KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 04_August_2021

Consider the following statements regarding Krishna River:

  • It is an east-flowing river.
  • It is the biggest river in peninsular India.
  • It originates at Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra.
  • Its tributaries include Koyna and Amaravati.

Which of the above statements are correct?

  1. a) 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. b) 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. c) 1 and 3 only
  4. d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (c) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Resolve Krishna water dispute amicably: SC to Andhra Pradesh, Telangana govts

  • The Supreme Court on Monday suggested to Andhra Pradesh and Telangana to settle their Krishna river water dispute through mediation.
  • A bench headed by Chief Justice NV Ramana was hearing Andhra Pradesh’s plea alleging that Telangana has deprived it of its legitimate share of drinking and irrigation water.
  • In July, Andhra Pradesh government had moved the top court claiming that the Telangana government refused to follow the decisions taken by the Apex Council constituted under the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014, the directions of Krishna River Management Board (KRMB) formed under this Act, and the Centre’s directives.
  • Andhra Pradesh alleges that Telangana has been drawing Krishna water from four projects — Jurala, Srisailam, NagarjunaSagar, and Pulichintala — for hydropower generation without approvals from the Krishna River Management Board (KRMB), an autonomous body that was set up after the bifurcation of the state, to manage and regulate the waters in the Krishna basin.
  • Telangana made it clear that it would not recognize Pothireddypadu project, which it alleges is being illegally constructed by the Andhra Pradesh government on Krishna river without any environmental clearances or allocation of even a drop of water to the project or any permission from the Green Tribunal.
  • Krishna River:
  • The Krishna is an east-flowing riverHence statement (1) is correct.
  • TheKrishna River is the second biggest river in peninsular India. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • Originates at Mahabaleshwarin Maharashtra and merges with the Bay of Bengal. Hence statement (3) is correct
  • Flows throughMaharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Together with its tributaries, it forms a vast basin that covers 33% of the total area of the four states.
  • The principal tributariesjoining Krishna are the Ghataprabha, the Malaprabha, the Bhima, the Tungabhadra and the  Amaravati is a tributary of Kaveri. Hence statement (4) is incorrect.
  • Most of this basin comprises rolling and undulatingcountry, except for the western border, which is formed by an unbroken line of the Western Ghats.
  • The important soil typesfound in the basin are black soils, red soils, laterite and lateritic soils, alluvium, mixed soils, red and black soils and saline and alkaline soils

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/resolve-krishna-water-dispute-amicably-sc-to-andhra-pradesh-telangana-govts-101627887505983.html

Consider the following statements regarding Kuthiran Tunnel:

  • It is the road tunnel that will drastically improve connectivity to Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
  • It passes through Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary which is located in Karnataka.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: One tunnel at Kuthiran opened for traffic

  • Ending a wait lasting years, one of the twin tunnels at Kuthiran on the Thrissur-Palakkad National Highway in Kerala was opened for traffic.
  • Gadkari said under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, transformation in the infrastructure of the country is ensuring better economic opportunities for every citizen.

Kuthiran Tunnel

  • Kuthiran Tunnel is a Twin-tube tunnel at Kuthiran in Thrissur District of Kerala.
  • It is located on National Highway 544, owned and operated by the National Highways Authority of India.
  • It is Kerala’s first-ever tunnel for road transport and South India’s Longest 6-lane road tunnel.
  • Kuthiran gradient is situated in the Kuthiran Hills, situated in the western part of Anaimalai Hills.
  • The construction of this twin tube tunnel which passes through Peechi-Vazhani wildlife sanctuary was launched in 2012. Hence statement (2) is incorrect
  • It will drastically improve connectivity to Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The road will improve connectivity to important ports and towns in the North-South Corridor without endangering wildlife.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/one-tunnel-at-kuthiran-opened-for-traffic/article35659928.ece

Minsky moment was sometimes seen in the news. Which of the following correctly explains the term?

