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Daily Prelims Test – 04_August

Consider the following statements regarding Galápagos Islands

  • It is an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Atlantic Ocean
  • It is administratively a province of Ecuador.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: Why Ecuador was angered by a Chinese flotilla near its waters

  • Ecuador was on alert as a flotilla of 260 mostly Chinese fishing vessels– what some called a “floating city”– was sighted near the Galapagos archipelago.
  • In 2017, when a Chinese ship did enter Ecuador’s waters, its authorities seized it and discovered 300 tonnes of wildlife on board, mostly the critically endangered scalloped hammerhead sharks – a delicacy in China.
  • The Galapagos Islands, spread over almost 60,000 sq km, are a part of Ecuador, and are located in the Pacific Ocean around 1,000 km away from the South American continent. Hence statement 1 is incorrect and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The islands were formed at the meeting point of three tectonic plates—the Nazca, Cocos, and Pacific and are situated at the crossroads of three major Pacific currents.
  • Ecuador made a part of the Galapagos a wildlife sanctuary in 1935, and the sanctuary became the Galapagos National Park in 1959. In 1978, the islands became UNESCO’s first World Heritage Site.
  • The islands are known for their large number of endemic species such as land iguana, giant tortoise that were studied by Charles Darwin which contributed to the inception of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-ecuador-was-angered-by-a-chinese-flotilla-near-its-waters-6536211/

Consider the following statements regarding Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network (eVIN)

  • It is an innovative technological solution aimed at strengthening immunization supply chain systems across the country.
  • It is being implemented under National Health Mission (NHM) by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network ensures essential immunisation services during Covid-19: Health Ministry

  • The Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network (eVIN) India is helping the State/UT governments monitor the supply chain of COVID response material, as a part of the Government of India’s efforts to combat COVID-19.
  • This strong platform has the potential to be leveraged for any new vaccine including COVID-19 vaccine, as and when available.

About eVIN:

  • eVIN is an innovative technological solutionaimed at strengthening immunization supply chain systems across the country. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • This is beingimplemented under National Health Mission (NHM) by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • eVIN aims to provide real-time information on vaccine stocks and flows, and storage temperatures across all cold chain points in the country. 
  • This robust system has been used with the requisite customization during the COVID pandemic for ensuring continuation of the essential immunization services and protecting children and pregnant mothers against vaccine preventable diseases.
  • eVIN combines state-of-the-art technology, a strong IT infrastructure and trained human resource to enable real time monitoring of stock and storage temperature of the vaccines kept in multiple locations across the country.
  • eVIN has reached 32 States and Union Territories (UTs) and will soon be rolled-out in the remaining States and UTs of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Ladakh and Sikkim. 

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/national/electronic-vaccine-intelligence-network-ensures-essential-immunisation-services-during-covid-19-health-ministry/article32260782.ece

Consider the following statements regarding Shola Forest of India

  • They are found only in South India in the Southern Western Ghats
  • They are evergreen forests with Coniferous vegetation.
  • The shola forests are patches of forests that occur only in the mountains

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 1 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Answer: (b) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Shola-grassland mosaic in danger

  • The cloud forest ecology, known as sholas, grows along the folds and valleys of these mountains. They are old-growth vegetation and harbour several endemic and rare species of flora and fauna. These naturally confined forests are already some of the most endangered forest types because of habitat loss and destruction.
  • The shola-grassland mosaic ecology cannot withstand the tremendously high amounts of rainfall (over 2,400 mm) that occur in significantly short periods (over four days). Worsening climate change is driving the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, resulting in a level of ecosystem collapse, never witnessed before.

About Shola forests

  • Shola forests are tropical Montane forests found in the valleys separated by rolling grasslands only in the higher elevations. They are found only in South India in the Southern Western Ghats. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The shola forests are patches of forests that occur only in the valleys where there is least reach of the fog and mist. Other parts of the mountains are covered in grasslands. Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • The trees never grow on the mountain tops. This is such a unique landscape formation that is native only to the southern Western Ghats
  • The Shola forests are generally said to be found in altitudes above 2000 metres of sea-level. Although they are found from altitudes higher than 1600 metres. Shola forests are a native only to the Southern Western Ghats.
  • They are found only in the high altitude mountains of the states Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu.
  • The Shola forests are very rich in bio-diversity when it comes to plants. There are at least 25 types of trees that dominate these forests in the Nilgiri Hills.
  • As tree species of the montane, evergreen forests are flammable, regeneration of any Shola tree species is completely prevented except for Rhododendron nilagiricum, the only Shola tree that can tolerate fire.Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/peril-in-the-hills-extreme-weather-a-danger-for-nilgiri-ecosystem-72620

