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Daily Prelims Test – 04_March 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Methane

It is a stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide because it has much higher heat trapping ability.

A molecule of methane stays in the atmosphere for about 12 years

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: New sensor promises low-cost detection of methane emissions, leaks

  • The new sensor can be used to better understand methane emissions from livestock and dairy farms; they enable a more accurate monitoring of climate crisis
  • An accurate detection of very low concentrations of methane (CH4) gas — a major contributor to global warming and air pollution — can be possible through a new sensor. 
  • Measuring methane emissions and leaks was important to several industries, including the oil and gas industry, for environmental and economic reasons
  • An accurate detection of very low concentrations of methane (CH4) gas — a major contributor to global warming and air pollution — can be possible through a new sensor. 
  • Measuring methane emissions and leaks was important to several industries, including the oil and gas industry, for environmental and economic reasons
  • The inside of the fiber is coated with silver, which causes the light to reflect off its surfaces as it travels down the fiber to the photo detector at the other end. This allows the light to interact with additional molecules of methane in the air, thereby resulting in higher absorption of the light.

About Methane

  • Methane (CH4) is a colorless, odorless, and highly flammable gas composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.
  • It can be produced naturally and synthetically, and when burned in the presence of oxygen, it produces carbon dioxide and water vapor.
  • Methane is the primary component of natural gas and is used to produce heat and electricity around the world. Methane is also used in chemical reactions to produce other important gases like hydrogen and carbon monoxide and carbon black
  • The main component of natural gas, methane is released from landfills, natural gas and petroleum industries, and agriculture (especially from the digestive systems of grazing animals).
  • molecule of methane stays in the atmosphere for about 12 yearsHence, statement 2 is correct
  • It does not stay as long as a molecule of carbon dioxide but it is at least 84 times more potent over two decades.
  • Methane is a stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide because it has much higher heat trapping ability. Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • Methane on a weight basis has 21 times the global warming potential (GWP) of carbon dioxide.
  • It accounts for about 16 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Naturally occurring methane is found both below ground and under the seafloor, and is formed by both geological and biological processes.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/science-technology/new-sensor-promises-low-cost-detection-of-methane-emissions-leaks-75715


Consider the following Statements

Registration of political parties is governed by the provisions of section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.

According to the Election commission of India, for registration of political parties there must be at least 100 members present in the new political party.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Registration of Political Parties under section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951- Public Notice Period

  • Registration of political parties is governed by the provisions of section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • A party seeking registration under the said section with the Commission has to submit an application to the Commission within a period of 30 days following the date of its formation as per guidelines prescribed by the Commission in exercise of the powers conferred by Article 324 of the Constitution of India and Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951
  • As per existing guidelines, the applicant association is, inter-alia, asked to publish proposed Name of party in two national daily newspapers and two local daily newspapers, on two days for submitting objections, if any, with regard to the proposed registration of the party before the Commission within 30 days from such publication

Eligibility Criteria for Registration:

  • According to the Election commission of India, for registration, there must be at least 100 members present in the new political partyHence, statement 2 is correct
  • Each member of the proposed party should possess a Voter ID card.
  • Possessing a Voter ID card implies that the particular member is above the age of eighteen.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1701951


Consider the following Statements regarding Farmer Produce Organizations

  1. It helps in the collectivization of small, marginal and landless farmers in order to give them the collective strength to deal with present and emerging issues.
  2. The Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) was mandated by the Ministry of Agriculture to support the State Governments in the formation of FPOs.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare celebrates the first anniversary of the Central Sector Scheme on “Formation & Promotion of 10,000 Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs)”

  • Union Ministers of State for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Shri Parshottam Rupala and Shri Kailash Choudhary inaugurated professional training programmes designed and developed for CEOs, Board of Directors, Accountants of FPOs on the occasion of the anniversary of the Central Sector Scheme titled ‘Formation and Promotion of 10,000 Farmer Produce Organizations (FPOs)

About Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs)

  • Farmer Producer Organizations is a Producer Organization (PO) where the members are farmers.
  • FPOs help in the collectivization of small, marginal and landless farmers in order to give them the collective strength to deal with present and emerging issuesHence, statement 1 is correct
  • The Members of the FPO will manage their activities together to get better access to technology, input, finance and market for faster enhancement of their income.
  • The concept behind Farmer Producer Organizations is that farmers, who are the producers of agricultural products, can form groups and register themselves under the Companies Act, 2013.
  • To facilitate this process, the Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) was mandated by the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture to support the State Governments in the formation of FPOs. Hence, statement 2 is correct
  • Objective: To enhance farmers’ competitiveness and increase their advantage in emerging market opportunities.
  • Budget Allocation of Formation and Promotion of 10,000 Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) was Rs. 6865 crores.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1701767


Consider the following Statements regarding Central Revenues Control Laboratory

It is a subordinate office under the Ministry of Finance.

