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Daily Prelims Test – 05_January 2021

Which of the following air pollutants are comes under the Air Quality Index to showcase air quality status in India?

  • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
  • Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Ozone (O3)
  • Ammonia (NH3)
  • Lead (Pb)

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1,4, 5 and 6 only
  2. 2, 3,4 and 6 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2,3,4,5 and 6

Answer: d) 1,2,3,4,5 and 6

Explanation:

In NEWS: Rain, strong winds improve Delhi’s air quality to ‘moderate’ category

  • Delhi’s air quality improved significantly to the “moderate” category on Monday morning owing to rain and strong winds
  • An AQI between zero and 50 is considered “good”, 51 and 100 “satisfactory”, 101 and 200 “moderate”, 201 and 300 “poor”, 301 and 400 “very poor”, and 401 and 500 “severe”.
  • Air Quality Index (AQI) is a tool to showcase air quality status. It transforms complex air quality data of various pollutants into a single number and colour.
  • Each of these categories is decided based on ambient concentration values of air pollutants and their likely health impacts.
  • As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience health effects.

The measurement of air quality is based on eight pollutants, namely- Hence option (d) is correct

  • Particulate Matter (size less than 10 µm) or (PM10)
  • Particulate Matter (size less than 2.5 µm) or (PM2.5)
  • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
  • Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Ozone (O3)
  • Ammonia (NH3)
  • Lead (Pb)

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/rain-strong-winds-improve-delhi-s-air-quality-to-moderate-category-121010400334_1.html


Consider the following statements regarding Trans Fat

  • They come in both natural and artificial forms.
  • FSSAI has capped the amount of trans fatty acids (TFA) in oils and fats to 3% for 2021 and 2% by 2022 from the current permissible limit of 5%

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: FSSAI reduces trans fat levels in food from 5% to 3%

  • In October last year, Union health minister Harsh Vardhan had launched the “Trans Fat Free” logo during the 8th International Chefs Conference in the national Capital
  •  The long-pending demand of experts to reduce the level of trans fats in food items has been met, with India’s top food regulator Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) reducing it to 3%. The current permissible limit is 5%. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • India is committed to the elimination of industrial trans fats in fats/oils, and in foods containing fats/oils in a phased manner. The trans fat content in fats and oils has already been limited to 5%, and the notification to further reduce it to 3% by 2021, and to 2% by 2022 is under process. The regulation is also being extended to food products having fats or oils,” said the FSSAI draft notification that has been in the works for a couple of years

About Trans fats or trans-fatty acids

  • Trans fats are a form of unsaturated fat associated with a number of negative health effects.
  • Artificial trans fat is created during hydrogenation, which converts liquid vegetable oils into semi-solid partially hydrogenated oil.
  •  Trans fat can also be found naturally in meat and dairy. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Trans fatty acids (TFAs) or Trans fats are the most harmful type of fats which can have much more adverse effects on our body than any other dietary constituent.
  • Industrial trans fats are toxic compounds that can lead to several non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. These are formed during the hydrogenation of vegetable oils (adding hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid) to increase the shelf life of foods, and other processes such as heating of oil at high temperature.
  • Industrial trans fats are largely present in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarine, and bakery shortenings used in preparation of bakery products, and in vanaspati that is used to prepare sweets and deep fried items.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/fssai-reduces-trans-fat-levels-in-food-from-5-to-3/story-UIFEutSysq2wMDr6p6HmeN.html


Consider the following statements regarding Disturbed Areas

  • AFSPA empowers the Governor of the state or Union territory to issue an official notification to declare an area as a disturbed area
  • According to the Armed Forces Special Powers Act 1958, the disturbed region has to maintain status quo for a minimum of three months

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: MHA declares Nagaland as ‘disturbed area’ for another 6 months

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) on Wednesday further extended the operation of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) in Nagaland for six more months while declaring the state as “disturbed area”, according to a government notification.

What are Disturbed Areas?

  • The state or central government considers those areas as disturbed- by reason of differences or disputes between members of different religious, racial, language or regional groups or castes or communities.
  • AFSPA empowers the Governor of the state or Union territory to issue an official notification to declare an area as a disturbed areaHence statement 1 is correct.
  • The disturbed region has to maintain status quo for a minimum of three months, according to The Disturbed Areas (Special Courts) Act, 1976. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

Authority to armed forces in disturbed areas:

  • Prohibit a gathering of five or more persons in an area.
  • Use force or even open fire after giving due warning.
  • Arrest a person and to enter or search premises without a warrant in case of reasonable suspicion exists.
  • Ban the possession of firearms.

