KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 04_October 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Data Governance Quality Index

1.It is a survey conducted by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension

2.It aims to assess different Ministries /Departments’ performance on the implementation of Central Sector Schemes (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Schemes

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Department of Fertilizers ranked 2nd amongst the 16 Economic Ministries / Departments and ranked 3rd amongst the 65 Ministries / Departments in the Survey Report on Data Governance Quality Index

  • Department of Fertilizers under the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers has been ranked 2nd amongst the 16 Economic Ministries / Departments and 3rd out of the 65 Ministries / Departments with a score 4.11 on a scale of 5 on Data Governance Quality Index (DGQI)

About Data Governance Quality Index

  • It is a survey conducted by Development Monitoring and Evaluation Office (DMEO), NITI Aayog. Hence, statement 1 is incorrect.
  • The objective of the survey is to assess different Ministries /Departments’ performanceon the implementation of Central Sector Schemes (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS). Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • Survey was initiated with an objective to assess data preparedness of Ministries or Departments on a standardized framework.
  • The survey was also meant to drive healthy competition among them and promote a cooperative peer learning from best practices. 
  • To avoid straight-forward irrelevant comparisons, Ministries / Departments were classified in 6 (six) categories: Administrative, Strategic, Infrastructure, Social, Economic and Scientific.
  • For the survey, an online questionnaire was prepared under six major themes of DGQI:
  • Data Generation;
  • Data Quality;
  • Use of Technology;
  • Data Analysis, Use and Dissemination;
  • Data Security and
  • HR Capacity and Case Studies.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1660923


Development Monitoring and Evaluation Office is an attached office under which of the following organization in india?

1.National Development Council

2.NITI Aayog

3.National Integration Council

4.Election Commission of India

Answer: (b) NITI Aayog

Explanation:

In NEWS: Department of Fertilizers ranked third among 65 ministries in implementing central schemes

  • The Development Monitoring and Evaluation Office (DMEO) was constituted in September 2015 by merging the erstwhile Program Evaluation Office (PEO) and the Independent Evaluation Office (IEO).
  • It is an attached office under NITI Aayog, aimed at fulfilling the organization’s monitoring and evaluation (M&E) mandate and building the M&E ecosystem in India. Hence option (b) is correct
  • It is aimed at enabling the high-quality monitoring and evaluation of government programs in order to improve effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability and equity of the service delivery, outcomes and impacts.
  • According to the Cabinet Note that constitutes NITI Aayog, the organization is entrusted with development M&E functions including:
  • to monitor progress and efficacy of strategic and long term policy and programme frameworks and initiatives to help innovative improvements, including necessary mid-course corrections
  • to actively monitor and evaluate the implementation of programmes and initiatives, including the identification of the needed resources so as to strengthen the probability of success and scope of delivery.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/oct/02/department-of-fertilizers-ranked-third-among-65-ministries-in-implementing-central-schemes-2204862.html


Exercise Bongosagar is an annual bilateral maritime exercise between:

1.Royal Australian Navy and Indian Navy

2.Madagascar Navy and Indian Navy

3.Indian Navy and Bangladesh Navy

4.Republic of Singapore Navy and Indian Navy

Answer: (c) Indian Navy and Bangladesh Navy

Explanation:

In NEWS: NDIAN NAVY (IN) – BANGLADESH NAVY (BN) BILATERAL EXERCISE BONGOSAGAR AND IN-BN CORPAT

  • The second edition of Indian Navy (IN) – Bangladesh Navy (BN) Bilateral Exercise Bongosagar is scheduled to commence in Northern Bay of Bengal on 03 October 2020. Hence option (c) is correct
  • Exercise Bongosagar, whose first edition was held in 2019, is aimed at developing inter-operability and joint operational skills through conduct of a wide spectrum of maritime exercises and operations.
  • In the upcoming edition of Exercise Bongosagar, ships from both navies will participate in surface warfare drills, seamanship evolutions and helicopter operations.
  • India will be represeneted by INS Kiltan and INS Khukri whereas Bangladesh is represented by BNS Abu Bakr and BNS Prottoy.
  • The second edition of Exercise Bongosagar assumes greater significance since it is being conducted during Mujib Barsho, the 100th birth anniversary of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1661064#:~:text=The%20second%20edition%20of%20Indian,Bengal%20on%2003%20October%202020.