  1. a) It suggests a period of unemployment and low economic activity
  2. b) It plans to meet mismatches in the receipts and payments of the government
  3. c) It studies how auctions are designed, what rules govern them, how bidders behave and what outcomes are achieved
  4. d) It marks the decline of asset prices, causing mass panic and the inability of debtors to pay their interest and principal

Answer: (d) It marks the decline of asset prices, causing mass panic and the inability of debtors to pay their interest and principal

Explanation:

In NEWS: A cycle of low growth, higher inflation

Unless policy action ensures higher demand and growth, India will continue on the path of a K-shaped recovery

  • Some economists are of the opinion that the Government should not intervene with the economy and that it will revive by itself. These economists’ reason that, like after the Great Depression, the economy rebounded worldwide, and so will it with us. However, such arguments are fallacious on four accounts
  • Rising interest rates, lack of liquidity, and offering credit to leveraged companies instead of direct subsidies to support small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to counter the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects will result in NPAs of public sector banks climbing faster.
  • Our small and medium scale sector is facinga Minsky moment. 
  • The Minsky moment marks the decline of asset prices, causing mass panic and the inability of debtors to pay their interest and principalHence option (d) is correct.
  • India has reached its Minsky moment.
  • This means that the public sector unit and several other banks will need capital in copious amounts to make up for bad debt.
  • The Union government’s Budget is in no position to infuse large amounts of capital.
  • As a result of the above causes,credit growth is at a multi-year low of 5.6%

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/a-cycle-of-low-growth-higher-inflation/article35671035.ece

Consider the following statements regarding National Commission for Minorities:

  • It is a statutory body set up in 1
  • It monitors the working of the safeguards provided in the Constitution and also in laws enacted by Parliament and the State Legislatures.
  • It can look into specific complaints regarding deprivation of rights and safeguards of the minorities.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Revaluation of Minority Commission

  • The National Commission for Minorities (NCM) has informed that the erstwhile Minority Commission in its Annual Reports for the period 01.01.1981 to 31.03.1982 and 01.04.1982 to 31.03.1983, had recommended for setting up of a Committee to consider the need for considering and, if necessary, to formulate a scheme to establish a National Integration-cum-Human Rights Commission for promotion of secular traditions and national integration.  

National Commission of Minorities(NCM):

  • National Commission for Minorities (NCM) is a statutory body set up in 1993 under the National Commission for Minorities(NCM) Act, 1992. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • Section 2 of the NCM Act stipulates that ‘Minority’ for the purposes of the Act means a community notified as such by the Central Government.
  • Initially, five religious communities namely Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Zoroastrians(Parsis) were notified as minority communities. In 2014, Jains were also notified as another minority community.
  • Composition:
  • The Commission consists of: Chairperson, Vice- Chairperson, and five Members.
  • Hence, a total of 7 persons are to be nominated by the Central Government from amongst persons of eminence, ability, and integrity.
  • Each Member holds office for a period of three years from the date of assumption of office.
  • Functions of NCM:
  • evaluate the progress of the development of minorities under the Union and States;
  • monitor the working of the safeguards provided in the Constitution and in laws enacted by Parliament and the State Legislatures; Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • make recommendations for the effective implementation of safeguards for the protection of the interests of minorities by the Central Government or the State Governments;
  • look into specific complaints regarding deprivation of rights and safeguards of the minorities; Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • recommend measuresfor the removal of problems arising out of any discrimination against minorities;
  • conduct studies, research, and analysis on the issues relating to the socio-economic and educational development of minorities;
  • suggest appropriate measures in respect of any minority to be undertaken by the Central Government or the State Governments;
  • make periodical or special reports to the Central Government on any matter pertaining to minorities and in particular difficulties confronted by them; and
  • any other matter which may be referred to it by the Central Government.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1741566

Recently, the term Minervarya Pentali is seen in news, is related to

  1. a) a new frog species
  2. b) a freshwater fish species
  3. c) a new butterfly species
  4. d) a new spider species

Answer: (a) a new frog species

Explanation:

In NEWS: DU researchers discover new frog species in Western Ghats

  • Delhi University researchers discovered a new frog species in the Western Ghats and named it after former DU Vice-Chancellor and plant geneticist Deepak Pental.
  • The new frog species, Minervarya Pentali, was discovered from the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, extending along the southwest coast of the Indian Peninsula. It is endemic to the southern Western Ghats. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • The new frog species belongs to the family of Dicroglossidae.
  • The new species was identified based on multiple criteria, such as external morphology, DNA and calling pattern. 
  • This species is also among the smallest known Minervarya frogs

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/du-researchers-discover-new-frog-species-in-western-ghats/article35696317.ece

Consider the following statements regarding Scheme for Promotion of Culture of Science:

  1. It aims to set up Science Cities and Science Centres in all the States of the country.
    1. Archaeological Survey of India is the implementing agency for this scheme.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: NCSM of Culture Ministry has taken up 14 projects for setting up new Science Centres under SPoCS Scheme

  • National Council of Science Museums (NCSM) has developed a chain of science museums and science centers throughout the Country including Science Cities through Scheme for Promotion of Culture of Science

Scheme for Promotion of Culture of Science (SPoCS)

  • The National Council of Science Museums (NCSM) is the implementing agency to set up science cities/centres and Innovation Hubs. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • The State Governments/Union Territories and the Societies / Authorities promoted by the State/UT Govts. for the purpose of Science City/Science Centre/Innovation hubs shall be eligible for financial assistance.
  • It provides for setting up of Science Cities and Science Centres in all the States of the country subject to availability of funds for the purposeHence statement (1) is correct.
  • NCSM of Culture Ministry has developed a chain of science museums and science centers throughout the country including Science Cities
  • 25 Science Museums/Science Centres in the country are currently functional under NCSM.
  • Objectives of Scheme for Promotion of Culture of Science (SPoCS)
  • To portray the growth of science and technology and their application in industry and human welfare, with a view to develop scientific attitude and temper and to create, inculcate and sustain a general awareness amongst the people;
  • To create awareness & enhance public understanding, appreciation & engagement of public in the process of Science & technology:
  • To popularise science and technology for the benefit of students and for the common man of the regionby organising exhibitions, seminars, popular lectures, science camps and various other programmes,
  • To supplement science education given in schools and colleges and to organise various out-of-school educational activitiesto foster a spirit of scientific inquiry and creativity among the students;
  • To design, develop and fabricate science museum exhibits, demonstration equipment and scientific teaching aidsfor science education and popularisation of science;
  • To organise training programmesfor science teachers students/young entrepreneurs/ technicians/physically challenged/housewives and others on specific subjects of science, technology and industry.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1741484

In the context of insolvency and bankruptcy resolution in India, which of the following statements best describes the concept of Waterfall mechanism?

  1. a) It is a fraud detection mechanism adopted by banks to protect customers against forged, altered or counterfeit cheques
  2. b) It is a mechanism by which companies can raise additional capital from existing shareholders
  3. c) It refers to the mechanism where the promoters of the corporates are barred from participating in the insolvency proceedings
  4. d) It refers to the order of priority for repayment to creditors in the event of a liquidation

Answer: (d) It refers to the order of priority for repayment to creditors in the event of a liquidation

Explanation:

In NEWS: Insolvency code has strayed from intent: Parliament panel

  • The Parliament’s Standing Committee on Finance has sought a review of the design and implementation of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) as it has deviated from the original intent and questioned the low recovery rates
  • Delays in resolution, low recovery rates, and rising liquidation cases point to the need to review the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), a parliament panel suggested, arguing that the law has deviated from its aim of offering a quick resolution path to stressed companies.
  • Waterfall Mechanism under IBC
  • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 was enacted for reorganization and insolvency resolution of corporate persons, partnership firms and individuals in a time bound manner for maximization of the value of assets.
  • Section 53 of IBC deals with the waterfall mechanism, which gives priority to secured financial creditors over unsecured financial creditors.
  • The mechanism says that if a company is being liquidated, these secured financial creditors must first be paid the full extent of their admitted claim, before any sale proceedings are distributed to any other unsecured creditor. Hence option (d) is correct.
  • The top most priority, however, is given to costs related to the liquidation process and dues of workmen of the corporate debtor.
  • The dues of the workmen include all their salaries, provident, pension, retirement and gratuity fund, as well as any other funds maintained for the welfare of the workmen.
  • The National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) has ruled that liquidation process of a company under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) holds precedence over outcome of an arbitration proceeding