It aims to provide technical support to Opium & Alkaloid Factories for production of Export Opium.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: World Customs Organisation recognises CRCL, New Delhi as regional customs laboratory for Asia Pacific

  • The World Customs Organisation today recognised Central Revenues Control Laboratory CRCL, New Delhi as a regional customs laboratory for Asia Pacific
  • With its recognition as RCL, CRCL joins a select group of Customs Laboratories in the region like those in Japan & Korea.

About Central Revenues Control Laboratory (CRCL):

  • The CRCL is a subordinate office under the control of the Central Board of Excise and Customs, Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance. Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • Established in 1939, CRCL is the headquarters of 14 Revenue Laboratories, including 2 laboratories working at Government Opium & Alkaloid Works, Ghazipur and Neemuch.
  • It had a modest beginning and its growth is closely related with the development of the Customs and Central Excise Department.
  • CRCL is analysing different type of Customs, Excise and narcotics samples.
  • Functions:
  • To analyse the samples sent to them by the Revenue Authorities of Customs, CGST & Central Excise for the purpose of classification under Customs Tariff, Central Excise Tariff, Export Import Trade Control Policies and for Drawback purposes.
  • To furnish technical opinion to the Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs and its field formations with regard to classification, duty aspects on various goods etc.
  • To provide technical support to Opium & Alkaloid Factories for production of Export Opium.
  • To analyse and certify the Export Opium. Hence, statement 2 is correct
  • To analyse Narcotic Drug & Psychotropic Substances and Precursor Chemicals etc.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=World-Customs-Organisation-recognises-CRCL%2C-New-Delhi-as-regional-customs-laboratory-for-Asia-Pacific&id=410972


Consider the following Statements regarding Indian Extradition Act, 1962

  1. The Extradition Act 1962 provides India’s legislative basis for extradition
  2. The Ministry of External Affairs administers the Extradition Act 
  3. It is a treaty made by India with a Foreign State, relating to the extradition of fugitive criminals which extends to and is binding on, India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nirav Modi’s extradition is a vindication of India’s judicial system

  • On February 25, the Westminster Magistrate’s Court in London accepted the contention of the Indian government to extradite Nirav Modi, who duped the Punjab National Bank of billions of rupees and fled the country when he found the noose around him tightening, saying that the evidence against him “is prima facie sufficient to order his extradition to India to face the charges
  • Extradition can be initiated in the case of under-investigation, under-trial and convicted criminals.
  • In cases under investigation, abundant precautions have to be exercised by the law enforcement agency to ensure that it is in possession of prima facie evidence to sustain the allegation before the Courts of Law in the Foreign State.
  • The Supreme Court defined  Extradition as the delivery on the part of one State to another of those whom it is desired to deal with for crimes of which they have been accused or convicted and are justifiable in the Courts of the other State.

About The Extradition Treaty

  • The Extradition Act 1962 provides India’s legislative basis for extraditionHence, statement 1 is correct
  • The Indian Extradition Act, 1962 was substantially modified in 1993 by Act 66 of 1993.
  • CPV Division, of the Ministry of External Affairs, administers the Extradition Act and it processes incoming and outgoing Extradition Requests. Hence, statement 2 is correct
  • Section 2(d) of The Indian Extradition Act 1962 defines an ‘Extradition Treaty’ as a Treaty, Agreement or Arrangement made by India with a Foreign State, relating to the extradition of fugitive criminals which extends to and is binding on, India. Hence, statement 3 is correct
  • Extradition treaties are traditionally bilateral in character.
  • At present India has an Extradition treaty with 43 countries and an Extradition agreement with 11 countries.
  • Generally, there are five principles which are followed under the treaty:
  • The extradition applies only to such offences which are mentioned in the treaty.
  • It applies the principle of dual criminality which means that the offence sought to be an offence in the national laws of requesting as well as requested country.
  • The requested country must be satisfied that there is a prima facie case made against the offender.
  • The extradition should be made only for the offence for which extradition was requested.
  • The accused must be provided with a fair trial.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/nirav-modis-extradition-is-a-vindication-of-indias-judicial-system-7211650/


Consider the following Statements regarding Fishing cat

In India, fishing cats are mainly found in the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans and in the Western Ghats.

