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Daily Prelims Test – 03_July

1.Consider the following statements with respect to Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act(UAPA),2019

  • The act empowers the government to designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it commits or participates in acts of terrorism
  • The act empowers the officers of the National Investigation Agency, of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate cases.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:India designates nine individuals linked to Khalistani groups as terrorists

  • Union Home Minister Amit Shah declared nine individuals linked to separatist Khalistani organisations, including four based in Pakistan, as designated terrorists under provisions of the UAPA Act.
  • The central government had amended the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 in August 2019, to include the provision of designating an individual as a terrorist.
         UAPA 1967 Act        UAPA 2019 Act
Who may commit terrorism:Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it: (i) commits or participates in acts of terrorism, (ii) prepares for terrorism, (iii) promotes terrorism, or (iv) is otherwise involved in terrorism.The act additionally empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorists on the same grounds.Hence, statement 1 is incorrect  
Approval for seizure of property by :Under the Act, an investigating officer is required to obtain the prior approval of the Director General of Police to seize properties that may be connected with terrorism.The act empowers the Director-General, National Investigation Agency (NIA) to grant approval of seizure or attachment of property when the case is being investigated by the agency
Investigation done by :Under the Act, investigation of cases may be conducted by officers of the rank of Deputy Superintendent or Assistant Commissioner of Police or above.The act additionally empowers the officers of the NIA, of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate cases.Hence, statement 2 is correct  
Insertion to schedule of treaties:The act defines terrorist acts to include acts committed within the scope of any of the treaties listed in a schedule to the Act. The Schedule lists nine treatiesThe act added the International Convention for Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005) to the Schedule

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-designates-nine-individuals-linked-to-khalistani-groups-as-terrorists/article31964834.ece

2.Van Gujjar Community some times in news, are belonged to which of the following region in india?

  • Western ghats
  • Eastern Ghats
  • Aravalli Range
  • Foothills of Himalayan region

Answer: (d) Foothills of Himalayan region

Explanation:

In NEWS:Uttarakhand Van Gujjars allege forest officials assaulted women; probe underway

  • People belonging to the Van Gujjar community in Uttrakhand’s Rajaji National Park area have alleged at least six officials from the state forest department tried to demolished their deras(makeshift huts)
  • Van Gujjars are nomadic buffalo-herders inhabiting the foothills of Himalayan states like Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
  • They are deep dependent on wild habitats in India and for them, transhumance (the practice of moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle) has been a way of life for centuries.
  • The idea of home for Van Gujjars has been made precariously tentative because they are repeatedly displaced off their lands and livelihoods.
  • The forests that fall in the boundaries and buffers of the Corbett and Rajaji Tiger Reserves have been the winter grazing grounds for the buffalo-rearing Gujjars for a hundred years.
  • But once the parks were notified and the area under the tiger reserves kept being enlarged, the spaces for the pastoralists have been shrinking.

About Rajaji National Park

  • It is an Indian national park and tiger reserve that encompasses the Shivaliks, near the foothills of the Himalayas.
  • The park is spread over 820 km2 and three districts of Uttarakhand: Haridwar, Dehradun and Pauri Garhwal.
  • Rajaji was declared as a tiger reserve in 15 April 2015.

Source:https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/forests/uttarakhand-van-gujjars-allege-forest-officials-assaulted-women-probe-underway-72036

3.Consider the following statements with respect to e­SANCHIT

It has launched by the Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs

It is mainly for paperless processing, uploading of supporting documents and to facilitate the trading across borders

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Making trade more digitised

  • India’s exports in April 2020 contracted by 60% year-on-year. There was a 37% fall in the twenty-foot equivalent units handled by the Jawaharlal Nehru Port in April 2020 as compared to April 2019.
  • The steep decline in world trade lays bare the significance of a more digitised trading environment, with minimal manual touch points.
  • Globally, digitisation of procedures and lower human intervention are the two major pillars that drive trade across borders.
  • The Port Community System was aimed at seamlessly integrating all maritime trade-related stakeholders on a single platform. And e-SANCHIT (e-Storage and computerised handling of indirect tax documents) was aimed at reducing human intervention.

About e­SANCHIT

  • e­SANCHIT (e-Storage and Computerized Handling of Indirect Tax documents).
  • E-Sanchit was launched by the Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs (CBIC)for paperless processing, uploading of supporting documents and to facilitate the trading across Borders.Hence, statements1 and 2 are correct
  • It has already been made available to importers and exporters in the country and as a next step; CBIC is extending this facility to PGA (Participating Government Agencies).
  • This will enable PGAs to provide necessary clearances, in the form of certificates, through the document upload facility to the beneficiaries.
  • Only ICEGATE registered users (Individual taxpayers and PGA’s) can use eSanchit applications by accessing the eSanchit link.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/making-trade-more-digitised/article31956538.ece

‘4.Clarion-Clipperton Zone’ is located in

Arctic ocean

Indian ocean

Pacific ocean

Atlantic ocean

Answer: (c) Pacific ocean

Explanation:

In NEWS:Four New Species and Two Genera Discovered Settling Deep in the ‘Gold Mine’ Pacific Ocean

  • Now, scientists add four new species and genera of xenophyophores to the list of other species discovered along the CCZ abyss.
  • sphaerica takes on a spherical shape while A. foliformis embodies a flatter, leaf-like shape.
  • The other new genus identified, Moanammina, took its name from Moana, meaning ‘ocean’ in Hawaiian, Maori, and other Polynesian languages.
  • Moanammina semicircularis has a stalked, fan-shaped test, while another new species, Psammina tenuis, belonging to the genus Psammina, has a delicate, thin, plate-like test.