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/business/insolvency-code-has-strayed-from-intent-parliament-panel/article35709274.ece

Consider the following statements:

  1. Governor of a state can pardon the prisoners even before they have completed a minimum 14 years of prison sentence.
    1. The pardoning power of the Governor is clearly mentioned in the Constitution.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Governors can pardon prisoners, including death row ones: Supreme Court

  • The Supreme Court held that the Governor of a State can pardon prisoners, including death row ones, even before they have served a minimum 14 years of prison sentence
  • Governors can pardon the prisoners even before they have completed a minimum 14 years of prison sentence. Hence statement (1) is correct
  • The Supreme Court also held that, Governor’s power to pardon overrides a provision given under Section 433A of Code of Criminal Procedure mandates that the sentence of a prisoner can be remitted only after 14 years of jail.
  • The Supreme Court observed that, Section 433-A of the Code cannot and does not affect the constitutional power of the President or Governor to grant pardon under Articles 72 or 161 of Constitution.
  • Such power is in exercise of power of the sovereign. However, the Governor will have to act on the aid and advice of the State
  • Sovereign power of the Governor to pardon prisoners under Article 161 is exercised by the State government and not the Governor on his own, in reality.
  • Article 161 of the Indian constitution provides the Governor of a State with power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or to remit punishment or to suspend, remit or commute sentence of any person convicted of any offence against laws. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/governors-can-pardon-prisoners-including-death-row-ones-supreme-court/article35711818.ece

Haldibari-Chilahati rail route connects India with which of the following neighbouring countries?

  1. a) Nepal
  2. b) Bhutan
  3. c) Bangladesh
  4. d) China

Answer: (c) Bangladesh

Explanation:

In NEWS: India, Bangladesh resume freight train operation via Haldibari-Chilahati route

  • Around 20 freight trains are expected through the railway link between India and Bangladesh every month.
  • The Haldibari-Chilahati rail link between India and Bangladesh was operational till 1965, and was part of the Broad Gauge main route from Kolkata to Siliguri during the Partition. Hence option (c) is correct.
  • Situated 12km away from Bangladesh’s Chilahati, the railway station in Haldibari is located 4.5km from the international border, also known as ‘zero point’.
  • Indian Railways officials said five links connecting India with Bangladesh have been made operational, including between Petrapole (India) and Benapole (Bangladesh), Gede (India) and Darshana (Bangladesh), Singhabad (India) and Rohanpur (Bangladesh), Radhikapur (India) and Birol (Bangladesh) apart from Haldibari and Chilahati.
  • The Haldibari-Chilahati rail link between India and Bangladesh (the then East Pakistan) was operational till 1965. This was part of the Broad Gauge main route from Kolkata to Siliguri during the Partition.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-bangladesh-freight-train-operation-haldibari-chilahati-rail-route-101627923929877.html

With reference to Mughal India, what is/are the difference/differences between Jagirdar and Zamindar?

  1. Jagirdars were holders of land assignments in lieu of judicial and police duties, whereas Zamindars were holders of revenue rights without obligation to perform any duty other than revenue collection.
    1. Land assignments to Jagirdars were hereditary and revenue rights of Zamindars were not hereditary.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In Mughal India, Jagirdars under Mansabdari system were assigned land in lieu of assigned duties towards the empire such as police,judicial,military; Zamindars too apart from revenue collecting duties had to render military duties and perform Khidmat such as rendering soldiers to fill the ranks of royal army at times of need and offer gifts at the royal court. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

Jagirdars were frequently transferred as promotion and demotion was a regular part of empire as loyalties towards Emperor were largely dependent on the rank of jagir/mansab held by a Noble; on the other hand, Zamindars had hereditary rights over revenue as their sway over rural society was overarching in all aspects which rested on paternal and patronage application of rituals. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.