It is listed as ‘Endangered’ on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)’s Red List.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: World Wildlife Day: First-ever survey on fishing cats of the Chilika starts

  • The first-ever survey of the elusive fishing cat in and around Asia’s biggest brackish water lagoon, the Chilika lake in Odisha, started March 1, 2021
  • The survey to enumerate the animal’s population is being done by the Chilika Development Authority (CDA), the regulatory body for the lake, in collaboration with the Fishing Cat Conservation Alliance (FCCA), a non-profit.
  • As many as 100 camera traps have been installed on the lake shore and some nearby areas. The areas where the hidden cameras have been installed are those where fishing cats were sighted earlier
  • The CDA has also rolled out the fishing cat project in collaboration with the FCCA, after they found the globally endangered species in the blue lagoon, spreading around 1,100 sq km in three districts — Ganjam, Puri and Khorda.

About Fishing Cat:

  • It is a medium-sized wildcat found in South and Southeast Asia.They are nocturnal and are adept swimmers which enter water frequently to prey on fish and other animals.
  • In India, fishing cats are mainly found in the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans, on the foothills of the Himalayas along the Ganga and Brahmaputra river valleys and in the Western Ghats. Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • The fishing cat is nocturnal (active at night) and apart from fish also preys on frogs, crustaceans, snakes, birds, and scavenges on carcasses of larger animals.
  • The species breed all year round.
  • Threats: Wetland degradation and conversion for aquaculture and other commercial projects, sand mining along river banks, agricultural intensification resulting in loss of riverine buffer and conflict with humans in certain areas resulting in targeted hunting and retaliatory killings.
  • Significance: In 2012, the West Bengal government officially declared the Fishing Cat as the State Animal.
  • IUCN Red List: Vulnerable. Hence, statement 2 is incorrect
  • CITES: Appendix II
  • Indian Wildlife Protection Act,1972: Schedule I

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/world-wildlife-day-first-ever-survey-on-fishing-cats-of-the-chilika-starts-75747


Consider the following Statements regarding Aroma Mission

It is an initiative to improve the yield in aromatic plant cultivation 

CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants is a nodal agency of this mission 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Jammu’s purple revolution: Lavender brings in scent of profit for Doda farmers

  • Around 500 farmers across villages in Doda had their incomes quadrupled after shifting from maize to lavender
  • Lavender oil sells for at least Rs 10,000 per litre, according to scientists from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu (IIIM Jammu), the two bodies responsible for taking the Aroma Mission forward.
  • Under the mission, which was launched to move from imported aromatic oils to homegrown varieties, first-time farmers were given free lavender saplings and those who have cultivated lavender before were charged Rs 5-6 per sapling.

About Aroma Mission:

  • The CSIR Aroma Mission is envisaged to bring transformative change in the aroma sector through desired interventions in the areas of agriculture, processing and product development for fuelling the growth of aroma industry and rural employment. Hence, statement 1 is correct and Hence, statement 2 is correct
  • The mission will promote the cultivation of aromatic crops for essential oils that are in great demand by the aroma industry.
  • It is expected to enable Indian farmers and aroma industry to become global leaders in the production and export of some other essential oils on the pattern of menthol mint.
  • It aims to provide substantial benefits to the farmers in achieving higher profits, utilization of waste lands and protection of their crops from wild and grazing animals.
  • The nodal laboratory is CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), Lucknow. The participating laboratories are CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (CSIR-IHBT), Palampur; CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR-IIIM), Jammu etc.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/jammu-s-purple-revolution-lavender-brings-in-scent-of-profit-for-doda-farmers-75714


Consider the following Statements regarding black-browed babbler

  1. It is a bird recently rediscovered in Indonesia.
  2. It is listed as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: How, after 170 years, a ‘lost’ bird was found in the jungles of Indonesian Borneo

