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Daily Prelims Test – 04_September 2020

Consider the following statements regardingInternational Commission of Jurists 

  1. 1. It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
  2. 2. It is a standing group of 60 eminent jurists including senior judges, attorneys and academics.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Prashant Bhushan’s conviction seems at odds with international free speech law: International Commission of Jurists

  • The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) has said that the conviction of civil rights lawyer Prashant Bhushan for criminal contempt seemed to be inconsistent with the freedom of expression law guaranteed by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
  • The conviction appears to be inconsistent with international standards on freedom of expression and the role of lawyers.
  • The judgment risked having a “chilling effect on the exercise of protected freedom of expression in India”.
  • About International Commission of Jurists
  • The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-governmental organization. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • It is a standing group of 60 eminent jurists—including senior judges, attorneys and academics—who work to develop national and international human rights standards through the law.Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The Commission is supported by an International Secretariat based in Geneva, Switzerland
  • The ICJ’s International Law and Protection Programme works to promote the application of international law to violations of a civil, political, social or economic nature.
  • Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/prashant-bhushans-conviction-seems-at-odds-with-international-free-speech-law-international-commission-of-jurists/article32496322.ece#:~:text=The%20International%20Commission%20of%20Jurists,that%20India%20was%20a%20party

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Consider the following statements regardingInternational Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

1.It is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly

2.It is monitored by the United Nations Human Rights Committee.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Prashant Bhushan’s conviction seems at odds with international free speech law: International Commission of Jurists

About International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

The ICCPR is a multilateral treaty adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976.Hence statement 1 is correct.

The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.

As of September 2019, the Covenant has 173 parties and six more signatories without ratification.

It is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).

It is monitored by the UN Human Rights Committee (a separate body to the UN Human Rights Council). Hence statement 2 is correct.

India is a party to this treaty.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/prashant-bhushans-conviction-seems-at-odds-with-international-free-speech-law-international-commission-of-jurists/article32496322.ece#:~:text=The%20International%20Commission%20of%20Jurists,that%20India%20was%20a%20party

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Consider the following statements regarding Entrepreneurs in ResidenceProgramme

1.It is one of the sub-programs introduced under the National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovations (NIDHI) programme.

2.Department of Science and Technology is a nodal agency to implement this programme

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:NIDHI-EIR Brochure featuring Entrepreneurs in Residence launched

The Department of Science & Technology(DST) secretary has launched a brochure featuring Entrepreneurs in Residence(EIR) under the National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovations (NIDHI) programme.Hence statement 2 is correct and Hence statement 1 is correct.

The goal of achieving Atmanirbhar starts with translation of knowledge, innovation, capacity building, workforce, Industries, and markets. 

It is a whole chain starting from the knowledge and goes on to markets. 

The NIDHI-EIR Program conceived to inspire the S&T qualified youth in India to take up entrepreneurship as a viable career and help shape India’s future and the economy

The programme aims to provide guidance to these aspiring entrepreneurs from experienced, innovative and highly successful entrepreneurs on the business concept strategy and insight into specific industries or markets, inspire the best talents to be entrepreneurs, to minimise the risk involved in pursuing start-ups, and to partially set off their opportunity costs of high paying jobs.

Entrepreneurs-in-Residence (EIR) Programme under National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing innovations (NIDHI) of Department of Science and Technology supports aspiring or budding entrepreneur of considerable potential for pursuing a promising technology business idea over a period up to 18 months with a subsistence grant up to Rs 30000 per month with a maximum cap for total support of Rs 3.6 lakh to each EIR over a maximum of 18 months

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1650688

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COVID-19 Ignition Grants’ is an initiative of :

1.India and Israel

2.India and United kingdom

3.India and Iran 

4.India and United states of America

Answer: (d) India and United states of America

Explanation:

In NEWS:Eleven teams of Indo-US scientists selected to jointly scout for COVID 19 solutions

Eleven teams of Indian and US scientists will soon start jointly scouting for out of the box solutions ranging from novel early diagnostic tests, antiviral therapy, drug repurposing, ventilator research, disinfection machines, and sensor-based symptom tracking for COVID 19. Hence option (d) is correct

The teams have been selected to take up these initiatives through a rigorous binational review process of proposals received for an invitation under COVID-19 Ignition Grants in April 2020 issued by the U.S.-India Science and Technology Endowment Fund (USISTEF).

The USISTEF announced the awards to eleven bilateral teams proposing out-of-the-box, innovative ideas to address the COVID-19 challenge. 

The joint U.S.-India S&T based entrepreneurial teams will work on initiatives that address the development and implementation of new technologies, tools, and systems to address COVID-19 related challenges including monitoring, diagnosis, health and safety, public outreach, information and communication.

The USISTEF has been established by the Government of India (through the Department of Science & Technology) and the governments of the United States of America (through the Department of State) for the promotion of joint activities that would lead to innovation and entrepreneurship through the application of science and technology.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1650677

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Consider the following statements 

1.Under Section 4 of The Indian Forest Act, 1927, the state government can constitute any land as a reserved forest by issuing a notification in the Official Gazette

2.Under the law, the government must also appoint a Forest Settlement Officer (FSO) to inquire into and determine the existence, nature and extent of any rights alleged to exist in favour of any person in or over any land comprised within such limits or in or over any forest-produce, and to deal with the same.
 

