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Daily Prelims Test – 05_February 2021

In which state Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary is located?

Maharashtra

Gujarat

Bihar

Odisha

Answer: (d) Odisha

Explanation:

In NEWS: At least 800 Olive Ridleys dead in Odisha since January

  • At least 800 Olive Ridley sea turtles died, their carcasses washed ashore since January 2021, on the beaches of Odisha — 30 kilometres along the Gahirmatha marine sanctuary and its nearby areas from Silali to Nasi beach.
  • Turtles die after getting stuck in fishing nets. The trawlers are supposed to fish beyond five kilometres from the coast, according to Odisha Marine Fishing Regulation Act, 1982. They are allowed to fish beyond 20 km from the coast in Gahirmatha marine sanctuary. But they violate the law and fish near the shore.
  • The risk to turtles can be reduced by equipping trawlers with turtle excluder devices (TED), which is a small additional net or metal grid inside the net that allows turtles to escape.
  • A Large number of sea turtles are already in danger due to the presence of plastic, polythene and other litter at the sanctuary as well as Rushikulya beach, another nesting site of the species.

About Gahirmatha marine sanctuary

  • Gahirmatha marine sanctuary is the world’s largest rookery of the sea turtles.
  • The Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary is the only marine sanctuary of Orissa.
  • Located within the close vicinity of the Bhitarkanika National Park is Odisha’s only Turtle Sanctuary.
  • It extends from Dhamra River mouth in the north to Brahmani river mouth in the south

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/at-least-800-olive-ridleys-dead-in-odisha-since-january-75383


Consider the following Statements regarding privilege motion

  • It is moved in the form of a motion by any member of either House against those being held guilty of breach of privilege.
  • The Speaker or chairmanof Rajya Sabha is the first level of scrutiny of a privilege motion.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Farmers” protest: RSP MP Premachandran gives privilege notice against Tomar

  • RSP MP NK Premachandran submitted a privilege notice against Union Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar for proposing to the protesting farmers amendments in the three contentious agricultural laws passed by Parliament.

What is Privilege Motion?

  • The Members of Parliament (MPs) enjoy certain parliamentary privileges which are bestowed on them collectively and individually so that they can discharge their duties and functions effectively.
  • The act of disregarding the immunities and rights by any MP is regarded as a ‘breach of privilege’ and is a punishable offence under Laws of Parliament.
  • When a breach of privilege is found, then an MP can move a privilege motion against those being held guilty of breach.
  • Both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha reserve the right to punish any action of contempt (not necessarily breach of privilege) which is against its authority and dignity.
  • It is moved in the form of a motion by any member of either House against those being held guilty of breach of privilege.Hence statement 1 is correct

Rules for Privilege Motion

  • The rules governing privilege motion are mentioned as Rule 222 in Chapter 20 of the Lok Sabha Rule Book and as Rule 187 in Chapter 16 of the Rajya Sabha Rule Book.
  • According to the rules, an MP may raise a question of breach of privilege with the Speaker or the Chairperson, notices for which have to be sent to them before 10am.
  • The breach of privilege could be of another MP, a committee or of the House.
  • The rules mandate the notice should be regarding an incident which has occurred recently and that it needs the intervention of the House.

Authority of Speaker or Chairman in Privilege Motion

  • The first level of scrutiny that a privilege motion has to go through is that of the Speaker, in case of Lok Sabha, and that of the Chairperson when a motion is moved in the Rajya Sabha.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Speaker/Chairperson may decide on the privilege motion at their own discretion or they may refer it to a parliamentary committee.
  • If the Speaker/Chairperson admits the motion, then the concerned member is given an opportunity to explain themselves by making a short statement.
  • Privilege Motion referred to Parliamentary Committee
  • In the Lok Sabha, the Speaker nominates a committee of privileges which consists of 15 members proportionate to the strengths of various political parties in the Lower House of Parliament.
  • The Speaker can also direct that the report be tabled before the House and a resolution may be unanimously passed on the breach of privilege.
  • The process is similar in the Upper House, except that the privilege committee consists of 10 members and is headed by the deputy chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.

Source: https://www.outlookindia.com/newsscroll/farmers-protest-rsp-mp-premachandran-gives-privilege-notice-against-tomar/2022797


Consider the following Statements regardingSquare Kilometre Array Observatory

  • It is a new intergovernmental organisation dedicated to radio astronomy
  • It is headquartered in the UK
  • India is a part of this organisation

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is Square Kilometre Array, the world’s largest radio telescope

