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Daily Prelims Test – 05_July_2022

Kingmakers ias academy - Prelims (1)05_July_2022

1. Consider the following statements regarding Consumer Protection Act, 2019

1) It proposes the establishment of the Central Consumer Protection Authority as a regulatory authority.

2) It is applicable to all the products and services

3) It covers transactions through all modes including offline and online

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Hotels can’t force customers to pay service charge: Centre

  • The Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) issued guidelines here on asking hotels and restaurants not to collect service charge from customers.
  • The CCPA was established in July 2020 under The Consumer Protection Act, 2019, to promote, protect, and enforce the rights of consumers as a class, and to investigate, prosecute, and punish violators.

About Consumer Protection Act, 2019

  • Consumer Protection Act, 2019 is a law to protect the interests of the consumers. This Act provides safety to consumers regarding defective products, dissatisfactory services, and unfair trade practices.
  • It covers transactions through all modes including offline, and online through electronic means, teleshopping, multi-level marketing or direct selling. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • As per the Act, a person is called a consumer who avails the services and buys any good for self-use
  • The Act proposes the establishment of the Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) as a regulatory authority. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Act has the provision of the establishment of Consumer Disputes Redressal Commissions (CDRCs) at the national, state and district levels to entertain consumer complaints.
  • It provides flexibility to the consumer to file complaints with the jurisdictional consumer forum located at the place of residence or work of the consumer.
  • It provides for mediation as an Alternate Dispute Resolution mechanism. For mediation, there will be a strict timeline fixed in the rules.
  • The new Act has armed the authorities to take action against unfair trade practices too
  • The Consumer Protection Act empowers the Central Government to establish a Central Consumer Protection Council. It will act as an advisory body on consumer issues.
  • This Act is applicable to all the products and services, until or unless any product or service is especially debarred out of the scope of this Act by the Central Government. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/hotels-cant-levy-service-charge-on-customers-centre/article65600132.ece

2. With reference to Sangam Literature, consider the following pairs:

  Natural landscapes (Tinai)       Features

1) Kurinji Tinai                                   Mountains and slope

2) Mullai Tinai                                   Agricultural lands

3) Marudham Tinai                          Forests and grasslands

4) Neithal Tinai                                 Coastal or seashore

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

a) None of the pairs

b) Only one pair

c) Only two pairs

d) All three pairs

Answer: (c) Only two pairs

Explanation:

In NEWS: Soil samples from T.N. sent for project at new Parliament site

  • They pertain to the five ecological regions mentioned in Sangam literature.
  • The rich cultural history of the Tamils will be featured in a project relating to the new Parliament being constructed by the Union government in New Delhi.
  • Soil samples from five ecological regions mentioned in ancient Tamil Sangam literature — Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham, Neithal and Paalai — have been collected and sent to the capital recently.
  • Kurinji Tinai (mountains and slope)
  • Mullai Tinai (forests and grasslands).
  • Marudham Tinai (plains, valleys and agricultural lands).
  • Neithal Tinai (coastal or seashore)
  • Paalai Tinai (parched wasteland or desert). Hence option (c) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/tn-sends-soil-samples-for-project-relating-to-new-parliament-building/article65599930.ece

3. Bhashini and Meri Pehchaan is an initiative to boost which one of the following area?

a) Self Help Groups

b) Digital India

c) Agro-based Industries

d) Mining and Quarrying lease

Answer: (b) Digital India

Explanation:

In NEWS: India leading the world in digital revolution: PM

  • Mr. Modi launched multiple digital portals at the ongoing Digital India Week 2022, including a single sign-in portal Meri Pehchaan, Digital India Bhashini, Digital India Genesis, and a Chips to Startup (C2S) programme at an event at Gandhinagar. Hence option (b) is correct

About Digital India Bhashini’

  • ‘Digital India Bhashini’ will enable easy access to the internet and digital services in Indian languages, including voice-based access, and help the creation of content in Indian languages.
  • The key intervention in building AI-based language technology solutions for Indian languages will be the creation of multilingual datasets.
  • Digital India Bhashini will enable massive citizen engagement to build these datasets through a crowdsourcing initiative called BhashaDaan.

About ‘Digital India GENESIS’

  • ‘Digital India GENESIS’ (Gen-next Support for Innovative Startups) – a National Deep-tech Startup Platform, to discover, support, grow and make successful startups in Tier-II and Tier-III cities of India.  A total outlay of ₹750 Crore has been envisaged for the scheme.

Meri Pehchaan’

  • National Single Sign On for One Citizen Login. National Single Sign-On (NSSO) is a user authentication service in which a single set of credentials provide access to multiple online applications or services.

