possible in three ways according to the Act: Hence statement 1 is incorrect

Renunciation:

·         If any citizen of India who is also a national of another country renounces his Indian citizenship through a declaration in the prescribed manner, he ceases to be an Indian citizen.Hence statement 2 is correct

·         Such declaration may not be accepted during war.Hence statement 3 is correct

·         When a male person ceases to be a citizen of India, every minor child of his also ceases to be a citizen of India.

·         However, such a child may within one year after attaining full age become an Indian citizen by making a declaration of his intention to resume Indian citizen­ship.

Termination:

·         Indian citizenship can be terminated if a citizen knowingly or voluntarily adopts the citizenship of any foreign country.

·         Such declaration may not be accepted during war.

Deprivation:

·         The government of India can deprive a person of his citizenship in some cases. But this is not applicable for all citizens.

·         It is applicable only in the case of citizens who have acquired the citizenship by registration, naturalization, or only by Article 5 Clause (c) (which is citizenship at commencement for a domicile in India and who has ordinarily been a resident of India for not less than 5 years immediately preceding the commencement of the Constitution).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/process-of-renunciation-of-indian-citizenship-simplified/article36777790.ece

7. Barphukan’s Hillock is belonged to which of the following state in India?

a)  Assam

b) Tripura

c)   Nagaland

d) Mizoram

Answer: (a) Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS: Over 150 years later, Guwahati’s British-era DC Bungalow is now a heritage centre

·         A British-era bungalow on a hillock that used to be the 17th century military office of the Ahom rulers has been converted into a heritage centre depicting life along the Brahmaputra.

·         Vice-President M. Venkaiah Naidu on Sunday inaugurated the Mahabahu Brahmaputra River Heritage Centre on Guwahati’s BarphukanarTila, meaning Barphukan’s Hillock. A Scottishtype wooden bungalow standing since 1850 was renovated and converted into the heritage centre.

·         Barpukhan was a post equivalent to Governor General created by Ahom king PratapSimha or Susengpha (1603¬1641). The hillock by the Brahmaputra, mentioned in ancient scriptures as Mandrachal, was from where Ahom General LachitBarpukhan launched the Battle of Saraighat in March 1671 to inflict the most crushing defeat on the Mughals.Hence option (a) is correct

·         Saraighat is regarded as the “greatest naval battle ever fought in a river.

·         The Battle of Saraighat was the last major attempt by the Mughals to extend their empire into Assam. The Battle was fought in 1671 between the Mughal Empire, led by Raja Ram Singh I and the Ahom Kingdom, led by Lachit Borphukan.

·         The Ahom army defeated the Mughal Army by brilliant uses of the terrain, guerrilla tactics, clever diplomatic negotiations to buy time, military intelligence and by exploiting the sole weakness of the Mughal forces—its navy.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/over-150-years-later-guwahati-s-british-era-dc-bungalow-is-now-a-heritage-centre-101633281421630.html

8. Global Financial Stability Report 2021 is released by which of the following international organisation?

a)  World Bank

b) International Monetary Fund

c)   World Trade Organization

d) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Answer: (b) International Monetary Fund

Explanation:

In NEWS: Increased ‘Cryptoization’ May Pose Challenges To Financial Stability: IMF

·         IMF in its Global Financial Stability Report 2021 pointed out that for emerging market and developing economies, adoption of cryptocurrency might be luring but they also come with a set of potential macro-financial risks, especially with respect to asset and currency substitution.Hence option (b) is correct

·         India has seen a massive spurt in crypto users of late. The number of blockchain start-ups surpassed 300 in 2021, with the daily crypto trading volume peaking between $300 -$500 million.

·         As per Global Consumer Survey in 2020, 99 per cent of its respondents responded that they did trade in cryptocurrencies.

·         India ranks higher than China, United States, Germany and Japan in crypto adoption. Nigeria, Vietnam and Philippines topped the mentioned survey.

·         Challenges posed by the crypto ecosystem include operational and financial integrity risks from crypto asset providers, investor protection risks for crypto-assets and Defi, and inadequate reserves and disclosure for some stablecoins

Source: https://www.outlookindia.com/website/story/business-news-increased-cryptoization-may-pose-challenges-to-financial-stability-imf/396428

9.Consider the following statements regardingSolar conjunction

1) It occurs every two years.

2) It is the period when Earth and Mars, in their eternal march around the Sun, are obscured from each other by the fiery orb of the Sun itself

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Solar Conjunction: NASA’s Mars Fleet Lies Low With Sun Between Earth and Red Planet

·         NASA will stand down from commanding its Mars missions for the next few weeks while Earth and the Red Planet are on opposite sides of the Sun. This period, called Mars solar conjunction, happens every two years.Hence statement 1 is correct

·         NASA engineers send Mars spacecraft a list of simple commands to carry out for a few weeks. This year, most missions will stop sending commands between October 2 and October 16.

·         A few extend that commanding moratorium, as it’s called, a day or two in either direction, depending on the angular distance between Mars and the Sun in Earth’s sky.

·         It’s impossible to predict what information might be lost due to interference from charged particles from the Sun, and that lost information could potentially endanger the spacecraft. 

What is Solar Conjunction?

·         It is the period when Earth and Mars, in their eternal march around the Sun, are obscured from each other by the fiery orb of the Sun itself. Hence statement 2 is correct

·         The two planets are temporarily invisible to each other like dancers on either side of a huge bonfire.

Source: https://scitechdaily.com/solar-conjunction-nasas-mars-fleet-lies-low-with-sun-between-earth-and-red-planet/

10. Consider the following statements:

1) Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) is the amount that banks have to maintain in the form of their own funds to offset any loss that banks incur if the account-holders fail to repay dues.

2) CAR is decided by each individual bank.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) is the ratio of a bank’s capital in relation to its risk weighted assets and current liabilities. It is decided by central banks and bank regulators to prevent commercial banks from taking excess leverage and becoming insolvent in the process.