  • THe Square Kilometre Array Observatory (SKAO) Council held its maiden meeting and approved the establishment of the world’s largest radio telescope.
  • The SKAO, will be responsible for overseeing the construction and operation of the largest and most complex radio telescope networks ever built in a bid to address fundamental questions about our Universe.
  • SKAO is a new intergovernmental organisation dedicated to radio astronomy and is headquartered in the UK. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct
  • At the moment, organisations from ten countries are a part of the SKAO. These include Australia, Canada, China, India, Italy, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK.Hence statement 3 is correct
  • SKAO’s telescopes will be based in South Africa and Australia. The South African telescope will be composed of mid-frequency, 15 metre-diameter dishes, while the telescope in Australia will be composed of low-frequency, two-metre-tall antennas.
  • The creation of SKAO follows a decade of detailed engineering design work, scientific prioritisation, and policy development under the supervision of its predecessor the SKA Organisation, supported by more than 500 engineers, over 1,000 scientists and dozens of policy-makers in more than 20 countries; and is the result of 30 years of thinking and research and development since discussions first took place about developing a next-generation radio telescope.

What is significant about the SKA telescope?

  • The telescope, proposed to be the largest radio telescope in the world, will be located in Africa and Australia whose operation, maintenance and construction will be overseen by SKAO. The completion is expected to take nearly a decade at a cost of over £1.8 billion.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-square-kilometre-array-the-worlds-largest-radio-telescope-7174881/


Democracy Index is published by which of the following international agency?

  1. Economist Intelligence Unit
  2. World Economic Forum
  3. Transparency International
  4. Reporters Without Borders

Answer: (a) Economist Intelligence Unit

Explanation:

In NEWS:India slips two positions to 53rd spot in EIU’s Democracy Index

  • Norway topped the report titled “Democracy in sickness and in health?”, with Iceland, Sweden, New Zealand and Canada making up the top five.
  • India slipped two places to 53rd position in the 2020 Democracy Index’s global ranking, according to The Economist Intelligence Unit, which said the “democratic backsliding” by authorities and “crackdowns” on civil liberties has led to a further decline in the country’s ranking.Hence option (a) is correct
  • India is ranked higher than most of its neighbouring countries. India’s overall score fell from 6.9 in 2019 to 6.61 in the Index that provides a snapshot of the current state of democracy worldwide for 167 countries.
  • India has been classified as a ‘flawed democracy’ along with countries such as the US, France, Belgium and Brazil.
  • It has classified the economies in categories such as flawed democracies, full democracies, hybrid regimes, and authoritarian regimes.
  • The report highlights that, multiple instances of “crackdowns” on civil liberties and the “democratic backsliding” by authorities has degraded the India’s ranking

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news


Orobanche, that is often seen in news relates to which of the following?

Flood-resistant rice

Ransomware

Parasitic weed

None of the above

Answer: (c) Parasitic weed

Explanation:

In NEWS:A workshop on Techno-management options to control Orobanche in mustard held

  • The workshop was held at the project site and attended by the Scientists from IPFT, Gurugram and the ICAR-DRMR, Bharatpur as well as by the 50 mustard growing farmers whose crop is affected by Orobanche.
  • In the scientist-farmer interaction, famers expressed their misery due to menace caused by Orobanche in the mustard which is a main cash crop in this region and asked for any immediate control measure

About Orobanche:

  • It is a serious hidden parasitic weed in mustard plant. Hence option (c) is correct
  • It causes severe yield loss to the extent of up to 50%.
  • Orobanche is a root parasite of legumes, sunflower tobacco, tomato, etc.
  • They have no chlorophyll to produce food for own and are totally dependent on other plants for nutrients.
  • There are no absolute control measures developed so far.

Source: PIB


Consider the following Statements regarding White Shipping Agreement(WSA)

  • It is a technical term related to the exchange agreement between the navies of countries on the commercial ships on each other’s oceanic territories.
  • Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC) at Gurugram would be the nodal centre for WSA.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 26 out of 28 IOR countries participate and share their views on enhancing regional cooperation

  • The Indian Ocean Region (IOR) Defence Ministers’ Conclave began with a keynote address from RakshaMantri Shri Rajnath Singh on 4th February on the sidelines of Aero India 2021 in Bengaluru.
  • The largest nation in the IOR region with a vast coast line of 7500 Kms, India has an active role to play for peaceful and prosperous co-existence of all countries. 
  • Indian Ocean is a shared asset and a lifeline to international trade and transport due to its control of major sea-lanes carrying half of the world’s container ships, one third of the world’s bulk cargo traffic and two thirds of the world’s oil shipments.
  • SAGAR – Security and Growth for All in the Region is the theme of Indian Ocean Policy as outlined by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi in 2015. He added that in line with this the IOR conclave should focus on security, commerce, connectivity, fight against terrorism and inter cultural exchanges
  • RakshaMantri said India was developing a comprehensive Maritime Domain Awareness picture in the IOR, which has resulted in signing of Technical Agreements for sharing of ‘White Shipping Information’

About White Shipping Agreement (WSA):

