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Daily Prelims Test – 04_June

Kingmakers IAS Academy 04_June 2020

1.Consider the following statements regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD)

  • Ebola virus was first discovered in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • It is transmitted to people from wild animals and cannot spread from one person to another

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Congo declares new Ebola epidemic, 1,000 km from eastern outbreak

Democratic Republic of Congo declared a new Ebola epidemic on Monday in the western city of Mbandaka, more than 1,000 km (620 miles) away from an ongoing outbreak of the same deadly virus in the east.

Congo has been struggling to put an end to a nearly two-year-old Ebola outbreak near its eastern borders with Rwanda and Uganda, which has killed more than 2,200 people, the world’s second-deadliest outbreak of the disease on record.

It was days away in April from declaring the end of that outbreak, its tenth since the virus was discovered in 1976, when a new chain of infection was confirmed in the east.

About Ebola virus disease (EVD)

  • Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
  • Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates.
  • Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is transmitted to people from wild animals and then spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches. Vomiting, diarrhea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys.
  • There is no proven treatment for Ebola but interventions early on includes rehydration with fluids and body salts and treatment of specific symptoms such as low blood pressure, vomiting, diarrhea and infections.
  • An investigational vaccine called rVSV-ZEBOV has shown to be safe and protective against the Ebola virus.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/rest-of-world/new-ebola-outbreak-detected-in-congo/articleshow/76149421.cms

https://www.indiatoday.in/world/story/congo-declares-new-ebola-epidemic-eastern-outbreak-1684500-2020-06-02

2.Ishaat Hussain committee is related to which of the following area?

  • Social stock exchanges
  • Restructure state-run Food Corporation of India
  • Revisiting Global Healthcare in a Post-COVID World
  • Post-Covid revival of the MSME

Answer: (a) Social stock exchanges

Explanation:

In NEWS: Can allow non-profit organisations to list on social stock exchanges’

  • SEBI-constituted panel on social stock exchanges has recentlyrecommended direct listing of non-profit organisations through the issuance of bonds and a range of funding mechanisms. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The panel or working group was set up by SEBI in September 2019 under the Chairmanship of Ishaat Hussain, Director at SBI Foundation.
  • The aim was to suggest possible structures and regulations for creating SSE to facilitate listing and fund-raising by social enterprises as well as voluntary organisations.
  • The decision came after the Finance Minister’s budget announcement in July last year about setting up such exchanges to take the capital markets closer to the masses and meet various social welfare objectives.
  • It has recommended allowing non-profit organisations to directly list
  • The group has also suggested a new minimum reporting standard for organisations that raise funds on social stock exchanges.
  • The working group has also suggested that the social stock exchange can be housed within the existing national bourses (Stock Exchange) like the BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) and the National Stock Exchange.

About Social Stock Exchange (SSE):

  • It is a platform that allows investors to invest in select social enterprises or social initiatives.
  • It aims to help social and voluntary organisations which work for social causes to raise capital as equity or debt or a unit of mutual fund.
  • SSE exists in countries such as Singapore,UK among others. These countries allow firms operating in sectors such as health, environment and transportation to raise risk capital.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/can-allow-non-profit-organisations-to-list-on-social-stock-exchanges/article31725503.ece#:~:text=A%20working%20group%20constituted%20by,encourage%20participation%20on%20the%20platform.

3.Consider the following statements regarding Real-Time Electricity Market (RTM) platform

  • It is a platform that enables consumers including power distribution companies to buy power on exchanges just an hour before delivery.
  • It has launched by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Power Exchanges start real-time electricity market with 48 auctions a day

  • The country’s two power exchanges — Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) and Power Exchange India (PXIL) — commenced real-time electricity market (RTM) on their platforms.  Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • RTM will help consumers purchase electricity just an hour in advance. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The RTM will have 48 auction sessions in a day, during which power generators with surplus capacity may sell anytime during the day.
  • In the maiden trading under RTM, the average price discovered at IEX’s platform was Rs 1.8 per unit for trading of 225 Mw.
  • The RTM is designed as a half-hourly market, comprising 48 auction sessions of 15 minutes each. The sessions will be conducted even in time blocks of an hour, with delivery commencing an hour after closure of the session
  • With the launch of RTM, the Indian energy markets are moving towards global standards of electricity trading, and establishing a new energy order. It will support utilities in reducing dependence on the grid deviation framework, to the order of 20 billion units, in FY20
  • RTM would be a game-changer in the electricity market as it, for the first time, allows generators with even long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) to participate in the vibrant power market of the country

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/power-exchanges-start-real-time-electricity-market-with-48-auctions-a-day-120060101373_1.html

4.Consider the following statements regardingNational Human Rights Commission

  • It is a multi-member body consisting of a chairman and ten members.
  • The chairperson of NHRC is must be a retired chief justice of India or a judge of the Supreme Court.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Supreme Court asks for status report on 187 bonded labourers

The Supreme Court took severe notice of a petition complaining that the District Magistrates of Sambhal in Uttar Pradesh and Rohtas in Bihar didn’t take immediate motion to assist 187 bonded labourers working in brick kilns, regardless of an order from the National Human Rights Commission.

