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Daily Prelims Test – 05_March 2021

Which of the main crimes come under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court?

Crime of aggression

Crimes against humanity

War crimes

Genocide

Select the correct option from the given below codes

  1. 4 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: International Criminal Court investigates alleged crimes in Palestinian territories

  • The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court said she has launched an investigation into alleged crimes in the Palestinian territories, plunging the court into the midst of one of the most fraught conflicts of the past half century.
  • The probe will focus into the situation in the blockaded Gaza Strip, along with the Israeli-occupied West Bank and east Jerusalem since June 2014.

About International Criminal Court (ICC)

  • It is a permanent judicial body based at The Hague in the Netherlands and is the world’s first permanent international criminal court.
  • It is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals.
  • The ICC is intended to complement, not to replace, national criminal systems; it prosecutes cases only when States do not are unwilling or unable to do so genuinely.
  • ICC is not a UN organization but it has a cooperation agreement with the United Nations.
  • Members: 123 Countries recognise its authority, some notable exceptions include India, Russia and U.S.

The court has jurisdiction over four main crimes: 

  • Genocide – It is the intentional action to destroy an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group.
  • Crimes against humanity – These are certain acts that are purposely committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population.
  • War crimes – A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility. Examples intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torturing, destroying civilian property, taking hostages etc..
  • Crime of aggression – A crime of aggression is a specific type of crime where a person plans, initiates, or executes an act of aggression using state military force that violates the Charter of the United Nations. These include invasion, military occupation, annexation by the use of force, bombardment, and military blockade of ports. Hence option (d) is correct

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/international-criminal-court-investigates-alleged-crimes-in-palestinian-territories/article33981746.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement

It is a tax treaty signed between two or more countries to help taxpayers avoid paying double taxes on the same income.

It becomes applicable in cases where an individual is a resident of one nation, but earns income in another.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NRIs, Foreign nationals stranded in India to submit details of double taxation by March 31

  • The Finance Ministry on Wednesday said NRIs and foreign nationals stuck in India due to COVID-19 pandemic and facing double taxation can submit the details to the income tax department by March 31.
  • In May 2020, the Ministry clarified that the period of stay of non-resident Indians (NRIs) and foreign nationals in India during the lockdown period would not be counted for the purpose of determining their residency status for the purpose of taxation.

About Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA)

It is a tax treaty signed between two or more countries to help taxpayers avoid paying double taxes on the same income. Hence statement 1 is correct

  • The DTAA becomes applicable in cases where an individual is a resident of one nation, but earns income in another. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • India presently has DTAA with 80+ countries, with plans to sign such treaties with more countries in the years to come.
  • The intent behind a Double Tax Avoidance Agreement is to make a country appear as an attractive investment destination by providing relief on dual taxation.
  • It is a form of relief provided by exempting income earned in a foreign country from tax in the resident nation or offering credit to the extent taxes have been paid abroad.
  • The individual can claim relief at the time of filing a tax return for that financial year, provided there is an applicable DTAA.
  • The DTAAs provide both formal and informal trust between countries, which translates into diplomatic benefits and cordial relationships.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/nris-foreign-nationals-stranded-in-india-to-submit-details-of-double-taxation-by-march-31/article33984022.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Trojan Horse

  1. It is a type of malicious computer software (malware) disguised within legitimate or beneficial programs or files.
  2. It usually spreads through instant-messaging software, e-mail attachments, or Web downloads.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 14 Trojan horses found in servers, says Minister

  • Two days after Maharashtra Home Minister Anil Deshmukh submitted a report prepared by the State’s cyber cell on a possible cyberattack that caused the October 12 power outage in Mumbai and parts of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR), Power Minister Nitin Raut said the report found 14 Trojan horse programs that had entered the Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company (MAHATRANSCO) servers.

About Trojan horse

  • It is a type of malicious computer software (malware) disguised within legitimate or beneficial programs or files. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It usually spreads through instant-messaging software, e-mail attachments, or Web downloads. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Once installed on a user’s computer system, the computer becomes a “bot” or zombie, allowing the malware developer remote access to the host computer, subjecting the host computer to various destructive or undesired activities.
  • These are used for a variety of malicious purposes: browsing the hard drive to steal data, logging keystrokes to acquire personal passwords or account numbers, erasing files, shutting down the computer at random, sending spam from the user’s email account, or deleting the entire hard drive.
  • They are frequently used for illegal activities as well such as corporate espionage, blackmail, fraud, identity theft and cyber-warfare however, relatively few of those responsible have been identified and prosecuted.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/14-trojan-horses-found-in-servers-says-minister/article33983183.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Freedom in the World Index