Consider the following statements regarding State Election Commissioner

  • He/She is appointed by the Governor
  • His/Her conditions of service and tenure of office shall also be determined by the governor.
  • SEC shall be removed from his office in the same manner & ground as a Judge of a High Court

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Ramesh Kumar takes charge as Andhra SEC

  • Ramesh Kumar took charge as the State Election Commissioner (SEC) at his office here on Monday upon his reappointment by the Governor recently.
  • The go­vernment had issued a G.O. last week for Mr. Kumar’s appointment as the SEC fol­ lowing an intense battle that started with him challeng­ing the A.P. Panchayat Raj (Second Amendment) Ordi­nance. The ordinance was for reducing the tenure of SEC from five to three years, which resulted in the sud­den termination of his ser­ vices in the wake of Mr. Ku­ mar’s decision to postpone the local body elections.

About State Election Commissioner

  • Under 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment acts, State Election Commissions were created for every state to conduct elections to panchayats and municipalities
  • He/Sheis appointed by the Governor. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • His/Her conditions of service and tenure of office shall also be determined by the governor.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • SEC shall be removed from his office in the same manner & ground as a Judge of a High Court. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • A judge of a high court can be removed from his office by the President on the recommendation of the parliament

Source: TH

Consider the following statements with respect to ‘Purchasing Managers’ Index’.

  • It represents the weighted average of top ten Indian manufacturing company stocks.
  • It is published by Japanese firm Nikkei but compiled and constructed by Markit Economics

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Manufacturing contracts for fourth straight month: July PMI

  • India’s manufacturing sector activity contracted at a slightly faster pace in July as demand conditions re­mained subdued amid pro­longed closures
  • The headline seasonally adjusted IHS Markit India Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) stood at 46 in July, down from 47.2 in June.
  • This is the fourth straight month of contraction for the Indian manufacturing sector. In April, the index had slipped into contraction mode, after remaining in growth territory for 32 consecutive months.

About the index

  • PMI or a Purchasing Managers’ Index(PMI) is an indicator of business activity both in the manufacturing and services sectors.Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It is a survey based measure that asks the respondents about changes in their perception of some key business variables from the month before.
  • The headline PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared to the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change.
  • For India, the PMI Data is published by Japanese firm Nikkei but compiled and constructed byMarkit Economics. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: TH

Consider the following statements with respect to draft Defence Production and Export Promotion Policy 2020

  • It aims to provide a focused, structured and significant thrust to defence production capabilities of the country for self-reliance and exports
  • It aims to achieve a turnover of Rs 1.75 Lakh Crores, including export of Rs 35 Thousand Crores in Aerospace and Defence goods and services by 2025.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Govt formulates draft Defence Production and Export Promotion Policy 2020

  • Ministry of Defence (MoD) has formulated a draft Defence Production and Export Promotion Policy 2020 (DPEPP 2020).
  • The DPEPP 2020 is envisaged as overarching guiding document of MoD to provide a focused, structured and significant thrust to defence production capabilities of the country for self-reliance and exports.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The share of domestic procurement in overall defence procurement is about 60% now, and in order to enhance procurement from domestic industry, it is incumbent that procurement is doubled to RS. 1.4 Lakh crores by 2025 – according to DPEPP 2020’s aims.

