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Daily Prelims Test – 05_July

1.Consider the following statements regarding International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS)

  • It is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
  • It is composed of 21 independent members
  • India is not a signatory to this convention

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Marines: CM calls for fair trial in Italy

  • The International Tribunal on Law of the Sea (ITLOS) ruled that the Italian marines who shot and killed the two Indian fishermen off the waters near Kerala held ‘immunity’ and therefore would face a trial in Italy, not India.
  • Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan shot off a letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi asking the Indian government to build international pressure for a fair trial in Italy in connection with the shooting of two Indian fishermen by Italian marines in February 2012.

About International Tribunal on Law of the Sea (ITLOS)

  • The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to adjudicatedisputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Convention.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Tribunal is composed of 21 independent members, elected from among persons enjoying the highest reputation for fairness and integrity and of recognized competence in the field of the law of the sea.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It was established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, signed at Montego Bay, Jamaica, on December 10, 1982.
  • The Convention entered into force on November 16, 1994, and established an international framework for law over “all ocean space, its uses and resources”.
  • The Convention also established the International Seabed Authority, with responsibility for the regulation of seabed mining beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, that is beyond the limits of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone and the continental shelf.
  • The tribunal is based in Hamburg, Germany.
  • The Tribunal has the power to settle disputes between party states. Currently, there are 161 parties.
  • India is also a signatory to this conventioHence statement 3 is incorrect

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/cm-questions-centres-handling-of-marines-case/article31990439.ece

2.Consider the following statements

  • Every year, the World Bank classifies countries into four income groups using Gross National Income (GNI) of a country in terms of U.S. Dollars
  • As per the 2020 Classification, India remains as an upper middle income country.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:New World Bank country classifications by income level: 2020-2021

  • The World Bank assigns the world’s economies to four income groups—low, lower-middle, upper-middle, and high-income countries. The classifications are updated each year on July 1 and are based on GNI per capita in current USD(using the Atlas method exchange rates) of the previous year. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • As per the 2020 Classification, India remains a Lower-Middle Income country.Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • As per the 2020-21 World Bank’s Country Classification based on Income level, Nepal’s (GNI in 2019 was USD 1090) economy has moved to a higher category to become a Lower-middle while Sri Lanka’s (USD 4020 was Sri Lanka’s GNI per capita in 2019) economy has moved to a lower category to become a Lower-middle Income economy.
GroupJuly 1, 2020 (new)July 1, 2019 (old)
Low income< 1,036< 1,026
Lower-middle income1,036 – 4,0451,026 – 3,995
Upper-middle income4,046 – 12,5353,996 – 12,375
High income> 12,535> 12,375

Source: https://blogs.worldbank.org/opendata/new-world-bank-country-classifications-income-level-2020-2021

Phobos and Deimos are the two natural satellites/moon of:

Mars

Jupiter

Earth

Saturn

Answer: (a) Mars

Explanation:

In NEWS: 7 yrs after launch, Mars orbiter still active, captures image of Red planet’s biggest moon

  • The Mars Colour Camera (MCC) onboard ISRO’s Mars Orbiter Mission has captured the image of Phobos, the closest and biggest moon of Mars.
  • The image was taken on July 1 when MOM was about 7,200 km from Mars and 4,200 km from Phobos
  • At that time, the Mars Orbiter Mission was at a distance of 7200 kilometres from Mars. ISRO has further stated that 210 metres is the spatial resolution of the captured image.
  • Phobos is largely believed to be made up of carbonaceous chondrites
  • Stickney Crater is the largest crater on the Phobos. In the image captured by Mars Orbiter Mission, Stickney Crater is visible along with Roche, Shklovsky and Grildrig craters of Phobos.
  • Phobos and Deimos are the two natural satellites of Mars. Both the moons of Mars were discovered by Asaph Hall in the year 1877. Phobos is seven timeslarger than Deimos.Hence option (a) is correct
  • Phobos orbits at around 6,000 Km from the surface of the Mars, while Deimos orbits at around 23,460 Km from the Mars.Therefore, Phobos is referred to as the Innermost Natural Satellite of Mars whereas Deimos is the outermost.