The term ‘Aenigmachannidae’ which was in news recently is associated with

1.Infectious DiseasesWhiteflies

2.Recently discovered exoplanets

3.Bony freshwater fish

Answer: (d) Bony freshwater fish

Explanation:

In NEWS: New family of bony fish discovered in Western Ghats, named Aenigmachannidae

  • According to scientists, the subterranean ecosystems of Kerala harbour some of the planet’s most bizarre species such as Horaglanis krishnaii, Kryptoglanis shajii, Aenigmachanna gollum and Monopterus digressus.
  • Scientists from India, Germany, United Kingdom and Switzerland have discovered a new family of bony fish from the Western Ghats, and named it Aenigmachannidae.

About Aenigmachannidae

  • It is a new family of bony freshwater fishhas been discovered from paddy fields of Kerala. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The fish, with a long and elongated body, was sighted only post sunset along the paddy fields of Mallapuram district in north Kerala
  • It is believed that Aenigmachannidae fish has lineage going back to Gondwanaland and has survived even after the parting away of the Asian and African continents.
  • The fish has been declared as a ‘living fossil’ because of the CT scans and detailed analysis of the specimen led the scientific team to trace primitive characteristics.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/it-s-viral/new-family-of-bony-fish-discovered-in-western-ghats-named-aenigmachannidae/story-eOgpy34sk6CWYR9Xz2O86H.html


With respect to Air India One, Consider the following statements

  • It is India’s first-ever VVIP plane.
  • It is equipped with missile warning sensors and counter-measures dispensing defence system.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: All about Air India One, India’s first-ever VVIP airplane

  • Air India One, India’s first-ever VVIP aircraft, landed at the Delhi International Airport on October 1. It reached India after undergoing retrofitment in the U.S. for more than two years. Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • It will be used by the President, Vice-President and Prime Minister.
  • It is one of the two Boeing 777-300 ERs, which joined Air India’s fleet in 2018.
  • It is equipped with missile warning sensorsand counter-measures dispensing defence system. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The B777 planes will have state-of-the-art missile defence systems called Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) and Self-Protection Suites (SPS).
  • The two B777 aircraft will be operated by pilots of the Indian Air Force (IAF) and not of Air India.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/air-india-one-arrives-in-india/article32751153.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Long Period Average (LPA) Rainfall

1.It is the average rainfall received by the country as a whole during the North East monsoon

2.The current LPA is 89 cm based on the average rainfall over years 1951 and 2000.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: After 61 years, India records two consecutive years of ‘above normal’ rain

  • This and the previous monsoon are the two consecutive years with above normal monsoon rainfall since 1958 and 1959, IMD said in its analysis
  • The total rainfall recorded this monsoon at 108.7% of the long period average (LPA) is the third-highest since 1990.
  • In 1994 and 2019, 112% and 110% of the LPA, respectively, were recorded.
  • India Meteorological Department (IMD) had predicted in that the rainfall in 2020 would be 102 per cent of the Long Period Average (LPA) but the rainfall recorded this monsoon was 109 per cent of the LPA.
  • This year, the two cyclones during the onset, the low-pressure systems in the Bay of Bengal, and the occasional strong westerlies influenced the monsoon variability.
  • The Arabian Sea temperatures were high throughout the season, enhancing the moisture supply, triggering some of the heavy rainfall events that led to regional floods

About Long Period Average (LPA) Rainfall

  • The LPA is theaverage rainfall received by the country as a whole during the south-west monsoon, for a 50-year period. Hence, statement 1 is incorrect.
  • The current LPA is 89 cm, based on the average rainfall over years 1951 and 2000.  Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The LPA acts as a benchmark against which the rainfall in any monsoon season is measured.
  • A 50-year average is expected to smooth out the day-to-day, month-to-month variations, while also accounting for freak weather events like the El Nino and La Nina.
  • The IMD maintains five rainfall distribution categories on an all-India scale. These are:
  • Normal or Near Normal: When per cent departure of actual rainfall is +/-10% of LPA, that is, between 96-104% of LPA
  • Below normal: When departure of actual rainfall is less than 10% of LPA, that is 90-96% of LPA
  • Above normal: When actual rainfall is 104-110% of LPA
  • Deficient: When departure of actual rainfall is less than 90% of LPA
  • Excess: When departure of actual rainfall is more than 110% of LPA

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/after-61-years-india-records-two-consecutive-years-of-above-normal-rain/story-VZXoL0iupT5YCZUBRM9I1L.html


‘Kamchatka Peninsula’ was in news recently. Where is it located?