  • For more than 170 years after that reporting, this single specimen represented the only recorded sighting of this bird species — the species holotype is now at the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden, Netherlands
  • When two amateur bird watchers in Indonesia found it, they were overwhelmed with joy and disbelief. Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • After photographing it, they let it fly to freedom, hoping that it has a thriving population somewhere in the Indonesian Borneo forests.
  • Ornithologists first described black-browed babblers around 1850 following the collection of the one and only known specimen of the species. The specimen was at first mislabeled as having come from the island of Java rather than Borneo, stymieing early attempts to locate additional black-browed babblers.
  • The conservation status of the species is listed in the “Data Deficient” category in the IUCN red list. Hence, statement 2 is correct
  • Data-deficient species:
  • Data-deficient species are threatened species that we need to know more about before we can secure them in the wild. Species are allocated to the data-deficient management stream when there is not enough knowledge about their ecology, distribution, threats or management needs to inform an effective management strategy

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-how-after-170-years-a-lost-bird-was-found-in-the-jungles-of-indonesian-borneo-7211451/


Consider the following Statements regarding Aries-Devasthal Faint Object Spectrograph & Camera

  1. It is indigenously designed and developed by Aryabhatta Research Institute of observational sciences 
  2. It is made of special glasses that are polished to better than 5-nanometer smoothness to produce sharp images of the celestial sky.
  3. The instrument can detect faint light sources from distant quasars and galaxies

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3 

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Spectrograph designed for Uttarakhand telescope

  • A team of scientists from the Aryabhatta Research Institute of observational sciences (ARIES), Nainital, with help from the Indian Space Research Organisation, have designed and developed a spectrograph, an instrument that separates incoming light by its wavelength or frequency and records the resulting spectrum. Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • The instrument will support the 3.6 metre Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) in Uttarakhand, an official release from the department of science
  • The instrument will support the 3.6 metre Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) in Uttarakhand
  • The instrument can detect faint light sources from distant quasars and galaxies, regions around supermassive black holes, and cosmic explosions and forms.
  • The instrument uses several lenses made of special glass that enable it to produce sharp images of the celestial objects, the release said. It can capture light sources with a photon rate of less than one photon per second. A 100-watt bulb emits 10^20 photons in a second. Hence, statement 2 is correct
  • Now, ARIES plans to commission more complex instruments such as spectro-polarimeter and high spectral resolution spectrograph on the telescope, the release said.
  • Dr Amitesh Omar from the institute led this project with experts from various institutes including Isro.
  • “The indigenous efforts to build complex instruments like ADFOSC in India is an important step to become ‘Atma Nirbhar’ in the field of astronomy and astrophysics,” said professor Dipankar Banerjee, Director, ARIES.
  • A test set-up of the new instrument was used to study the Crab Pulsar, which is a relatively young neutron star (the collapsed core of supergiant stars), the release said.
  • Inaugurated in 2016, the 3.6 metre DOT is the largest fully-steerable optical telescope in Asia, which was built in collaboration with Belgium. However, it is of global importance as it fills in the twelve-hour longitudinal gap between 4m class telescopes located at Canary Island in the West and Australia in the East. The observation time on the telescope is shared 60% on a competitive basis to astronomers in any Indian institution, 33% to astronomers from ARIES, Nainital, and 7% to Belgian astronomers.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/spectrograph-designed-for-uttarakhand-telescope-101614802330304-amp.html


From the ecological point of view, which one of the following assumes importance in being a good link between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats?

Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve 

Nallamala Forest 

Nagarhole National Park 

Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve

Answer: (a) Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve 

Explanation:

  • Sathyamangalam forest range is a significant wildlife corridor in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve between the Western Ghats and the rest of the Eastern Ghats Located in the Erode district of Tamil Nadu, the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is the largest wildlife sanctuary in the state. With a forest area of 1,411.6 square kilometres, the reserve is a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and lies between the Western Ghats and the rest of the Eastern Ghats. Hence option (a) is correct
  • Situated in a key position between the Western and Eastern Ghats, the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve boasts of a wide variety of fauna. The reserve also adjoins four other protected areas — Biligiriranga Swamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Sigur Plateau, Mudumalai National Park and Bandipur National Park.