  1. It is an annual global report on political rights and civil liberties.
  2. It has demoted India’s freedom score from “free” to “partly free” due to erosion of rights and civil liberties.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India downgraded from ‘free’ to ‘partly free’ in democracy report

  • The report titled “Freedom in the World 2021 – Democracy under Siege” said India “appears to have abandoned its potential to serve as a global democratic leader”.
  • India’s status as a democracy and free society has been downgraded to “partly free” in the latest annual report on global political rights and liberties by Freedom House, a US government-funded NGO that studies political freedom around the world. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The report has demoted India’s freedom score from “free” to “partly free” due to erosion of rights and civil liberties.
  • The report has cited numerous reasons for demoting India’s freedom score such as attacks on Muslims, use of the sedition law, and the government’s coronavirus response including the lockdown.
  • India’s score decreased from 71 to 67, with 100 being the ranking for the most free country.
  • India’s rank fell from 83 to 88 out of 211 countries.
  • The report highlighted the increased pressure on human rights organizations, rising intimidation of academics and journalists, and a spate of bigoted attacks.

About Freedom in the World Index

  • It is an annual global report on political rights and civil liberties. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is composed of numerical ratings and descriptive texts for each country and a select group of territories.
  • The 2021 edition covers developments in 195 countries and 15 territories from January 1, 2020, through December 31, 2020.
  • The report’s methodology is derived in large measure from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948.
  • It is based on the premise that these standards apply to all countries and territories, irrespective of geographical location, ethnic or religious composition, or level of economic development.

Source:https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-downgraded-from-free-to-partly-free-in-democracy-report-101614810847391.html


Consider the following Statements regarding Covaxin

It is India’s indigenous COVID-19 vaccine by Bharat Biotech

It is developed using Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell derived platform technology.

They contain dead virus incapable of infecting people and able to instruct the immune system

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Bharat Biotech COVID-19 vaccine claimed to have 80.6% efficacy

Bharat Biotech International Ltd came out with the first interim analysis of its novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine, Covaxin, March 3, 2021. It claimed an efficacy of 80.6 per cent.

About Covaxin vaccine:

  • Covaxin is one of the two vaccines that have been granted emergency use approval in India.
  • It is India’s indigenous COVID-19 vaccine by Bharat Biotech, developed in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) – National Institute of Virology (NIV). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The vaccine is developed using Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell derived platform technology. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Inactivated vaccines do not replicate and are therefore unlikely to revert and cause pathological effects.
  • They contain dead virus, incapable of infecting people but still able to instruct the immune system to mount a defensive reaction against an infectionHence statement 3 is correct
  • Covaxin is included along with immune-potentiators, also known as vaccine adjuvants, which are added to the vaccine to increase and boost its immunogenicity.
  • It is a 2-dose vaccination regimen given 28 days apart.
  • It is a vaccine with no sub-zero storage, no reconstitution requirement, and ready to use liquid presentation in multi-dose vials, stable at 2-8oC.
  • The vaccine received DCGI approval for Phase I & II Human Clinical Trials in July, 2020.

Source:https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/bharat-biotech-covid-19-vaccine-claimed-to-have-80-6-efficacy-75753


Food Waste Index Report 2021 is released by which of the following international organisations? 

  1. United Nations Environment Programme
  2. Food and Agriculture Organization
  3. World Food Programme
  4. International Fund For Agricultural Development

Answer: (a) United Nations Environment Programme

Explanation:

In NEWS: 17 percent of all food available at consumer levels was wasted in 2019, reveals Food Waste Index

  • The Food Waste Index Report 2021 released March 4, 2021 has revealed that 17 per cent of all food available at consumer levels was wasted in 2019. That year, some 690 million people had to go hungry.
  • The food waste amounted to a whopping 931 million tonnes of food sold to households, retailers and restaurants. Around 23 million 40-tonne trucks would be needed to transport this waste and if they stood bumper to bumper, they would circle the Earth seven times.
  • The report, produced jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and WRAP, also found that consumer waste was broadly similar in rich and poor countries. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The document noted that on an average, 74 kilograms of food was wasted per capita at the household level. For India, the waste in kg / capita / year was 50
  • Food waste also has a substantial environmental, social and economic impact. For example, 8-10 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions are associated with food that is not consumed.
  • Reducing food waste would cut greenhouse gas emissions, slow the destruction of nature through land conversion and pollution, enhance the availability of food and thus reduce hunger and save money at a time of global recession
  • As of now, none of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the Paris Agreement mention food waste and only 11 mention food loss. Countries can raise climate ambition by including food systems in their NDCs.
  • Food loss and waste causes about $940 billion per year in economic losses. Reductions can save money for farmers, companies, and households.
  • SDG target 12.3 aims at halving per-capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reducing food losses along production and supply chains.