1.Canada Region

2.Mongolia

3.Sea of Japan

4.Russian Far East

Answer: (d) Russian Far East

Explanation:

In NEWS: Eco disaster at Kamchatka peninsula with mass death of sea animals at precious Pacific beach

  • An ‘ecological disaster’ of sorts is unfolding on a black volcanic beach of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, according to a report in the media outlet Siberian Times. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Three weeks ago, surfers on the Khalaktyrsky beach outside Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the largest town in Kamchatka, had reported of burning eyes, throat ache, headache, fever and a fear of losing eyesight on emerging from the water
  • Then, sea animals begin to die in large numbers, their bodies littering the beach. These included octopuses, seals, sea urchins, stars, crabs and fish. Examination of the sea water by the administration has shown that levels of phenols and oil compounds have spiked.
  • Kamchatka is a UNESCO world heritage site.
  • Two versions are discussed so far, with one being recent military training at Kamchatka causing the ecological catastrophe. 
  • Another is leakage of oil products and phenol from ships passing through the Avacha Gulf. 

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/water/global-eco-watch-eco-disaster-unfolding-on-kamchatka-beach-73649


Consider the following statements regarding Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor

1.It is a payload imaging sensor that was launched into Earth orbit by ISRO

2.It is playing a vital role in the development of global, interactive Earth system models able to predict global change accurately enough to assist policy makers in making sound decisions.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: NASA satellite photographs Andean sediment deposited by the Amazon into the Atlantic

  • The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on NASA’s Terra satellite has photographed the enormous amount of Andes mountain sediment deposited by the Amazon river into the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The picture also shows cumulus clouds hovering over the region. Warm, humid air rose from the forest and cooled, resulting in the development of the clouds.
  • Most of the sediment that the Amazon carried to the Atlantic came from three rivers flowing in the western part of the basin, namely the Marañón, the Ucayali and Mamoré
  • Some 1.3 million tonnes of rock, soil and clay are deposited by the Amazon into the Atlantic every year.

About Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor

  • MODIS is a payload imaging sensor that was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite. Hence, statement 1 is incorrect.
  • Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS are viewing the entire Earth’s surface every 1 to 2 days.
  • MODIS is playing a vital role in the development of global, interactive Earth system models able to predict global change accurately enough to assist policy makers in making sound decisions. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • Significance of MODIS:
  • Measures the properties of clouds such as the distribution and size of cloud droplets.
  • Measures the properties of aerosols—tiny liquid or solid particles in the atmosphere.
  • It is particularly sensitive to fires; they can distinguish flaming from smouldering burns and provide better estimates of the amounts of aerosols and gases fires release into the atmosphere.
  • MODIS helps scientists determine the amount of water vapor in a column of the atmosphere which are crucial in understanding Earth’s climate system.
  • It sees changes in the Pacific phytoplankton populations that may signal the onset of the El Niño/La Niña well ahead of their arrival.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/water/global-eco-watch-eco-disaster-unfolding-on-kamchatka-beach-73649


Consider the following statements regarding Madhuca diplostemon

1.It has been listed as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.

2.It is a species of flowering plant and is endemic to India

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Extinct tree found after 180 years in Kollam grove

  • It was in 1835 that Madhuca diplostemon, a threatened species of the Western Ghats, was last spotted
  • A tree species, long believed extinct, has been redisco­vered after a gap of more than 180 years from a sacred grove in Kollam district.
  • The lone mature tree was located at the Koonayi Ayiravilli Siva temple at Paravur, Kollam
  • Madhuca diplostemon, a species of flowering plant from Sapotaceae family, has been listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Hence, statement 1 is incorrect and Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • This species was first described by Robert Wight, a surgeon-botanist of the East India Company, based on his collection from Kollam in 1835 which comprises three specimens with immature flower buds.
  • This tree is about 4-metre high, its bark fissured and leaves spirally arranged and crowded towards the branch tips. The tree’s flowering and fruiting happen from January to March

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/extinct-tree-found-after-180-years-in-kollam-grove/article32760018.ece


Which of the following has/have shrunk immensely/dried up the recent past due to human activities?

1.Aral Sea

2.Black Sea

3.Lake Baikal

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 2 only
  4. 1 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

  • As per NASA, over the last 50 years, Aral Sea has shrunk by about 75% of its original size mainly because of water diversion for agricultural usages in surrounding areas.
  • Also from a depth of 68 meters in the 1960s, today it stands at less than 10 meters. In Lake Baikal, water level has gone below the critical mark of 456m eleven times since 1962.
  • Thus, while Aral Sea has dried up immensely, Lake Baikal shows more of a fluctuating regime and shrinkage is not comparable to that of Aral Sea. Hence option (a) is correct