The petition identified that “millions of adults and children across India are enslaved by the scourge,” regardless of the enactment of the Bonded Labour Abolition Act in 1976

About National Human Rights Commission:

  • The NHRC is a Statutory public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993.
  • It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (TPHRA).
  • The National Human Rights Commission is responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights in India. The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 states that the commission is the protector of “rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants”.
  • The Commission consists of a Chairperson, four full-time Members and four deemed Members. The statute lays down qualifications for the appointment of the Chairperson and Members of the Commission. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The chairperson is a retired chief justice of India or a judge of the Supreme CourtHence statement 2 is correct

They are appointed by the President on the recommendations of a six-member committee consisting of:

  • Prime Minister (head)
  • Speaker of the Lok Sabha
  • Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
  • Leaders of the Opposition in both the Houses of Parliament  
  • Union Home Minister.

They hold office for a term of three years or until they attain the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier. The President can remove them from the office under specific circumstances.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/supreme-court-asks-for-status-report-on-187-bonded-labourers/article31744549.ece

5.With respect to Farming Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Ordinance 2020, consider the following statements

  • It aims at creating additional trading opportunities outside the Agricultural Produce Market Committee-APMC market yards to help farmers get remunerative prices due to additional competition.
  • It will promote barrier-free inter-state and intra-state trade and commerce outside the physical premises of markets notified under State Agricultural Produce Marketing legislations.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Govt gives nod to two ordinances paving way towards transformation of agriculture sector & raising farmers’ income

The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister made several landmark and historic decisions, which will go a long way in helping India’s farmers while also transforming the agriculture sector.

The Farming Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Ordinance, 2020 aims to open up agricultural marketing outside notified mandis for farmers, and also remove barriers to inter-State trade.

The Union Cabinet today approved The Farming Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Ordinance, 2020

  • The ordinance will create an ecosystem where the farmers and traders will enjoy freedom of choice of sale and purchase of agri-produce.  
  • The ordinance basically aims at creating additional trading opportunities outside the Agricultural Produce Market Committee-APMC market yards to help farmers get remunerative prices due to additional competiti Hence statement 1 is correct
  • This will supplement the existing Minimum Support Price procurement system which is providing stable income to farmers. It will pave the way for creating One India, One Agriculture Market.
  • It will promote barrier-free inter-state and intra-state trade and commerce outside the physical premises of markets notified under State Agricultural Produce Marketing legislations. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • This Ordinance will help open more choices for the farmer, reduce marketing costs for the farmers and help them in getting better prices.
  • The farmers will not be charged any cess or levy for sale of their produce under this Act.
  • Further, there will be a separate dispute resolution mechanism for the farmers.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/cabinet-nod-for-amendment-to-essential-commodities-act-two-ordinances-to-promote-barrier-free-trade/article31740277.ece#:~:text=The%20Farming%20Produce%20Trade%20and,barriers%20to%20inter%2DState%20trade.

6.Consider the following statements regarding Inner Line Permit (ILP) System

  • Currently, the Inner Line Permit is operational in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Tripura.
  • It is a travel document issued under the Eastern Frontier Regulations in 1873.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Supreme Court refuses to ex-parte stay presidential order on inner-line permit

  • The Supreme Court sought response from the Centre on the pleas of two Assam students’ unions challenging the Presidential order amending the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation (BEFR), 1873 to deny the state an inner-line permit (ILP) system to insulate it from the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA)
  • The pleas, of All Tai Ahom Students’ Union’ and Asom Jatiyatabadi Yuba Chatra Parishad have challenged the presidential order of December 11, 2019 to amend the BEFR calling it is unconstitutional.
  • Both the students’ unions have sought inner-line system in the state to protect them from the effect of CAA especially from those who have come from Bangaldesh.

About Inner Line Permit

  • Inner Line Permit is a document that allows an Indian citizen to visit or stay in a state that is protected under the ILP system.
  • By the ILP, government aims to regulate movement to certain areas located near the international border of India.
  • Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Mizoram are protected by the Inner Line, and lately Manipur was added and no Indian citizen canvisit any of these states unless he or she belongs to that state, nor can he or she overstay beyond the period specified in the ILP. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The concept of an inner line permit was formulated during the British Government. An inner line permit is a travel document issued under the Eastern Frontier Regulations in 1873. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • No Indian citizens can visit any of these states unless he or she belongs to that state, nor can he or she overstay beyond the period specified in the ILP.
  • On December 11, the President signed an order extending the inner line permit (ILP) regime to Manipur.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/supreme-court-refuses-to-ex-parte-stay-presidential-order-on-inner-line-permit/article31744417.ece

7.Global Economic Prospects report 2020 is released by which of the following international organization?

