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Daily Prelims Test – 03_November 2020

.Consider the following statements regarding Daylight Saving Time

It is the practise of resetting clocks ahead by an hour in spring and behind by an hour in autumn

India does not follow daylight saving time

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why countries are in fall back mode as Daylight Saving Time ends

  • Daylight Saving Time fall back: With clocks in the US going back an hour, the time difference between New York and India will increase from the current nine-and-a-half hours to ten-and-a-half hours.
  • Clocks in the US will “fall back” an hour on Sunday, signalling the end of Daylight Saving Time (DST) this year. In Europe, the same happened on October 25.

What is Daylight Saving Time (DST), and why do clocks in some countries “fall back” and “spring forward”?

  • DST is the practice of resetting clocks ahead by an hour in spring, and behind by an hour in autumn (or fall). During these months, countries that follow this system get an extra hour of daylight in the evening. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Because the spring to fall cycle is opposite in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, DST lasts from March to October/November in Europe and the US, and from September/October to April in New Zealand and Australia.

How many countries use DST?

  • DST is in practice in some 70 countries, including those in the European Union. India does not follow daylight saving time; countries near the Equator do not experience high variations in daytime hours between seasons. (There is, however, a separate debate around the logic of sticking with only one time zone in a country as large as India.) Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Most Muslim countries do not use DST — during the holy month of Ramzan, this could mean delaying the breaking of the fast for longer. Morocco has DST, but suspends it during Ramzan. However, Iran has DST, and stays with it even during Ramzan.

What does this system mean to achieve?

  • The rationale behind setting clocks ahead of standard time, usually by 1 hour during springtime, is to ensure that the clocks show a later sunrise and later sunset — in effect a longer evening daytime. Individuals will wake an hour earlier than usual, complete their daily work routines an hour earlier, and have an extra hour of daylight at the end.
  • The key argument is that DST is meant to save energy.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-countries-are-in-fall-back-mode-as-daylight-saving-time-ends-6911624/


Consider the following statements regarding Natal Indian Ambulance Corps

  1. It was created by Mahatma Gandhi for use by the British as stretcher bearers during the World War I
  2. Gandhi was bestowed with the ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ by the British government

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: From the Archives (November 2, 1920): To every Englishman in India

The following appeal of Mr. M.K. Gandhi, published in “Young India”, is a challenge to every Englishman in India:

  • The Natal Indian Ambulance Corps was created by Mahatma Gandhi for use by the British as stretcher bearers during the Second Boer War, with expenses met by the local Indian community. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Gandhi and the corps served at the Battle of Spion Kop.
  • It consisted of 300 free Indians and 800 indentured labourers. Gandhi was bestowed with the ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ and other medals by the British for his work in Boer war. This was given up by Gandhi after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Young India was a weekly paper in English published by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi used Young India to spread his ideology and thoughts.
  • Other publications associated with Gandhi include the ‘Indian Opinion’ and ‘Harijan’.
  • During World War I, the Viceroy of India Lord Chelmsford invited various Indian leaders to attend a War Conference. Gandhi was also invited. He accepted the invitation and attended. Mahatma Gandhi is believed to have played an active recruiting campaign of Indians for the British war efforts.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/archives/from-the-archives-november-2-1920-to-every-englishman-in-india/article32997865.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Kawasaki Disease

  1. It was first described in china
  2. It primarily affects children younger than 5 years of age.
  3. It is an illness that causes inflammation (swelling and redness) in blood vessels throughout the body

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: ICMR D-G is wrong; Kawasaki disease in children post-COVID has been reported in India

  • As schools reopened in India, the discourse has started on how could it lead to a spurt in novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children (0-18 years). And, in the recovery phase of the disease, less than 1 per cent in the world over have shown to be affected by either Kawasaki Disease (KD) or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)