C2S Programme

  • The C2S Programme aims to train specialized manpower in the area of design of semiconductor chips at Bachelors, Masters and Research levels, and act as a catalyst for the growth of Startups involved in semiconductor design in the country.
  • It offers to mentor at the organisational level and makes available State-of-the-art facilities for design to the institutions.
  • This is part of the India Semiconductor Mission to build a strong design ecosystem in semiconductors.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/prime-minister-narendra-modi-addresses-digital-india-week-2022-in-gandhinagar/article65600061.ece

4. Consider the following statements regarding Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space

1) It was set up to govern the exploration and use of space for the benefit of all humanity: for peace, security and development.

2) It is not a part of United Nations body

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: The need for space sustainability

  • As the outer space is considered a shared natural resource, the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in 2019 adopted a set of 21 voluntary, non-binding guidelines to ensure the long-term sustainability of outer space activities. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • One of the hot issues when it comes to space sustainability is orbital crowding. It poses a direct threat to the operations and safety of a mission and is likely to cause legal and insurance-related conflicts.

Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space

  • The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) was set up by the General Assembly in 1959 to govern the exploration and use of space for the benefit of all humanity: for peace, security and development.  Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Committee was tasked with reviewing international cooperation in peaceful uses of outer space, studying space-related activities that could be undertaken by the United Nations, encouraging space research programmes, and studying legal problems arising from the exploration of outer space.
  • The Committee was instrumental in the creation of the five treaties and five principles of outer space.
  • International cooperation in space exploration and the use of space technology applications to meet global development goals are discussed in the Committee every year.
  • Owing to rapid advances in space technology, the space agenda is constantly evolving. The Committee therefore provides a unique platform at the global level to monitor and discuss these developments.
  • The Committee has two subsidiary bodies: the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, and the Legal Subcommittee, both established in 1961.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/explained-the-need-for-space-sustainability/article65599294.ece

5. Which one of the following statements best describes the ‘Project NETRA’?

a) It is an early warning system to secure its satellites and other assets in space.

b) It is a system to make code of safety for ships operating in International Borders

c) It is a drinking water quality management system

d) It is used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making

Answer: (a) It is an early warning system to secure its satellites and other assets in space.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained | The need for space sustainability

  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has initiated ‘Project NETRA’ to monitor space debris. The domestic surveillance system would provide first-hand information on the status of debris, which would aid further planning on protecting space assets.
  • In April 2022, India and the U.S. signed a new pact for monitoring space objects at the 2+2 dialogue. The controlled anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) tests and the risk of collisions must be collectively addressed.

About ‘Project NETRA’

  • It is an early warning system to secure its satellites and other assets in space. Hence option (a) is correct
  • Under this ISRO plans to put up many observational facilities: connected radars, telescopes, data processing units and a control center.
  • They can spot, track and catalogue objects as small as 10 cm, up to a range of 3,400 km and equal to a space orbit of around 2,000 km.
  • It gives India its own capability in space situational awareness (SSA) like the other space powers — which is used to ‘predict’ threats from debris to Indian satellites.
  • It also goes so far as to serve as an unstated warning against missile or space attack for the country.
  • Under this project, SSA was first used for low-earth orbits or LEO which have remote-sensing spacecraft.
  • NETRA’s eventual goal is to capture the GEO, or geostationary orbit, seen at 36,000 km where communication satellites operate.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/explained-the-need-for-space-sustainability/article65599294.ece

6. Consider the following statements

1) Docking refers to connecting of two flying objects in space, either to transfer men or material from one to the other

2) Space docking experiment is a twin spacecraft mission being developed by Indian Space Research Organisation

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained | The need for space sustainability

  • To provide in-orbit servicing, ISRO is developing a docking experiment called ‘SPADEX’. It looks at docking a satellite on an existing satellite, offering support in re-fuelling and other in-orbit services while enhancing the capability of a satellite. Hence statement 2 is correct

About SPADEX

  • Docking refers to connecting of two flying objects in space, either to transfer men or material from one to the other, or two join two structures to make a bigger one. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Docking is broadly for two different purposes—for sending human beings from a shuttle to a space station, or for assembling large satellites in space.
  • SPADEX (Space Docking Experiment) is an Indian technology mission to demonstrate autonomuos docking.
  • This project will develop and demonstrate the technologies needed for docking two spacecraft (Chaser and Target) and to control one spacecraft from the Attitude Control System of other spacecraft in the docked condition.
  • Subsequent to docking, the Chaser and Target will be separated so that they would carry-out their designated experiments with payloads.
  • This technology will be a forerunner to future planetary missions including crew transfer, international participation etc.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/explained-the-need-for-space-sustainability/article65599294.ece

7. Consider the following statements regarding Direct Benefit Transfer

1) It is aim of reforming Government delivery system for simpler/faster flow of information and funds to the beneficiaries

2) Jan Dhan, Aadhaar and Mobile are DBT enablers

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India leading the world in digital revolution: PM

  • Since 2014, more than ₹23 lakh crore has been transferred to beneficiaries through direct benefit transfer
  • The government’s Digital India programme has given relief to the poor from corruption and it is working for elimination of middlemen in all fields
  • He emphasised the need to adopt technology or else remain backward as happened during the third Industrial Revolution when the country remained far behind other nations.