Source: https://www.timesnownews.com/india/article/mha-declares-nagaland-as-disturbed-area-for-another-6-months/701105


What is the aim of ADIP Scheme?

 

  • To assist the needy disabled persons in procuring durable, sophisticated and scientifically manufactured, modern, standard aids and appliances
  • To enable persons with disabilities to gain universal access, equal opportunity for development, independent living and participation in an inclusive society in all aspects of life
  • To providing financial assistance to NGOs working for education and rehabilitation of PwDs
  • To provide livelihood to SafaiKaramcharis and liberated Manual Scavengers and also promote cleanliness

Answer: (a) To assist the needy disabled persons in procuring durable, sophisticated and scientifically manufactured, modern, standard aids and appliances

Explanation:

In NEWS: M/o Social Justice & Empowerment organizes Distribution camp to provide Aid & Assistive Devices to 1343 Senior Citizens and 564 Divyangjan in Bhatinda, Punjab

  • Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment e-inaugurated through Video Conference a Distribution camp for free distribution of Aids & Assistive devices at Block level among the identified Senior citizens under Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana (RVY) and Divyangjans under ADIP Scheme of Government of India at Bhatinda in Punjab

About ADIP Scheme

  • The main objective of the Assistance to Disabled persons for purchasing / fitting of aids / appliances (ADIP) scheme is to assist the needy disabled persons in procuring durable, sophisticated and scientifically manufactured, modern, standard aids and appliances that can promote their physical, social and psychological rehabilitation, by reducing the effects of disabilities and enhance their economic potential. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The aids and appliances supplied under the Scheme shall conform to BIS specifications to the extent possible.
  • The scheme is implemented through implementing agencies such as the NGOs, National Institutes under this Ministry and ALIMCO (a PSU)

Source: https://pib.gov.in/Pressreleaseshare.aspx?PRID=1685770


Consider the following statements regarding Deepor Beel

  • It is a permanent freshwater lake.
  • It is Assam’s only Ramsar site.
  • Bird Life International has declared Deepor Beel as an Important Bird Area (IBA) with high priority for conservation.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Community fishing banned at Assam Ramsar site

  •  The Kamrup (Metropolitan) district administration has prohibited community fishing at Deepor Beel, a wetland on the south-western edge of Guwahati and Assam’s only Ramsar site. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The prohibition order under Section 144 of the Cr.PC underlines the possibility of community fishing and will remain beyond the mid-January Magh or Bhogali Bihu that is preceded by mass fishing in many parts of the State.

About Deepor Beel

  •  Deepor Beel is a permanent freshwater lake located to the south-west of Guwahati city, in Kamrup district of Assam. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  Lying in a former channel of the Brahmaputra river, it lies to the south of the main river channel. It is also a Ramsar Site and wetland as per the Ramsar Convention. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • The Deepor Beel wetland is a source of livelihood for fourteen indigenous villages. Freshwater fish is a vital protein and a source of income for the community.
  • Flora: Giant water lily, Water hyacinth; aquatic grass
  • Fauna: Beel; Spot-billed pelican; Lesser adjutant stork; Baer’s pochard; Pallas’ sea eagle; Greater adjutant stork; Siberian crane

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/community-fishing-banned-at-assam-ramsar-site/article33478646.ece#:~:text=Ritu%20Raj%20Konwar-,Order%20issued%20to%20prevent%20overexploitation%20of%20the%20shrinking%20wetland%2C%20local,and%20Assam’s%20only%20Ramsar%20site.


Consider the following statements regarding Savitribai Phule

  • She was born in Calcutta
  • She was started the first-ever school for girls in the country in 1848 at Bhide Wada
  • She was set up a ‘Mahila Seva Mandal’ where women would gather and she would raise awareness about women’s rights.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pioneer of women’s education, Indian feminist movement: Remembering Savitribai Phule on her 190th birth anniversary

