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Daily Prelims Test – 05_October 2020

Consider the following statements regardingK family of missiles

1.It is a series of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) developed by India to boost its second-strike capabilities

2.It is named after Indian scientist and former president A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is India’s K missile family

  • The K family of missiles are primarily Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs), which have been indigenously developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and are named after Dr Kalam, the centre figure in India’s missile and space programmes who also served as the 11th President of India. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct
  • The development of these naval platform launched missiles began in the late 1990s as a step towards completing India’s nuclear triad — the capability of launching nuclear weapons from land, sea and air-based assets.
  • Because these missiles are to be launched from submarines, they are lighter, smaller and stealthier than their land-based counterparts, the Agni series of missiles which are medium and intercontinental range nuclear capable ballistic missiles.
  • India has also developed and successfully tested multiple times the K-4 missiles from the family which has a range of 3500 km. It is reported that more members of K-family — reportedly to have been codenamed K-5 and K-6 — with ranges of 5000 and 6000 km are also under development. The early development trials of K-15 and K-4 missiles had begun in the early 2010s.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-indias-k-missile-family-6701664/


Consider the following statements regardingShaurya Missile

1.It is an indigenously developed nuclear capable hypersonic missile ‘Shaurya’ with a strike range of around 1,000 km

2.It is the land variant of India’s K-15 missile and is capable of carrying payloads of 200 kg to 1000 kg.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:

  • 3 October 2020 successfully test fired its indigenously developed nuclear capable hypersonic missile ‘Shaurya’ with a strike range of around 1,000 km from a test range in Odisha. ‘Shaurya’, which is the land variant of Indias K-15 missile, has a strike range of 700 km to 1000 km and is capable of carrying payloads of 200 kg to 1000 kg. Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • About Shaurya Missile
  • The surface-to-surface tactical missile was blasted off from a canister strapped to the ground launcher from launch complex 4 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) in the APJ Abdul Kalam Island and covered the desired range.
  • It is 10 metres long, 74 cm in diameter and weighs 6.2 tonnes. Its two stages use solid propellants.
  • The state-of-the-art missile performed a manoeuvre in the closing stages of its flight and hit the impact point in the Bay of Bengal with precision and accuracy.
  • A gas generator at the bottom of the canister pushed the missile out. Its first stage ignited then and fell off. The second stage went into action after this.
  • During the test flight, the missile was tracked by various telemetry stations and radars and performed well.
  • Shaurya is one of the top 10 missiles in the world in its class with its high performance navigation and guidance systems, efficient propulsion systems, sophisticated control technologies and canisterised launch.
  • The missile can be launched from silos and canisters mounted on a truck and fixed on the ground, it can be easily moved around. A truck itself can become a launching platform.
  • “Shaurya” missiles can be kept in locations where the enemies would not be able to detect them. Besides, it cannot be detected by satellite imaging.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-indias-k-missile-family-6701664/


Consider the following statements regardingEarthquake swarms

1.They are a sequence of mostly small earthquakes with no identifiable mainshock.

2.They are usually long-lived and they can continue for days, weeks or sometimes even months.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Expert explains what caused recent earthquakes in India

  • The recent earthquakes in different parts of India, albeit of small magnitudes, have occurred due to foreshocks and swarms
  • The deputy director general of GSI, also said that foreshocks — mild tremor preceding earthquakes– or swarm activities — series of earthquakes — indicate release of tectonic stress and strain during the continuous deformation process, and a detailed study of these jolts could help predict if a significant seismic event is in store.

About Earthquake swarms

  • Earthquake swarms are a sequence of mostly small earthquakes with no identifiable mainshock. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Earthquake swarms are events where a local area experiences sequences of many earthquakes striking in a relatively short period of timeHence statement 2 is incorrect
  • They are differentiated from earthquakes succeeded by a series of aftershocks by the observation that no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the main shock.
  • A foreshock is an earthquake that occurs before a larger seismic event (the mainshock) and is related to it in both time and space.
  • The designation of an earthquake as foreshock, mainshock or aftershock is only possible after the full sequence of events has happened

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/lifestyle/science/expert-explains-what-caused-recent-earthquakes-in-india/2097733/


Consider the following statements regardingKodaikanal Solar Observatory

1.It is a solar observatory owned and operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics.