About Kawasaki disease

  • Kawasaki disease is an illness that causes inflammation (swelling and redness) in blood vessels throughout the body. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • The disease was first described in Japan by Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1967Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Kawasaki typically affects children aged under five. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Its symptoms include red eyes, rashes, and a swollen tongue with reddened lips — often termed strawberry tongue — and an inflamed blood vessel system all over the body.
  • It affects many organ systems, mainly the blood vessels, skin, mucous membranes and lymph nodes
  • Causes of the disease is not yet known. It is an immunological reaction to an infection or a virus.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/icmr-d-g-is-wrong-kawasaki-disease-in-children-post-covid-has-been-reported-in-india-74050


Consider the following statements

  1. Cytokines are produced in the body in response to an infection to fight against the virus.
  2. Cytokine storm refers to the immune system becoming hyperactive and uncontrollable, resulting in excess cytokines, T-cells and antibodies.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ICMR D-G is wrong; Kawasaki disease in children post-COVID has been reported in India

  • Kawasaki Disease (KD) or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) are the results of a ‘cytokine storm’ in children, usually after one month of recovery from COVID-19. Cytokines are produced in the body in response to an infection to fight against the virus. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • But if they become a ‘storm’, they start destroying body tissues along with killing the virus. If the storm affects all the major systems including kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, heart, etc, it is referred to as ‘multisystem syndrome’.
  • If it attacks blood carrying vessels, it results in KD
  • Cytokine storm refers to the immune system becoming hyperactive and uncontrollable, resulting in excess cytokines, T-cells and antibodies. Instead of killing the virus, it kills humans. Hence statement 2 is correct

What is a multi-system inflammatory state?

  • It’s a severe immune response that can affect the body in multiple ways, most importantly by making the blood vessels leaky, a condition called Kawasaki disease.
  • This leads to low blood pressure and a build-up of fluid in the lungs and organs.
  • It is extremely serious. Patients need urgent intensive care to support the heart, lungs and sometimes other organs such as the kidneys.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/icmr-d-g-is-wrong-kawasaki-disease-in-children-post-covid-has-been-reported-in-india-74050


Consider the following statements regarding Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy(CTE)

  1. It is a disease that causes severe damage to the brain because of repeated head injuries and is linked to memory loss, depression and dementia.
  2. There have been instances of CTE in many contact sports like pro wrestling, rugby, baseball, etc.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why headers in football are coming under scrutiny after Charlton’s dementia diagnosis

  • Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a disease that causes severe damage to the brain because of repeated head injuries and is linked to memory loss, depression and dementia. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Dementia is a general term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving and other thinking abilities that are severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia.
  • Former boxers are most commonly diagnosed with it, however, there have been instances of CTE in many other contact sports like pro wrestling, mixed martial arts, ice hockey, rugby, baseball, Australian rules football and, of course, football. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It was reported that England World Cup winner Bobby Charlton, regarded as England’s greatest, had developed dementia leading to questions that can striking headers in football lead to dementia?

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/football-dementia-bobby-charlton-6916242/


Consider the following statements regarding National Film Archive of India (NFAI)

  1. It is a media unit of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
  2. It aims to trace, acquire and preserve for posterity the heritage of Indian cinema to classify, document data and undertake research relating to films..

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NFAI and FFSI Conducts Online Film Appreciation Course in Marathi Course to be held online from November 1 to November 7

  • National Film Archive of India is a media unit of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • To trace, acquire and preserve for posterity the heritage of Indian cinema; to classify, document data and undertake research relating to films; to act as a centre for the dissemination of film culture.Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • National Film Archive of India is organising 15th edition of Film Appreciation Course in Marathi along with Federation of Film Society of India (FFSI). The course is to be held online for the first time from November 1 to November 7, owing to the COVID Pandemic.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1669473


His birth name was Jetha. He was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. He appointed his own son as his successor, and unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent. He is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Which of the following Sikh Guru mentioned above?

a) Guru Ramdas

b) Guru Arjun Dev

c) GuruNanak

d) Guru Angad

Answer: (a) Guru Ramdas

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi greets people on ‘Parkash Purab’ of Guru Ramdas