  •  This year marks the 190th birth anniversary of Phule, and the day is observed in Maharashtra as Balika Din. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • Savitribai Phule is considered to be one of the pioneers of the feminist movement in India. She started the first-ever school for girls in the country in 1848 at Bhide Wada, Pu She became the first female teacher in India in 1848. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Savitribai Phule is considered to be one of the pioneers of the feminist movement in India
  • She also fought against social injustices of the time like Sati, child marriage and the still prevalent caste system.
  • She opened a well for ‘untouchables’ at her residence in a defiant act against the caste system and also started a care centre for pregnant rape victims called ‘Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha’.
  • She set up a ‘Mahila Seva Mandal’ where women would gather and she would raise awareness about women’s rights. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • Apart from being a pioneer of Indian feminism, Phule was a plague warrior. She helped several people when the bubonic plague hit the world, opening up a clinic with her son, Yashwant, in 1897 to help patients
  • In her honour, University of Pune was renamed Savitribai Phule University in 2014.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pioneer-of-women-s-education-indian-feminist-movement-remembering-savitribai-phule-on-her-190th-birth-anniversary/story-Q49iQXwK1wuh6gT9EOAOqK.html


Digital Payment Index has released by the:

  • Reserve Bank of India
  • National Payments Corporation of India
  • World Trade Organization
  • World Bank

Answer: a) Reserve Bank of India

Explanation:

In NEWS: RBI will now tell you how India is faring in digital payments penetration with this new measuring stick

  • The RBI-DPI has been constructed with March 2018 as the base period. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The DPI for March 2019 and March 2020 work out to 153.47 and 207.84 respectively, indicating appreciable growth.
  • The RBI-DPI comprises five broad parameters that enable the measurement of deepening and expansion of digital payments in the country over different time periods.
  • The parameters are including Payment Enablers (weight 25%), Payment Infrastructure – Demand-side factors and (10%), Payment Infrastructure – Supply-side factors (15%), Payment Performance (45%) and Consumer Centricity (5%).
  • The RBI-DPI shall be published on RBI’s website on a semi-annual basis from March 2021 onwards with a lag of 4 months.
  • According to the latest RBI data, digital transactions exhibited a sustained recoveryand momentum picked up in November 2020, supported by both wholesale and retail transactions. In the retail segment, national electronic funds transfer (NEFT) transactions volume grew 24.6 percent year-on-year in November 2020, much higher than the growth (13.9 percent).
  • In value terms, UPI transactionsto the tune of Rs 3.9 lakh crore has happened while IMPS transactions worth Rs 2.76 lakh crore has happened.
  • The data showed that RTGS transactionsworth Rs 79.8 lakh crore and NEFT worth Rs 22.18 lakh crore were reported.
  • Among other digital transaction modes, national electronic toll collection (NETC)held on to a buoyant growth trajectory and immediate payment service (IMPS) showed stronger growth in November 2020 than in the previous month.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/economy/rbi-will-now-tell-you-how-india-is-faring-in-digital-payments-penetration-with-this-new-measuring-stick/2163123/


Consider the following statements regarding Aurangabad

  • It was founded in 1610 by Malik Ambar of the Nijam shahi dynasty.
  • It was renamed Aurangabad by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb when he made it his capital

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why stakes are high in renaming of Aurangabad as Sambhaji Nagar

  • The controversy has led to a war of words between the ruling Maharashtra Vikas Aghadi (MVA) allies Shiv Sena and Congress, with the BJP trying to corner the Sena on the issue.
  • A long standing demand of the Shiv Sena for renaming Aurangabad city in Maharashtra as Sambahji Nagar has resurfaced over the last few days. The controversy has led to a war of words between the ruling Maharashtra Vikas Aghadi (MVA) allies Shiv Sena and Congress, with the BJP trying to corner the Sena on the issue.

About The city and its name

  • Aurangabad was built in 1610 by Malik Ambar of the Nijamshahi dynasty. It was renamed Aurangabad by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb when he made it his capital. Aurangzeb, who lived in Aurangabad until his death, tortured and killed Chhatrapati Sambahji Maharaj, son of the Maratha warrior king Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Hence statements 1 and 2 is correct.
  • In the late 1980s, the Sena started to expand beyond the Mumbai-Thane region and came to power in the local body in the Aurganbad city. During the victory rally on May 8, 1988, Shiv Sena chief the late Balasaheb Thackeray announced that the city would be renamed Sambhaji Nagar. “Balasaheb had justified the renaming saying that Sambhaji Maharaj was kept captive by Aurangzeb who tortured and killed him,” said Chandrakant Khaire, former Sena MP from Aurangabad.