Aims of the DPEPP 2020 Policy

  • To achieve a turnover of Rs 1.75 Lakh Crores, including export of Rs 35 Thousand Crores in Aerospace and Defence goods and services by 2025.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • To develop a dynamic, robust and competitive Defence industry, including Aerospace and Naval Shipbuilding industry to cater to the needs of Armed forces with quality products.
  • To reduce dependence on imports and take forward “Make in India” initiatives through domestic design and development.
  • To promote export of defence products and become part of the global defence value chains.
  • To create an environment that encourages R&D, rewards innovation, creates Indian IP ownership and promotes a robust and self-reliant defence industry.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=Defence-Ministry-formulates-draft-Defence-Production-%26-Export-Promotion-Policy-2020&id=396428

Consider the following statements with respect to Humboldt Current

  • It is a hot, low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the western coast of South America.
  • It is largely responsible for the aridity of Atacama Desert in northern Chile and coastal areas of Peru.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: Why Ecuador was angered by a Chinese flotilla near its waters

  • Chinese ships frequent Ecuador’s waters this time of the year when the cold Humboldt Current brings in nutrients that lead to a high congregation of marine species.
  • Chinese vessels have also run into trouble with other countries in the region. In 2016, Argentina’s coast guard chased and sank a vessel that it claimed had been illegally fishing in the South Atlantic.

About Humboldt Current

  • The Humboldt Current or Peru Current is a cold, low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the western coast of South America.Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • The Humboldt Current is a highly productive ecosystem.
  • It accounts for roughly 18-20% of the total worldwide marine fish catch.
  • The system’s high productivity supports other important fishery resources as well as marine mammals and seabirds.
  • The Humboldt has a considerable cooling influence on the climate of Chile, Peru and Ecuador.
  • It is also largely responsible for the aridity of Atacama Desert in northern Chile and coastal areas of Peru and also of the aridity of southern Ecuador. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-ecuador-was-angered-by-a-chinese-flotilla-near-its-waters-6536211/

Consider the following statements with respect to Agatti Island:

  • It is situated on a coral atoll in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar.
  • It is located to the west of Kavaratti Island.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:NGT stays felling of coconut trees on Lakshadweep island

  • The Southern bench of the National Green Tribunal (NGT) has granted an interim stay on felling of coconut trees on Agatti Island in Lakshadweep.
  • The tree-felling is also violating the Union Territory’s (UT) Integrated Island Management Plan (IIMP).
  • IIMP was formulated on the basis of a report submitted by the Supreme Court-appointed Expert Committee, headed by Justice R.V. Raveendran.
  • It includes holistic island development plans prepared by the National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management (NCSCM) for implementation by coastal States/ UTs.

About Agatti Island

  • Agatti Island is a 7.6 km long island, situated on a coral atoll called Agatti atoll in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, India.Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • It is at a distance of 459 km from Kochi and is located to the west of Kavaratti Island. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/ngt-stays-felling-of-coconut-trees-on-lakshadweep-island/article32253771.ece

Consider the following statements with respect to Habeas Corpus

  • It can be issued against both public authorities as well as private individuals.
  • This writ is used to enforce the fundamental right of individual liberty against unlawful detention

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Most habeas corpus cases dragged on as court slammed govt on due process

  • Srinagar wing of the Jammu & Kashmir High Court was confronted with an unprecedented situation — a staggering 250-plus habeas corpus petitions challenging detentions under the draconian Public Safety Act
  • The records of cases dealt by the High Court show that 61% of the cases under the habeas corpus were dragged on over 3-4 hearings, which were later either dismissed or settled.
  • However, in 17 cases, the court quashed the detention orders, due to lack of procedure followed by the government while invoking the PSA.

About habeas corpus

  • The Latin meaning of the word ‘Habeas Corpus’ is ‘To have the body of.’ This writ is used to enforce the fundamental right of individual liberty against unlawful detention. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Through Habeas Corpus, Supreme Court/ High Court orders one person who has arrested other person to bring the body of the latter before the court.
  • The writ of habeas corpus can be issued against both public authorities as well as private individuals.Hence statement 1 is correct

Habeas Corpus can’t be issued in the following cases:

  • When detention is lawful
  • When the proceeding is for contempt of a legislature or a court
  • Detention is by a competent court
  • Detention is outside the jurisdiction of the court

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/jammu-kashmir-article-370-habeas-corpus-detention-psa-6538085/

Who among the following Mughal Emperors shifted emphasis from illustrated manuscripts to album and individual portrait?

  • Humayun
  • Akbar
  • Jahangir
  • Shah Jahan

Answer: (c) Jahangir

Explanation:

  • During Akbar’s reign many manuscripts were illustrated, the prominent being Razmnamah, the Persian translation of Mahabharata. It was during Jahangir’s reign that manuscripts became less important and individual portraits became more prominent. Hence option (c) is correct