About Mangalyaan Mission

  • The country had on September 24, 2014 successfully placed the Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft in orbit around the red planet, in its very first attempt, thus breaking into an elite club.
  • The Rs 450-crore MOM mission aims at studying the Martian surface and mineral composition as well as scan its atmosphere for methane (an indicator of life on Mars).
  • The Mars Orbiter has five scientific instruments – Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP), Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM), Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA), Mars Colour Camera (MCC) and Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS).
  • The mission was launched by the Rocket PSLV-C25.
Picture6-Jul-07-2020-09-43-52-48-AM

Source:https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/7-yrs-after-launch-mars-orbiter-still-active-captures-image-of-red-planets-biggest-moon/articleshow/76787109.cms

4.Consider the following statements regarding winter diesel

  • It can be used in temperatures as low as -30°G to maintain lower viscosity
  • It is prepared by Indian Oil Corporation Ltd

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: What is winter diesel and how will it help Indian Army in Ladakh?

Winter diesel is a specialised fuel that was introduced by IOCL last year specifically for high altitude regions and low-temperature regions such as Ladakh, where ordinary diesel can become unusable.Hence statement 2 is correct

India’s armed forces may soon be using winter diesel for operations in high altitude areas such as Ladakh, where winter temperatures plummet to extremely low levels.

About winter diesel

  • winter diesel which contains additives to maintain lower viscosity can be used in temperatures as low as -30°C and that besides a low pour point,it had higher cetane rating — an indicator is the combustion speed of diesel and compression needed for ignition— and lower sulphur content, which would lead to lower deposits in engines and better performance. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The new fuel will help Indian security forces to stock up on crucial supplies and ammunition that gets cut off due to bad weather in winters.
  • This fuel is to prevent it from gelling in cold weather conditions achieved by treatment with additives that change the low temperature characteristics of the fuel.
  • The fuel is also known as winter diesel, alpine diesel, or winterized diesel.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-winter-diesel-and-how-will-it-help-indian-army-in-ladakh/

5.Consider the following statements regarding Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft

  • It is a robotic spacecraft of Indian Space Research Organisation
  • It aims to measure the entire lunar surface to create a high-resolution 3-D map of the Moon to aid in the planning of future robotic and crewed missions.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: NASA research says the Moon is more metallic than thought before. What this means?

  • In a new milestone in lunar exploration, NASA this week said that it’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft had found evidence that the Moon’s subsurface might have greater quantities of metals such as iron and titanium than thought before.
  • The metallic distribution was observed by the Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) instrument aboard the LRO.
  • According to the NASA press release, the findings raise the possibility that the dielectric constant increased in larger craters because the meteors that created them dug up dust containing iron and titanium oxides from beneath the Moon’s surface. Dielectric properties are directly linked to the concentration of these metal minerals.
  • If true, this logic would imply that beyond a few meters of the Moon’s upper surface– which relatively has lower metal deposits– lie large unknown quantities of iron and titanium oxides.

About Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

  • The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite missions began on June 18, 2009.
  • It is a robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The primary mission of the LRO is to measure the entire lunar surface to create a high-resolution 3-D mapof the Moon to aid in the planning of future robotic and crewed missions.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The map with ~50-centimeter resolution images would aid in the planning of future robotic and crewed missions.
  • In addition, LRO would map the polar regions and search for the presence of water ice.
  • It studies the Moon’s surface, clicks pictures, and collects data that help in figuring out the presence and possibility of water ice and other resources on the Moon, as well as plan future missions to it.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/nasa-research-says-the-moon-is-more-metallic-than-thought-before-6490854/

6.Consider the following statements with respect to Purchasing Managers’ Index

  • It represents the weighted average completely of the top Indian service sector company stocks.
  • It is published by Japanese firm Nikkei

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Manufacturing PMI improved to 47.2 in June, but business conditions continue to deteriorate

  • Factories in India saw some improvement, as the Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) rose to 47.2 in June as against 30.8 in May.
  • The IHS Markit Services PMI in June rose to 33.7 from 12.6 in May (2020), indicating a pick-up from the previous month, although any reading below 50 on this survey-based index shows contraction.