  • World Bank
  • World Economic Forum
  • World Trade Organization
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Answer: (a) World Bank

Explanation:

In NEWS: 60 million could be pushed into extreme poverty in 2020 : World Bank President

  • The World Bank has recently released the Global Economic Prospects report 2020,which highlighted the adverse impact of COVID 19 upon the countries. Hence option (a) is correct
  • EMDEs (Emerging Market and Developing Economies) are especially vulnerable.
  • Sixty million people could be pushed into extreme poverty this year.
  • A recession combined with a financial crisis could lower potential output by almost 8% while, in the average EMDE energy exporter, a recession combined with an oil price plunge could lower potential output by 11%
  • The scope and speed with which the COVID-19 pandemic and economic shutdowns have devastated the poor around the world are unprecedented in modern times.
  • Policy choices made today will help limit the damage and build a stronger recovery. This includes – greater debt transparency to invite new investment, faster advances in digital connectivity, and a major expansion of cash safety nets for the poor

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/coronavirus-60-million-could-be-pushed-into-extreme-poverty-in-2020-world-bank-president/article31733219.ece

8.Consider the following statements regardingSPIC MACAY

  • It is basically a participatory student movement registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • It is supported nationally by the Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, and the Ministry of Human Resource Development.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM addresses SPIC MACAY’s International Convention

Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi recently addressed the SPIC MACAY’s International Convention via video conference.

New elements in the SPIC MACAY convention this year like nature walk, heritage walk, literature and holistic food along with Yoga and Naad Yoga were appreciated by the PM Modi.

Further, PM Modi stated that music is strengthening the ideal of ‘Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat’.

About SPIC MACAY International Convention:

  • SPIC MACAY (Society for the Promotion of Indian Classical Music And Culture Amongst Youth) is a non-political, nationwide, voluntary movement.
  • It was founded in 1977 by Dr Kiran Seth who was awarded the Padma Shri for his contribution to the arts in 2009.
  • SPIC MACAY is basically a participatory student movement registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The movement was awarded the Rajiv Gandhi Sadbhavana award in 2011 in recognition of its contribution to youth development.
  • The major intention of this movement is to enrich the quality of formal education by increasing awareness about different aspects of Indian heritage and inspiring the young mind to imbibe the values embedded in it.
  • The SPIC MACAY movement is supported nationally by the Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, and the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Movement has been organising national and international conventions for the last 35 years
  • The movement has a central executive body in New Delhi and organises its programmes through a worldwide network of schools, colleges and educational institutions

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1628387

9.Consider the following statements regardingBorder Area Development Programme

  • It has been implementing by the Ministry of Defence
  • It aims to meet the special development needs of the people living in remote and inaccessible areas situated near the international border

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India to boost infrastructure in areas along China border

  • To ramp up infrastructure along the China border, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has decided to spend 10% funds of a Centrally sponsored scheme only on projects in Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and Sikkim.
  • The Border Area Development Programme (BADP) has been allocated ₹784 crores in the 2020­21 fiscal and the money is distributed to the border States and Union Territories depending on various criteria such as the length of the international border and population. In 2019­-20, ₹825 crores were granted for the scheme.
  • According to the new guidelines, approved by Union Home Minister Amit Shah effective April 1, the projects for developing strategically important villages and towns in border areas that have been identified by the border guarding forces will be given priority. Around ₹78.4 crores have been parked for projects in areas inhabited along the 3,488 km China border

About Border Area Development Programme

  • The Department of Border Management, Ministry of Home Affairs has been implementing the Border Area Development Programme(BADP) through the State Governments as part of a comprehensive approach to Border Management. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The programme aims to meet the special development needs of the people living in remote and inaccessible areas situated near the internationalborder and to saturate the border areas with the essential infrastructure through convergence of Central/State/BADP/Local schemes and participatory approach. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • BADP was initiated in the border areas of the western region during that Seventh Five Year Plan period for ensuring balanced development of border areas through development of infrastructure and promotion of a sense of security among the border population.
  • The programme now covers 394 border blocks of 111 border districts in 17 States, which includes 167 border blocks in 55 districts of 8 North East, States (including Sikkim), located along the international land border
  • BADP is an important intervention of the Central Government to bring about development of border areas by supplementing the State Plan Funds to bridge the gaps in socio- economic infrastructure on one hand and improving the security environment in border areas on the other.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-to-boost-infrastructure-in-areas-along-china-border/article31741145.ece

10.The term “sixth mass extinction/sixth extinction” is often mentioned in the news in the context of the discussion of

  • Widespread monoculture practices in agriculture and large-scale commercial farming with indiscriminate use of chemicals in many parts of the world that may result in the loss of good native ecosystems
  • Fears of a possible collision of a meteorite with the Earth in the near future in the manner it happened 65 million years ago that caused the mass extinction of many species including those of dianosaurs.
  • Large scale cultivation of genetically modified crops in many parts of the world and promoting their cultivation in other parts of the world which may cause the disappearance of good native crop plants and the loss of food biodiversity.
  • Mankind’s over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, fragmentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate change.

Answer: (d) Mankind’s over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, fragmentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate change

Explanation:

  • The term ‘sixth mass extinction/sixth extinction’ is often mentioned in the news in the context of the discussion of disappearing of flora and fauna species.  
  • According to news reports, it would be caused by the human activities causing over-exploitation/misuse of natural resources, fragmentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate changeHence option (d) is correct