About Direct Benefit Transfer

  • With the aim of reforming Government delivery system by re-engineering the existing process in welfare schemes for simpler and faster flow of information/funds and to ensure accurate targeting of the beneficiaries, de-duplication and reduction of fraud Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) was started on 1st January, 2013. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • DBT Mission was created in the Planning Commission to act as the nodal point for the implementation of the DBT programmes.
  • DBT will bring efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability in the Government system and infuse confidence of citizen in the governance. Use of modern technology and IT tools will realize the dream of MAXIMUM GOVERNANCE MINIMUM GOVERNMENT.
  • In DBT, benefit or subsidy is directly transferred to citizens living below the poverty line.
  • The Central Plan Scheme Monitoring System (CPSMS), being implemented by the Office of Controller General of Accounts, acts as the common platform for routing DBT.
  • JAM i.e. Jan Dhan, Aadhaar and Mobile are DBT enablers. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/prime-minister-narendra-modi-addresses-digital-india-week-2022-in-gandhinagar/article65600061.ece

8. Consider the following statements regarding Unified Payments Interface

1) It is a system that powers multiple bank accounts into a single mobile application

2) It is operated by the National Payments Corporation of India

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: UPI: the dawn of digital fintech nirvana

  • This virtual payment interface is an Indian technological success story, one which enables us to move around with an empty pocket barring a smartphone
  • Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is a system that powers multiple bank accounts into a single mobile application (of any participating bank), merging several banking features, seamless fund routing & merchant payments into one hood. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The UPI was launched in 2016 and is operated by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI). It operates on top of the Immediate Payment Service (IMPS) which was created by the NPCI for immediate fund transfers. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The primary reason for the popularity of UPI is that it accepts transactions as small as one rupee and for merchants, the absence of MDR that they have to pay to their banks.

UPI based payments function broadly through three steps.

  • First, one’s bank account is mapped to a Virtual Payment Address (VPA). A VPA eliminates the risk of mentioning account details in every transaction. It can be created in a couple of minutes using a UPI app. The only prerequisite is that your bank account be linked to a mobile number.
  • Secondly, a Payment Service Provider (typically a bank) takes care of the to-and-fro transactions to this VPA (and hence to the underlying bank account)
  • Finally, the UPI software orchestrates the fund movement from a customer’s VPA to a target VPA and completes the transaction.This transaction is different from paying with a debit card or credit card as it does not involve a Merchant Discount Rate (MDR)

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/upi-the-dawn-of-digital-fintech-nirvana/article65599052.ece

9. Consider the following statements regarding National Investigation Agency

1) It was constituted under the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, 2008.

2) It was established in the wake of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack

3) It does not apply to Indian citizens outside the country.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 2 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: The functioning of the National Investigation Agency

What is the NIA?

  • It was constituted under the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, 2008. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a central agency mandated to investigate all the offences affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, friendly relations with foreign states, and the offences under the statutory laws enacted to implement international treaties, agreements, conventions and resolutions of the United Nations, its agencies and other international organisations.
  • These include terror acts and their possible links with crimes like smuggling of arms, drugs and fake Indian currency and infiltration from across the borders.
  • The agency has the power to search, seize, arrest and prosecute those involved in such offences.
  • The law under which the agency operates extends to the whole of India and also applies to Indian citizens outside the country.  (persons in the service of the government wherever they are posted; persons on ships and aircraft registered in India wherever they may be; persons who commit a scheduled offence beyond India against the Indian citizen or affecting the interest of India.). Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • Headquartered in Delhi, the NIA has its branches in Hyderabad, Guwahati, Kochi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Kolkata, Raipur, Jammu, Chandigarh, Ranchi, Chennai, Imphal, Bengaluru and Patna.
  • As provided under Section 6 of the Act, State governments can refer the cases pertaining to the scheduled offences registered at any police station to the Central government (Union Home Ministry) for NIA investigation
  • Till date, the NIA has registered 447 cases.

When did the NIA come into being?

  • In the wake of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack in November 2008, which shocked the entire world, the then United Progressive Alliance government decided to establish the NIA. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • In December 2008, former Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram introduced the National Investigation Agency Bill.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/explained-the-functioning-of-the-national-investigation-agency/article65596033.ece#:~:text=The%20NIA%20is%20a%20central,enacted%20to%20implement%20international%20treaties.

10. Consider the following actions which the Government can take: (2011)

1) Devaluing the domestic currency.

2) Reduction in the export subsidy.

3) Adopting suitable policies which attract greater FDI and more funds from FIIs.

Which of the above action/actions can help in reducing the current account deficit?

a) 1 and 2

b) 2 and 3

c) 3 only

d) 1 and 3

Answer: (d) 1 and 3