2.It provides the longest series of solar data and an important feature of these data is the multi-wavelength observations.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Century-old data help measure the Sun’s magnetic field

  • Regular observations of the Sun’s magnetic field begin in 1967, and, so far, we have data for the period from 1967 almost to the present, spanning the solar cycles 20-24. Now, an Indo-Russian collaboration has added to this with a plot of the solar magnetic field from 1915 to 1965 (solar cycles 15-19). Using a novel approach, they have calibrated and calculated the field using data from the archives of the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The present study makes the important contribution of building on this using the Kodaikanal Solar observatory data, and extending the magnetic field calculations for another fifty years approximately.
  • About Kodaikanal Solar Observatory
  • The Kodaikanal Solar Observatory was established in 1899. The observations of the Sun from this observatory run over a hundred years.
  • It provides what is among the longest series of solar data. An important feature of these data is the multi-wavelength observationsHence statement 2 is correct
  • The data consist of full disc spectral images of the Sun using the Ca II K and H-alpha lines.
  • Both these lines image the atmospheric layer of the Sun known as the chromosphere.
  • From the full-disc images of Ca II K features, bright patches above magnetic field regions, known as plages are identified. Underneath these, sunspots can be found. Therefore, plages provide information about magnetic field locations and strength.
  • On the other hand, the H-alpha images show filaments, which are formed along magnetic neutral lines.
  • Combining the two sets, the full magnetic field data was reconstructed.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/century-old-data-help-measure-the-suns-magnetic-field/article32761679.ece


Consider the following statements

1.Unlike many other celestial bodies, sun’s magnetic field reverses its polarity roughly every 11 years.

2.Solar Filaments are large regions of very dense, cool gas, held in place by magnetic fields

3.Solar Filaments are usually appearing long and thin above the chromosphere

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Century-old data help measure the Sun’s magnetic field

  • The magnetic field of the Sun is unique in that, unlike many other celestial bodies, it reverses its polarity roughly every 11 years. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Understanding the magnetic field evolution in the past improves our understanding of the physics itself. In the work we have also talked about the timing of the polarity reversal, which is also very important.
  • Solar variations, both of long scale and short, depend on the magnetic field, and these can affect both the climate and space weather. Therefore, understanding the magnetic field variations can contribute to our understanding of climate and space weather.

Solar Filaments

  • Filaments are large regions of very dense, cool gas, held in place by magnetic fieldsHence statement 2 is correct
  • They usually appear long and thin above the chromospher Hence statement 3 is correct
  • It is because they are cooler than their surroundings that they appear dark. But if they appear on the “edge” of the Sun, they appear brighter than the dark outer space behind them.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/century-old-data-help-measure-the-suns-magnetic-field/article32761679.ece


Consider the following statements regardingRAISE 2020

1.It is a first of its-kind, global meeting of minds on Artificial Intelligence to drive India’s vision for social transformation through responsible AI

2.It is being Organized by the NITI Aayog

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi to inaugurate global AI summit RAISE 2020 today. What you need to know

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will inaugurate a five-day global virtual summit on artificial intelligence (AI). It will aim for the transformation of health, education and agricultural areas. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is being Organized by Government of India along with Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology and NITI Aayog. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • RAISE 2020 is being held to exchange ideas and charter a course to use AI for social empowerment, inclusion, and transformation in key areas like healthcare, agriculture, education and smart mobility amongst other sectors.
  • The summit will call for global participation from key opinion makers, academia and government representatives.
  • The aim of the summit is to encourage the discussion on AI in public infrastructure, build responsible AI for social empowerment, transformation and inclusion of society.
  • RAISE 2020 will discuss vital topics such as data and AI-powered financial services, Atmanirbhar Bharat AI start-up pitch fest, education and awareness for responsible AI, leveraging AI for pandemic preparedness, the impact of data and AI in smart cities and mobility, the role of government in AI enablement, role of data for responsible AI, building a future-ready agricultural supply chain with AI will be discussed.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pm-modi-to-inaugurate-global-ai-summit-raise-2020-today-what-you-need-to-know/story-2Jb9kVQYO4jNEa4yQsrA4M.html


with respect to Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), Consider the following statements

1.It is a Military agreement between Armed Forces of India and the USA

2.It gives access to designated military facilities on either side for refueling and replenishment.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: U.S. Navy’s maritime patrol aircraft refuels at Port Blair

  • A U.S. Navy P­8A long range Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA) landed at Port Blair in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the last week of September for refuelling un­ der the bilateral logistics support agreement .
  • The P­8A was in Port Blair on September 25 for re­ fuelling under the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA)

About Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement

  • It is a Military agreement between Armed Forces of India and the USA that establishes basic terms, conditions, procedures for Logistic support, supplies, and services. The agreement encompasses medical services, training, spare parts, fuel, food, water, transportation, clothing, repair, maintenance, and communication services. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is also one of the four foundational agreements — as referred to by the U.S.
  • Under LEMOA, a mechanism will be instituted for book-keeping and payments and officials, who will act as nodal points of contact, will be designated on both sides.
  • It gives access to designated military facilities on either side for refueling and replenishment. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The agreement will cover four areas:
  • Port calls
  • Joint exercises
  • Training
  • Humanitarian assistance
  • Disaster relief

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/us-navy-aircraft-refuels-at-port-blair/article32760946.ece#:~:text=A%20U.S.%20Navy%20P%2D8A,agreement%2C%20two%20defence%20sources%20confirmed.