    Picture7-4

About Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI)

  • PMI or a Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an indicator of business activity — both in the manufacturing and services sectors. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It is a survey-based measures that asks the respondents about changes in their perception of some key business variables from the month before.
  • It is calculated separately for the manufacturing and services sectors and then a composite index is constructed.
  • For India, the PMI Data is published by Japanese firm Nikkei but compiled and constructed by Markit Economics (for the US, it is the ISM).Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The PMI is usually released at the start of the month, much before most of the official data on industrial output, manufacturing and GDP growth becomes available

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/manufacturing-pmi-improved-to-472-in-june/article31960185.ece

7.Consider the following statements with respect to Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme

It is launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Affairs with the assistance of the World Bank

It aims to strengthen/maintain decentralized laboratory based IT enabled disease surveillance systems for epidemic prone diseases to monitor disease trends

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nearly 78% of COVID­19 patients in India are under 50: IDSP data

  • In India, 60% of COVID­19 patients had at least one co­ morbidity and nearly 78% were under 50, says data from the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme
  • The data is only a fraction — less than 1,00,000 — of the confirmed positive cases that today exceeds over 6,50,000
  • About Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme
  • Launched in 2004 by the Ministry of Health and Family Affairs with the assistance of the World Bank. Hence statement 1 is correct

Objectives:

  • To strengthen/maintain decentralized laboratory based IT enabled disease surveillance system for epidemic prone diseasesto monitor disease trends and to detect and respond to outbreaks in early rising phase through trained Rapid Response Team (RRTs). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Components of the programme:
  • Integrates and decentralizes surveillance activities through establishment of surveillance units at Centre, State and District level.
  • Trains state surveillance officers, district surveillance officers, RRTs and other medical and paramedical staff on principles of disease surveillance as part of human resource development.
  • Uses Information Communication Technology for collection, collation, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data.
  • Strengthens public health laboratories.
  • Undertakes inter-sectoral coordination for zoonotic diseases.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/three-fourths-of-covid-19-patients-under-50-60-have-at-least-one-co-morbidity-idsp-data/article31990822.ece

8.The term ‘Ophicordyceps nutans’ sometimes seen in news, is related to

a fungus found for the first time in central India.

a spider species in Arunachal Pradesh cave

a species of diurnal, rock-dwelling and insectivorous gecko

a species of freshwater turtle

Answer: (a) a fungus found first time in central India

Explanation:

In NEWS:How a fungus grows inside a bug, goes on to kill and feed on it

  • Researchers have now found this fungi (Ophicordyceps nutans) for the first time in central India and show how it infects a stink bug. Theyalso explore the potential of using these fungi as biopesticide and medicine. Hence option (a) is correct
  • Morphological studies showed that it was Ophicordyceps nutans which has been reported in India only from the Western Ghats
  • The fungus was found on its specific host insect Also called the stink bug, this insect is a pest to forest trees and agricultural crops. The simple but sca­ry modus operandi of the fun­gi involves infecting the insect when alive, developing fungal mycelium inside its thorax, and when it is time for the spores to come out, kill the bug.
  • The fruiting body sprouts out from between the insect’s thorax and head, and it conti­nues to take nutrition from the dead body. The fungi are very host­specific, so the spores travel and infect many more stink bugs.
  • The more interesting and important point to note is that several species of theOphiocordycepsfungi have medicinal properties.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/how-a-fungus-grows-inside-a-bug-goes-on-to-kill-and-feed-on-it/article31989517.ece#:~:text=Researchers%20have%20now%20found%20these,and%20target%20the%20next%20bug.&text=The%20fungus%20was%20found%20on%20its%20specific%20host%20insect%20Halyomorpha%20halys.

9.Consider the following statements with respect to Sindhu Darshan festival 

  • It is celebrated along the banks of the River Indus
  • It is celebrated every year on the day of Guru Purnima

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
    1. 2 only
    1. Both 1 and 2
    1. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi performed Sindhu Darshan puja at Ladakh’s Nimu

  • The Sindhu Darshan festival is celebrated along the banks of the River Indus (River Sindhu) in Ladakh. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is celebrated every year on the day of Guru Purnima (full moon day), the festivities continue for three days. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The celebration features such cultural events as musical shows, dance performances and art exhibitions, organised by artistes from around India.
  • The main reason behind the celebration of Sindhu Darshan Festival is to endorse the Indus River (Sindhu River) as an icon of the communal harmony and unity of India

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/pm-modi-performed-sindhu-darshan-puja-at-ladakhs-nimu/articleshow/76781066.cms

10.Who among the following Mughal Emperors shifted emphasis from illustrated manuscripts to album and individual portrait?

  • Humayun
  • Akbar
  • Jahangir
  • Shah Jahan

Answer: (c) Jahangir

Explanation:

  • During Akbar’s reign many manuscripts were illustrated, the prominent being Razmnamah, the Persian translation of Mahabharata. It was during Jahangir’s reign that manuscripts became less important and individual portraits became more prominent. Hence option (c) is correct