  • Guru Ram Das (1534 – 1581) was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. His birth name was Jetha. Guru Ram Das became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574 and served as the Sikh leader until his death in 1581.
  • He appointed his own son as his successor, and unlike the first four Gurus who were not related through descent, the fifth through tenth Sikh Gurus were the direct descendants of Ram Das.
  • Guru Ram Das is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. He shifted his official base to lands identified by Guru Amar Das as Guru-ka-Chak. This newly founded town was eponymous Ramdaspur, later to evolve and get renamed as Amritsar. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  • While Guru Amar Das introduced the manji system of religious organization, Ram Das extended it with adding the masand institution. The masand were Sikh community leaders who lived far from the Guru, but acted to lead the distant congregations, their mutual interactions and collect revenue for Sikh activities and temple building.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/pm-modi-greets-people-on-parkash-purab-of-guru-ramdas/articleshow/78997962.cms


Mansar Lake is situated in which of the following states?

a) Jammu and Kashmir

b) Rajasthan

c) Sikkim

d) Arunachal Pradesh

Answer: (a) Jammu and Kashmir

Explanation:

In NEWS: Mansar Lake project will attract 20 lakh tourists every year: Jitendar Singh

  • In a move to increase tourism, Jitendra Singh, Union Minister of Development of North Eastern Region, inaugurated the Mansar Lake Development Plan in Jammu and Kashmir. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  • The project is eyed to attract almost 20 lakh tourists every year and create employment for 1.15 crore man-days with an income generation of ₹800 crore per year.
  • Mansar Lake is situated 62 km from Jammu. It is a lake fringed by forest-covered hills, over a mile in length. Surinsar-Mansar Lakes are designated as Ramsar Convention in November 2005.
  • Mansar is of immense importance from Pilgrimage as well Heritage point of view beyond being the most scenic attraction due to vast Mansar Lake and its flora and fauna.

Source: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/mansar-lake-project-will-attract-20-lakh-tourists-every-year-jitender-singh-11604238518065.html


With reference to ‘inventory grains’, consider the following statements

  1. Inventory gains are registered from an appreciation in the value of inventory held by a company.
  2. In the case of oil marketing companies, inventory gains can be caused by an appreciation in the price of crude classified as refining inventory gains or an appreciation in the price of products such as petrol and diesel classified as marketing inventory gains.
  3. Refining inventory gains are a result of an appreciation in the price of crude oil in the company’s inventory.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In News: Why inventory gains are helping oil companies

Both Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL) and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL) have reported strong financial results in the second quarter of this fiscal despite lower operating revenues.

  • The key item driving profits for both companies in the quarter were “inventory gains”.
  • Inventory gains are registered from an appreciation in the value of inventory held by a company. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • In the case of oil marketing companies, inventory gains can be caused by an appreciation in the price of crude classified as refining inventory gains or an appreciation in the price of products such as petrol and diesel classified as marketing inventory gains. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Refining inventory gains are a result of an appreciation in the price of crude oil in the company’s inventory. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-inventory-gains-are-helping-bharat-petroleum-indian-oil-corporation-6912164/


Regarding Wood’s Dispatch, which of the following statements are true?

  1. Grants-in-Aid system was introduced.
  2. Establishment of universities was recommended.
  3. English as a medium of instruction at all levels of education was recommended.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In 1854, Charles Wood prepared a despatch on an educational system for India. Considered the “Magna Carta of English Education in. India”, this document was the first comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India.

  • It asked the Government of India to assume responsibility for education of the masses, thus repudiating the ‘downward filtration theory’, at least on paper.
  • It systematised the hierarchy from vernacular primary schools in villages at bottom, followed by Anglo -Vernacular High Schools and an affiliated college at the district level, and affiliating universities in the presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
  • Statement 3 is not correc 3. It recommended English as the medium of instruction for higher studies and vernaculars at school level.
  • It laid stress on female and vocational, education, and on teachers’ training.
  • It laid down that the education imparted in government institutions should be secular. Statement 1 is correct.
  • It recommended a system of grants – in -aid to encourage private enterprise.
  • Statement 2 is correct. The Despatch recommended the establishment of universities in the three Presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.