Consider the following:

  • Members of the armed forces
  • Government employees posted outside India and their spouses
  • President of India and Vice President
  • Elderly person those above 80 year and People with Disabilities

From the above option, who can avail the option to vote by post or postal ballots?

  • 1,3 and 4 only
  • 1 and 4 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: Election Commission makes procedure to opt for postal ballot by elderly, people with disabilities friendlier

  • The fresh instructions would be applicable to all elections and by-elections, including the bypolls announced last week to 56 assembly and one Lok Sabha seat.
  • The form required to opt for the postal ballot would be delivered at the residence of all those above 80 years of age and people with disabilities by the booth level officer under his polling station. Hence option (d) is correct
  • It would be up to these two category of voters to opt for postal ballot ”If he/she opts for postal ballot, then the BLO will collect the filled-in form 12-D from the house of the elector within five days of the notification and deposit it with the returning officer forthwith
  • As per the instructions, the returning officer would deploy polling teams, who will deliver and collect the postal ballot on pre-informed dates and thereafter deposit it with the RO.

About Postal voting or ballots:

  • It is also called  Electronically Transmitted Postal Ballot Papers (ETPB) and under this ballot papers are distributed electronically to electors and are then returned to the election officers via post.

Who can avail this facility?

  • Members of the armed forces like the Army, Navy and Air Force, members of the armed police force of a state (serving outside the state), government employees posted outside India and their spouses are entitled to vote only by post.
  • While prisoners are not allowed to vote, people under preventive detention can cast their votes through postal ballots.
  • Special voters such as the President of India, Vice President, Governors, Union Cabinet ministers, Speaker of the House and government officers on poll duty have the option to vote by post.
  • Recently, a new category of ‘absentee voters’ was introduced in which they can also opt for postal voting. These voters are employed in essential services and unable to cast their vote due to their service conditions. Currently, officials of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, Northern Railway (Passenger and Freight) Services and media persons are notified as absentee voters.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/election-commission-makes-procedure-to-opt-for-postal-ballot-by-elderly-people-with-disabilities-friendlier/article32765349.ece


.Consider the following statements regardingNational Commission for the Protection of Child Rights

Under the NCPCR, the Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.

It mandate’s to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: A commission misguided

The national child rights body seems to be deriving its priorities from the political agenda of the day.

Amongst its significant powers and duties, the NCPCR has been specifically charged with the monitoring of Child Care Institutions (CCIs) and was instructed to carry out a social audit of the same by the Supreme Court.

About National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights

  • The National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) was set up in March 2007 under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005, an Act of Parliament.
  • National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) is a statutory body under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act, 2005 under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development ,Government of India.
  • The Commission’s Mandate is to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Under the NCPCR the Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Functions of the National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights as laid out in the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights (CPCR) Act,2005 are as follows:
  • Examine and review the safeguards provided by or under any law for the time being in force for the protection of child rights and recommend measures for their effective implementation;
  • Present to be central government, annually and at such other intervals, as the commission may deem fit, reports upon working of those safeguards;
  • Inquire into violation of child rights and recommend initiation of proceedings in such cases;
  • Examine all factors that inhibit the enjoyment of rights of children affected by terrorism, communal violence, riots, natural disaster, domestic violence, HIV/AIDS, trafficking, maltreatment, torture and exploitation, pornography and prostitution and recommend appropriate remedial measures;

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-commission-misguided/article32766923.ece


Consider the following statements:

1.In India, State Governments do not have the power to auction noncoal mines.

2.Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand do no have gold mines.

3.Rajasthan has iron ore mines.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 2
  • 2 only
  • 1 and 3
  • 3 only

Answer: (d) 3 only

Explanation:

Unlike coal, the auction of mining licences of non-coal minerals is conducted by the respective state governments.

Iron ore mines are located in Bhilwara in Rajasthan. India has gold deposits spread across several states including Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan.

Governments of both Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh have auctioned several gold mines in recent years. Hence option (d) is correct