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Daily Prelims Test – 05_December 2020

Global Climate provisional report is released by which of the following international organization?

  • World Meteorological Organization
  • Food and Agriculture Organization
  • International Maritime Organization
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature

Answer: (d) World Meteorological Organization

Explanation:

In NEWS: Global warming is real and 2020 is among 3 warmest year ever

  • The year 2020 is set to be the among the three warmest on record, according to the latest State of the Global Climate provisional report by World Meteorological Organization on December 1, 2020. Also, the decade 2011-2020 would be the warmest ever.
  • The global mean surface temperature for January-October was 1.2 degree Celsius higher than the pre-industrial baseline (1850-1900). For that period, 2020 is the second-warmest year on record.
  • The record heat in 2020 has been despite near-La Niña conditions prevailing in the equatorial Pacific Ocean since August and moderate La Niña conditions prevailing since October.
  • The La Niña phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon generally has a cooling effect on many parts of the world.
  • Scientific evidence indicates increasing temperatures are a direct result of human-led global warming — an impact of the emission of green house gases (GHG).
  • After record GHG levels of 2019, there has been a slight dip this year due to measures taken by many countries to fight the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, recent real-time data from specific locations, indicate that levels of CO2, CH4 and N2O continued to increase in 2020.”
  • 80 percent of ocean areas experienced at least one marine heat wave (MHW) till date.
  • This was mainly due to the increased melting of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. Sea-level rise is an existential concern for the small island nations.
  • Extreme weather events: Such as tropical cyclones, floods, heavy rainfall and droughts which are also a well known and expensive consequence of global warming impacted many parts of the world.
  • The climate and weather events have triggered significant population movements and have severely affected vulnerable people on the move. Climate induced human migration is one of the least understood impacts of anthropogenic climate change.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/global-warming-is-real-and-2020-is-among-3-warmest-year-ever-74498


Consider the following statements regarding Malayan Giant Squirrel

  • It is endemic to the forests of Western Ghats
  • It is listed as a Near Threatened species under the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: First-ever study has grim prognosis: native squirrel could vanish from NE after 2050

  • The Malayan Giant Squirrel, one of the world’s largest squirrel species that has a dark upper body, pale under parts, and a long, bushy tail, is currently found in parts of West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Nagaland.
  • A first-of-its-kind study by the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) under the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, has projected that numbers of the Malayan Giant Squirrel (Ratufa bicolor) could decline by 90 per cent in India by 2050, and if urgent steps are not taken, the species could be extinct in the country in subsequent decades.
  • The Malayan Giant Squirrel, one of the world’s largest squirrel species that has a dark upper body, pale under parts, and a long, bushy tail, is currently found in parts of West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Nagaland. Destruction of its habitat could restrict the squirrel to only southern Sikkim and North Bengal by 2050, according to the ZSI.
  • India is home to three giant squirrel species; the other two – Indian Giant Squirrel and Grizzled Giant Squirrel – are found in peninsular India
  • Unlike the nocturnal flying squirrels, giant squirrels are diurnal, but arboreal (tree-dwelling) and herbivorous like the flying squirrels. The ZSI study says the health of the species is critical because it indicates the health of the forests it inhabits.
  • The Malayan Giant Squirrel is also distributed through Southern China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Burma, the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java. It is found mostly in evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, from plains to hills at elevations of 50 m to 1,500 m above sea level.
  • In India, some 20% of the population of the species is found at elevations between 1,500 m and 2,700 m; the rest live in the plains and up to 1,500 m.
  • The species is listed as Near Threatened on IUCN’s 2016 list, and it is protected under India’s Wildlife Protection Act.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/first-ever-study-has-grim-prognosis-native-squirrel-could-vanish-from-ne-after-2050-7089169/


Consider the following statements regarding to Narcotic Drugs in India

  • The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under license for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
  • India is a signatory of this treaty
  • The usage of Cannabis in India is governed by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India’s vote to drop cannabis from UN list doesn’t mean any change to its own drug laws

  • In the 63rd session of the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs held from 2-4 December, India has voted to remove cannabis and its resin from Schedule IV of the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which placed it in the category of most dangerous drugs, alongside heroin and others.
  • This was done to recognize the medicinal values of the plant. Though cannabis has been removed from Schedule IV, the non-medicinal Cannabis is still under Schedule I.
  • Cannabis was a part of both Schedule I and IV of the UN’s Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs — and while drugs in Schedule I can be used for medicinal purposes with state consent, drugs in Schedule IV are strictly controlled and their usage is a criminal offence.
  • The usage of Cannabis in India is governed by the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985. Hence statement 3 is incorrect.

About the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961

  • The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • India is a signatory of the treaty. Hence statement 2 is correct

The single convention schedules of drugs range from the most restrictive to the least restrictive in the following order: Schedule IV, Schedule I, Schedule II and Schedule III.

  • Schedule I: The drugs under Schedule I are limited only to scientific and medicinal purposes. They require medicinal prescription for the supply.
  • Schedule II: Medical Prescription of these drugs are not obligatory The Governments are not bound to prevent the accumulation of these drugs.
  • Schedule III: They are subjected to lesser restrictions.
  • Schedule IV: The drugs under this category such as Heroin are considered to have dangerous properties. Under this category, the parties are required to limit their research purposes.