  • White Shipping Agreement is a technical term related to the exchange agreement between the navies of countries on the commercial ships on each other’s oceanic territories.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It refers to exchange of prior information on the movement and identity of commercial non-military merchant vessels.
  • Ships would be classified into white (commercial ships), grey (military vessels), and black (illegal vessels).
  • The Navy’s Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC) at Gurugram would be the nodal centre for WSA.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1695120


Consider the following Statements regarding International Criminal Court

  • It is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.
  • India is a member of the ICC.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ICC convicts Ugandan rebel commander for war crimes

  • The International Criminal Court on Thursday convicted a former commander in the notorious Ugandan rebel group the Lord’s Resistance Army of dozens of war crimes and crimes against humanity ranging from multiple murders to forced marriages.
  • Dominic Ongwen, 45, was found guilty of 61 charges over a reign of terror in the early 2000s, including the first conviction by the ICC for the crime of forced pregnancy.

About International Criminal Court

  • The ICC is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague, Netherlands.
  • It is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals.
  • The ICC intends to complement national courts and not replace them.
  • It is governed by an international statute known as the Rome Statute. The Statute entered into force in July 2002.
  • The Court has about 900 staff members from about one hundred nations.
  • It has two working languages namely English and French. There are 6 official languages namely, English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Spanish and Russian.
  • The ICC has heard 28 cases until now.
  • India is not a member of the ICC.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Each member party has one vote and voting is resorted to only when decisions cannot be taken by consensus.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/icc-convicts-ugandan-rebel-commander-for-war-crimes/article33752244.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding National Safety Council

  • It was set up by the Ministry of Labour
  • It aims to generate, develop and sustain a voluntary movement on Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) at the national level.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: SN Subrahmanyan appointed as Chairman of National Safety Council

  • N. Subrahmanyan, CEO and Managing Director of L&T Ltd, has been appointed as Chairman of the National Safety Council.
  • Subrahmanyan will guide the National Safety Council which has a major role to play to ensure safety in workplaces under new Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code, 2020 (OSH Code, 2020)

About National Safety Council

  • National Safety Council (NSC) was set up by the Ministry of Labour, Government of India (GOI) on 4th March, 1966 to generate, develop and sustain a voluntary movement on Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) at the national level.Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is an apex not-for-profit making tripartite body, registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 and the Bombay Public Trust Act, 1950.
  • To fulfill its objective NSC carries out various activities. These include organising and conducting specialised training programmes/courses, conferences, seminars & workshops; conducting consultancy studies such as safety audits, safety ratings, hazard evaluation & risk assessment; designing and developing HSE promotional materials & publications; facilitating organisations in celebrating/observing various campaigns viz. National Safety Day/Week, Fire Service Week, World Environment Day and Road Safety Week.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/sn-subrahmanyan-appointed-as-chairman-of-national-safety-council/article33750314.ece


G Rohini Committee’ which was in news recently, is associated with which of the following?

Naxalism

Farm Law

Corporate Governance

Sub-categorisation of OBCs

Answer: (d) Sub-categorisation of OBCs

Explanation:

In NEWS: Sub-categorisation of OBCs explained: What a Commission has found so far

On January 21, the Centre has extended the tenure of The Commission to Examine Sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) headed by Justice G Rohini, former Chief Justice of Delhi High Court. The commission now has until July 31 to submit its report.Hence option (d) is correct

What is sub-categorisation of OBCs?

  • OBCs are granted 27% reservation in jobs and education under the central government. In September last year, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court reopened the legal debate on sub-categorisation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for reservations.
  • The debate arises out of the perception that only a few affluent communities among the over 2,600 included in the Central List of OBCs have secured a major part of this 27% reservation.
  • The argument for sub-categorisation — or creating categories within OBCs for reservation — is that it would ensure “equitable distribution” of representation among all OBC communities.

What are the Commission’s terms of reference?

  • It was originally set up with three terms of reference:
  • To examine the extent of inequitable distribution of benefits of reservation among the castes or communities included in the broad category of OBCs with reference to such classes included in the Central List;
  • To work out the mechanism, criteria, norms and parameters in a scientific approach for sub-categorisation within such OBCs;
  • To take up the exercise of identifying the respective castes or communities or sub-castes or synonyms in the Central List of OBCs and classifying them into their respective sub-categories.
  • A fourth term of reference was added on January 22, 2020, when the Cabinet granted it an extension:
  • To study the various entries in the Central List of OBCs and recommend correction of any repetitions, ambiguities, inconsistencies and errors of spelling or transcription.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/obc-sub-categorisation-commission-7175056/


With reference to the economic history of medieval India, the term ‘Araghatta’ refers to

bonded labour

land grant made to military officers

waterwheel used in the irrigation of land

wasteland converted to cultivated land

Answer: (c) waterwheel used in the irrigation of land

Explanation:

The ‘ara-ghatta’ originates from the blend of the words “ara” which means talked and “ghatta” which means pot. There is confirmation to contend that this arrangement of lifting water from open wells was presumably designed in the India of the past.