Recently the Maharashtra government announced the Aarey forest land as a reserve forest.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

1 and 2 only

2 only

1 and 3 only

1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3 

  • In NEWS: Why has Uddhav Thackeray decided to create a reserved forest in the middle of Mumbai?
  • Explanation:
  • Maharashtra Chief Minister announced that the state government would designate a 600-acre parcel of land in the heart of urban Mumbai as a reserved forest.
  • The Aarey Milk Colony, spread over 3,162 acres, was established in 1949 as a centre for processing and marketing milk for Mumbai and adjoining areas.
  • Over the last 70 years, this sprawling green area has been steadily eaten away at its edges – and 1,282 acres were acquired by the state for projects such as Film City.
  • Once located on the edge of the city, it is now part of the sprawling western suburb known as Goregaon. The land falls under the eco-sensitive zone of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park.
  • Now the Maharashtra CM announced that he planned to earmark the Aarey forest land as a reserve forest. However, of the 1,800-plus acres of open space available, only 600 acres will be earmarked as forest. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • Under Section 4 of The Indian Forest Act, 1927, the state government can “constitute any land a reserved forest” by issuing a notification in the Official Gazette. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Under the law, the government must also appoint a Forest Settlement Officer (FSO) “to determine the rights alleged to exist in favour of any person in or over any land comprising such limits or in or over any forest-produce, and to deal with the same”. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source:https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-has-uddhav-thackeray-decided-to-create-a-forest-in-the-middle-of-mumbai-6581456/


Consider the following statements regarding Energy Efficiency Service Limited (EESL)

1. It is a Super Energy Service Company under the administrative control of the Ministry of Power, Government of India

2. EESL enables consumers, industries, and governments to effectively manage their energy needs through energy-efficient technologies.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2 
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: EESL to procure 250 EVs from Tata Motors, Hyundai Motor India

  • Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a Super Energy Service Company (ESCO) under the administrative control of Ministry of Power, Government of India, will procure 250 electric vehicles from Tata Motors and Hyundai Motor India. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • EESL enables consumers, industries, and governments to effectively manage their energy needs through energy-efficient technologies.  Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/energy/power/eesl-to-procure-250-evs-from-tata-motors-hyundai-motor-india/articleshow/77910250.cms


the following statements regarding National Disaster Relief Fund (NDRF)

1. It is defined in Section 46 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 as a fund managed by the Central Government

2. NDRF amount is used to compensation for loss/damage to properties and crops

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Finance Ministry clears way for individual, institutional contributions to NDRF

  • The Finance Ministry has cleared the way for individual and institutional contributions to the National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF)
  • Department of Economic Affairs and the department has no objection to the proposal of contributions/grants from individuals/institutions towards the NDRF as per Section 46(1)(b) of the Disaster Management Act, 2005

About National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF)

  • The National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF), constituted under Section 46 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005, supplements SDRF of a state, incase of a disaster of severe nature, provided adequate funds are not available in SDRF. Hence statements 1 is correct
  • The financial assistance from SDRF/NDRF is for providing immediate relief and is not compensation for loss/damage to properties /crops . In other words, NDRF amount can be spent only towards meeting the expenses for emergency response, relief and rehabilitation. Hence statements 2 is incorrect
  • National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) was renamed as National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) with the enactment of the Disaster Management Act in 2005.
  • The National Executive Committee (NEC) of the National Disaster Management Authority takes decisions on the expenses from National Disaster Response Fund, in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Central Government in consultation with the National Authority.
  • The DM Act defines “disaster” to mean ‘a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.’

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/finance-ministry-clears-way-for-individual-institutional-contributions-to-ndrf/article31890128.ece


Recently GW190521 seen in news, which is?

1.Cryptocurrency

2.Malware

3.Asteriods

4.Gravitational wave 

Answer: (d) Gravitational wave

Explanation:

In NEWS: Two black holes merged billions of years ago. Why is this puzzling scientists?

Billions of years ago, a collision between two black holes sent gravitational waves rippling through the universe. In 2019, signals from these waves were detected at the gravitational wave observatory LIGO (United States) and the detector Virgo (Italy). The discovery and the analysis are described in two research papers published recently.

  • GW190521 is a gravitational wave signal resulting from the merger of two black holes near a third supermassive black hole.  Hence statement (d) is correct.
  • The signal detected at LIGO and Virgo, as described by the LIGO Collaboration, resembled “about four short wiggles” and lasted less than one-tenth of a second.
  • Gravitational waves are invisible ripples that form when a star explodes in a supernova; when two big stars orbit each other; and when two black holes merge.
  • Travelling at the speed of light, gravitational waves squeeze and stretch anything in their path.
  • Gravitational waves were proposed by Albert Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity over a century ago. It was only in 2015, however, that the first gravitational wave was actually detected — by LIGO. Since then, there have been a number of subsequent detections of gravitational waves.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/black-hole-merger-ligo-virgo-6581811/


Global Innovation Index is published by which of the following organisations?

1.World Bank

2.International Monetary Fund

3.World Economic Forum

4.World Intellectual Property Organization.

Answer: (d) World Intellectual Property Organization.

Explanation:

In NEWS: India ranked in top 50 nations in the Global Innovation Index 2020

  • India has climbed 4 spots and has been ranked 48th by the World Intellectual Property Organization in the Global Innovation Index 2020 rankings. With this, India ranked in the top 50 countries for the first time in the Global Innovation Index. Hence statement (d) is correct.

Source: 

https://www.livemint.com/news/india/india-ranked-in-top-50-nations-in-the-global-innovation-index-2020-11599092197685.html

Who among the following Mughal Emperors shifted emphasis from illustrated manuscripts to album and individual portrait?

  1. Humayun
  2. Akbar
  3. Jahangir
  4. Shah Jahan

Answer: (c) Jahangir 

Explanation:

  • During Akbar’s reign many manuscripts were illustrated, the prominent being Razmnamah, the Persian translation of Mahabharata. It was during Jahangir’s reign that manuscripts became less important and individual portraits became more prominent. Hence option (c) is correct