Source:https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/food/17-per-cent-of-all-food-available-at-consumer-levels-was-wasted-in-2019-reveals-food-waste-index-75771


The term Raorchestes drutaahu and Raorchestes kakkayamensis often seen in news, it refers to

  1. Invasive earthworm
  2. Blue worm recently found in Tripura
  3. Freshwater Fish
  4. New species of shrub frogs

Answer: (d) New species of shrub frogs

Explanation:

In NEWS: Five new species of shrub frogs found in Western Ghats

  • Researchers from India and the U.S. have discovered five new species of shrub frogs from the Western Ghats, one of the globally recognised biodiversity hotspots.
  • The frogs, belonging to the the Old World tree frog family Rhacophoridae
  • The discovery is part of a long comprehensive study on the Shrub frogs (genus Raorchestes) of the Western Ghats, carried out over a period of nearly 10 years.
  • Researchers are tracing potential evidence for population decline of five species and threats they may be facing within their ranges.
  • The new species were identified and found to be distinct based on multiple criteria’s like.
  • The frogs’ external morphology, DNA, calling pattern, behaviour, and other natural history observations.
  • This is the first-time, researchers have comprehensively examined their characters for all known shrub frog species of the Western Ghats.

About new species of frogs:

  • Raorchestes drutaahu (Fast-calling Shrub Frog)- Discovered from Idukki district and Palakkad district of Kerala.
  • Raorchestes kakkayamensis (Kakkayam Shrub Frog) – Found only in the vicinity of Kakkayam dam in the southern state. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Raorchestes keirasabinae (Keira”s Shrub Frog) – Found in Agasthyamalai and Anamalai hills in the southern Western Ghats. It is a unique tree frog inhabiting the highest canopy layers.
  • Raorchestes sanjappai (Sanjappa”s Shrub Frog)- It is a beautiful green shrub frog, was discovered from the Wayanad region of northern Kerala. The species is named after Dr M Sanjappa, a renowned Indian Botanist and former Director of the Botanical Survey of India.
  • Raorchestes vallikkannan (Silver-eyed Shrub Frog) – discovered in the Siruvani hills and adjoining regions of the Silent Valley National Park. The name is derived from Malayalam ”velli” (meaning silver) and ”kannu” (meaning eye), referring to its distinct silver eye colour.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/five-new-species-of-shrub-frogs-found-in-western-ghats/article33979873.ece


The term “Bao-dhaan” recently seen in news, it is related to

  1. It is one of the five species of monotremes
  2. It is a red rice rich in Iron and is grown in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam
  3. It is the first cultural media platform of India
  4. It is a terracotta products made from the special soil found in Bhathat area of Uttar Pradesh‘

Answer: (b) It is a red rice rich in Iron and is grown in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS: First consignment of ‘red rice’ from Assam flagged off to US

  • In a major boost to India’s rice exports potential, the first consignment of ‘red rice’ was flagged off on Thursday to the United States of America (USA).
  • Iron-rich ‘red rice’ is grown in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam, without the use of any chemical fertilizer. The rice variety is referred as ‘Bao-dhaan’, which is an integral part of Assamese food. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The red rice is being sourced by leading rice exporter – LT Foods. The flagging off ceremony of the export consignments was carried out by the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)
  • As the exports of ‘red rice’ grow, it would enhance the incomes of farming families of the Brahmaputra flood plains, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry
  • APEDA, which comes under the department of Commerce of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, has been promoting rice exports through collaborations with various stakeholders in the value chains
  • The government had set up the Rice Export Promotion Forum (REPF), under the aegis of the APEDA. REPF has representations from the rice industry, exporters, officials from APEDA, the ministry of commerce and directors of agriculture from major rice-producing states including West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh and Odisha

Source:https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2021/mar/05/first-consignment-of-red-rice-from-assam-flagged-off-to-us-2272551.html


Consider the following statements: 

With reference to the Constitution of India, the Directive Principles of State Policy constitute limitations upon

  1. legislative function.
  2. executive function. 

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only 
  2. 2 only 
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

Directive Principles of state policy cannot act as constraints/limitations on the government because they are not enforceable and they are fundamental to the governance of a country. Fundamental Rights operate as limitations on the tyranny of the executive and arbitrary laws of the legislatureHence option (d) is correct


Which one of the following objectives is not embodied in the Preamble to the Constitution of India? 

Liberty of thought

Economic liberty 

Liberty of expression 

Liberty of belief

Answer: (b) Economic liberty 

Explanation:

The Preamble secures to all citizens of India liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship, through their Fundamental Rights, enforceable in court of law, in case of violation. The ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity in our Preamble have been taken from the French Revolution (1789–1799).