Why the name matters

  • Eager to corner Sena and challenge its Hindutva credentials, the BJP has been daring its former ally to effect the name change. The BJP has repeatedly taunted Sena about the difficulty of keeping an old promise with its new secular allies the Congress and NCP.
  • In March 2020, the Maharashtra cabinet approved a proposal to rename the Aurangabad airport as Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj Airport. However, this has not yet got the go-ahead from the Centre. Sources said the Divisional Commissioner has sent a report on the renaming of Aurangabad city to the government

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-stakes-are-high-in-renaming-of-aurangabad-as-sambhaji-nagar-7132889/


Consider the following pairs

Missions to be launched in 2021             Country

  • Artemis 1 Japan
  • Chandrayaan-3 India
  • HOPE MARS Mission UAE

Which of the following pair(s) is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Six space missions to look forward to in 2021

  • Space exploration achieved several notable firsts in 2020 despite the COVID-19 pandemic, including commercial human spaceflightand returning samples of an asteroid to Earth.
  • The coming year is shaping up to be just as interesting. Here are some of the missions to keep an eye out for.

Artemis 1

  • Artemis 1 is the first flight of the Nasa-led, international Artemis programto return astronauts to the Moon by 2024. This will consist of an uncrewed Orion spacecraft which will be sent on a three-week flight around the Moon. IT will reach a maximum distance from Earth of 450,000 kilometres – the farthest into space that any spacecraft that can transport humans will have ever flown. Hence option (b) is correct
  • Artemis 1 will be launched into Earth orbit on the first Nasa Space Launch System, which will be the most powerful rocket in operation. From Earth orbit, the Orion will be propelled onto a different path towards the Moon by the rocket’s interim cryogenic propulsion stage. The Orion capsule will then travel to the Moon under the power provided by a service modulesupplied by the European Space Agency 
  • The mission will provide engineers back on Earth with a chance to evaluate how the spacecraft performs in deep space and serve as a prelude to later crewed lunar missions. The launch of Artemis 1 is currently scheduled for late in 2021.

Mars missions

  • In February, Mars will receive a flotilla of terrestrial robotic guests from several countries. The United Arab Emirates’ Al Amal (Hope)spacecraft is the Arab world’s first interplanetary mission. It is scheduled to arrive in Mars orbit on February 9, where it will spend two years monitoring the Martian weather and disappearing atmosphere.
  • Arriving within a couple of weeks after Al Amal will be the China National Space Administration’s Tianwen-1, consisting of an orbiter and a surface rover. The spacecraft will enter Martian orbit for several months before deploying the rover to the surface. If it succeeds, China will become the third country to land anything on Mars. The mission has several objectives including mapping the mineral composition of the surface and searching for sub-surface water deposits.
  • Nasa’s Perseverance rover will land at Jezero Crateron February 18 and search for any signs of ancient life which may have been preserved in the clay deposits there. Critically, it will also store a cache of Martian surface samples on board as the first part in a highly ambitious international program to return samples of Mars to Earth.

Chandrayaan-3

  • In March 2021, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is planning to launch its third lunar mission: Chandrayaan-3. Chandrayaan-1 launched in 2008 and was one of the first major missions in the Indian space programme. Comprising an orbiter and a surface penetrator probe, the mission was one of the first to confirm evidence of lunar water.
  • Unfortunately, contact with the satellite was lost less than a year later. Sadly, there was a similar mishap with its successor, Chandrayaan-2, which consisted of an orbiter, a lander (Vikram) and a lunar rover (Pragyan).

James Webb Space Telescope

  • The James Webb Space Telescope is the successorto the Hubble Space Telescope, but has had a rocky path to being launched. Initially planned for a 2007 launch, the Webb telescope is almost 14 years late and has cost roughly US$10 billion (£7.4 billion) after apparent underestimates and overruns similar to those experienced by Hubble.
  • Whereas Hubble has provided some amazing views of the universe in visible and ultraviolet region of light, Webb is planning to focus observations in the infrared wavelength band. The reason for this is that when observing really distant objects there will probably be gas clouds in the way.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/science-technology/six-space-missions-to-look-forward-to-in-2021-74867


The 1929 Session of Indian National Congress is on significance in the history of the Freedom Movement because the

  • Attainment of Self-Government was declared as the objective of the Congress.
  • Attainment of Poorna Swaraj was adopted as the goal of the Congress.
  • Non-Cooperation Movement was launched.
  • Decision to participate in the Round Table Conference in London was taken.

Answer: b) Attainment of Poorna Swaraj was adopted as the goal of the Congress


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