Source: https://theprint.in/india/weeks-after-bollywood-drug-arrests-india-votes-to-have-cannabis-de-barred-from-un-convention/557713/


Consider the following statements

  • Conservation reserves are protected areas that act as buffer zones or connectors and migration corridors between established national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserved and protected forests.
  • Conservation reserves were first introduced in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Maharashtra: Govt to propose 11 new conservation reserves in meet with wildlife board

  • According to the Union environment ministry, conservation reserves are protected areas that act as buffer zones or connectors and migration corridors between established national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserved and protected forests. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The state forest department proposes to declare 11 areas in Kolhapur, Nagpur, Amravati, Satara and Sindhudurg districts as conservation reserves during a meeting with the State Board for Wildlife
  • These protected areas were first introduced in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002, because of reduced protection in and around existing or proposed protected areas as a result of private ownership of land and change in land use. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • If all the 11 proposed conservation reserves are approved by the State Board of Wildlife, Maharashtra will have 19 conservation reserves.
  • Currently, there are 92 conservation reserves across the country.
  • As opposed to a forest reserve, national parks and sanctuaries, conservation reserves do not have eco-sensitive zones around it.
  • However, any developmental or agricultural activity within the reserve needs approval from the state and central wildlife board.
  • Jammu and Kashmir has the maximum reserves (34), followed by Karnataka (15) and Rajasthan (11).
  • The Maharashtra government previously declared 10 villages in Dodamarg taluka at Sindhudurg, as the Tillari Conservation Reserve.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/maharashtra-govt-to-propose-11-new-conservation-reserves-in-meet-with-wildlife-board-7089684/


“Arecibo”, recently seen in the news, which is related to?

  • A covid vaccine
  • Second largest single dish radio telescope
  • Newly described plant species
  • An asteroid

Answer: b) second largest single dish radio telescope

Explanation:

In News: why the collapse of the arecibo telescope is a loss for astronomy

  • The second-largest single-dish radio telescope in the world, Arecibo was first built in 1963. The US National Science Foundation owned the telescope. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
  • Being the most powerful radar, scientists employed Arecibo to observe planets, asteroids and the ionosphere, making several discoveries over the decades, including finding prebiotic molecules in distant galaxies, the first exoplanets, and the first millisecond pulsar.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-the-collapse-of-the-arecibo-telescope-is-a-loss-for-astronomy-7082713/


India’s first homes for transgender children in need of care and protection will soon be established in

  • Assam
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Kerala
  • Bengaluru

Answer: d) Bengaluru

Explanation:

In NEWS: India’s first transgender children’s home will be in Bengaluru

  • India’s first homes for transgender children in need of care and protection will soon be established in Bengaluru. Two government-run homes for transgender children will be established in Bengaluru Urban. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development gave its nod for the project last week.
  • Many transgender children in State-run children’s homes for girls or boys were not comfortable.
  • It is essential that a home is established for transgender children as they face a lot of stigma and abuse. Establishing a separate home and giving them attention and care at a young age will help address some of their concerns”.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/indias-first-transgender-childrens-homes-will-be-in-bengaluru/article33243137.ece


Consider the following statements

  • HL-2k Tokamak reactor is China’s largest and most advanced nuclear fusion experimental research device.
  • China successfully powered up its artificial sun nuclear fusion reactor for the first time.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: China turns on nuclear powered artificial sun

  • China successfully powered up its artificial sun nuclear fusion reactor for the first time marking a great advance in the country’s nuclear power research capabilities. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • HL-2k Tokamak reactor is China’s largest and most advanced nuclear fusion experimental research device, and scientists hope that the device can potentially unlock a powerful clean energy source. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/china/china-turns-on-nuclear-powered-artificial-sun/articleshow/79575878.cms


Consider the following statements

  • A Co-operative bank is a financial entity which belongs to its members, who are at the same time the owners and the customers of their bank.
  • All urban and multi state co operative banks under the direct supervision of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: RBI tightens oversight of NBFCs, UCBs

  • A Co-operative bank is a financial entity which belongs to its members, who are at the same time the owners and the customers of their bank. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • All urban and multi state co operative banks under the direct supervision of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source https://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/rbi-tightens-oversight-of-nbfcs-ucbs/article33252974.ece#:~:text=The%20Reserve%20Bank%20of%20India,assurance%20functions%20at%20supervised%20entities.


Consider the following statements

  • United Nations commission on Narcotic drugs was established by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
  • It aims to assist the ECOSOC in supervising the application of the international drug control treaties.
  • The Commission on Narcotic Drug meets annually when it considers and adopts a range of decisions and resolutions.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In News: UN decides cannabis not a dangerous narcotic india too votes to reclassify

  • The United Nations commission on Narcotic drugs was established by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • It aims to assist the ECOSOC in supervising the application of the international drug control treaties. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The Commission on Narcotic Drug meets annually when it considers and adopts a range of decisions and resolutions. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/un-decides-cannabis-not-a-dangerous-narcotic-india-too-votes-to-reclassify-7089562/


Which of the following factors/policies were affecting the price of rice in India in the recent past?

  • Minimum Support Price
  • Government’s trading
  • Government’s stockpiling
  • Consumer subsidies

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • 1, 2 and 4 only
  • 1, 3 and 4 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

  • Option 1 is correct: MSP results in a diversion of stocks from the open market, thus, driving up the price for the ultimate consumers. Further, MSP prevents the prices from going down (directly). Price will not go below the MSP- The farmer can sell the produce to the government at the MSP. It will also prevent the price from going up (indirectly)- The price will shoot up only when the production is less, but if the production will increase, then the prices will not be too high.
  • Option 2 is correct: Though factors like climatic shocks determine rice production and prices in the short run, the future scenario of rice prices must be based on long-term projections of rice demand and supply. Trading results in an increased demand in the international markets, which affects the price of rice in India.
  • Option 3 is correct: Low stock levels constrain the ability to buffer the price rise resulting from other factors. Option 4 is correct: Subsidies lower the prices for the ultimate consumer. Hence all the given factors affect/ have affected the price of rice in the country

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