What are Xenophyophores?

  • Xenophyophores are a clade of giant, single-celled protozoans. They are part of the class foraminifera.
  • The protozoans are one of the most prevalent types of large life-forms found along the CCZ abyssal expanse.
  • Xenophyophores have shells made up of tiny particles glued together. These shells are called tests

About Clarion-Clipperton Zone  

  • The Clipperton Fracture Zone, also known as the Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a geological submarine fracture zone of the Pacific Ocean, with a length of around 4500 miles (7240 km). Hence option (c) is correct
  • The fracture, an unusually mountainous topographical feature, begins east-northeast of the Line Islands and ends in the Middle America Trench off the coast of Central America
  • In 2016, the seafloor in the Clipperton Fracture Zone – an area being targeted for deep-sea mining – was found to contain an abundance and diversity of life, with more than half of the species collected being new to science.
  • The region is considered a “gold mine” for treasured metals and rare earth minerals deposited in polymetallic nodules found along the ocean floor.
  • The zone is sometimes referred to as the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ), with reference to Clarion Island at the northern edge of the zone.
Picture5-Jul-07-2020-08-38-51-36-AM

Sourcehttps://www.sciencetimes.com/articles/26287/20200701/four-new-species-two-genera-discovered-settling-deep-gold-mine-pacific-ocean.htm

5.Consider the following statements with reference to the Section 69A of Information Technology Act, 2000

  • This section empowers the central government to block any online content or public access of any information without specific grounds
  • Recently, the Indian government has banned many Chinese apps under this section

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:How not to tame the digital dragon

  • Earlier this week, on June 29, a dramatic press release was issued by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITY) directing a ban on 59 apps.
  • The central government has banned 59 mainly Chinese mobile applications such as Tik-Tok and WeChat, invoking its powers under section 69A of the Information Technology Act of 2000.Hence, statement 2 is correct
  • The apps have been blocked under the provisions of the Information Technology (Procedure and Safeguards for Blocking of Access of Information by Public) Rules of 2009.
  • Section 69A of the IT Act, empowers the Central Government to order that access to certain websites and computer resources) be blocked in the interestof the defense of the country, its sovereignty and integrity, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order or for preventing incitement to the commission of an offence.Hence, statement 1 is incorrect
  • Section 69A of the Information Technology Act,2000 empowers the central government to block the online content and arrest the culprit.
  • This provision has been relied on by government agencies in the past to take down online content.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/how-not-to-tame-the-digital-dragon/article31966409.ece

6.Consider the following statements with reference to Convalescent plasma therapy

  • This therapy seeks to make use of the antibodies developed in the recovered patient against the coronavirus.
  • The first plasma bank in the country is being developed in Mumbai
  • It is at as active antibody therapy

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 1 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Covid-19: Delhi CM Arvind Kejriwal inaugurates India’s first convalescent plasma bank

Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal inaugurated India’s first convalescent plasma bank for coronavirus disease (Covid-19) patients at the Vasant Kunj-based Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS).Hence, statement 2 is incorrect

About Convalescent plasma therapy

  • Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy is not a new therapy and banks on the age-old concept of passive immunity.
  • Convalescent plasma therapy involves transfusing certain components from the blood of people who have had the COVID-19 virus and recovered into people who are very sick with the virus or people who are at high risk of getting the virus.Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • Convalescent plasma is also known as passive antibody therapy, meaning that while it can immediately provide a person with antibodies to fight avirus, those antibodies only last a short period of time in the recipient’s body.Hence, statement 3 is incorrect
  • A study in The Lancet Infectious Diseases stated that a Covid patient usually develops primary immunity against the virus in 10-14 days.
  • Therefore, if the plasma is injected at an early stage, it can possibly help fight the virus and prevent severe illness.

How its work:

Picture6-Jul-07-2020-08-38-52-95-AM

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/covid-19-delhi-cm-arvind-kejriwal-inaugurates-india-s-first-convalescent-plasma-bank/story-WvGImjm5f4FLHP412cDaCN.html

7.Consider the following statements with reference to the Indian Boilers Act, 1923

Under this act, Boiler is any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 litres in capacity which is used expressly for generating steam under pressure

Under this act, Indian Boilers Regulation-1950 has been framed deals with the procedure & inspection techniques to be adopted for the manufacture of boilers & boiler mountings.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Lax on safety: On Neyveli and Vizag disasters

  • Second Fatal Boiler Blast In Two Months At Plant In Tamil Nadu.
  • The blast took place at a power plant of the central government-owned NLC India Limited (formerly known as Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited) in Cuddalore, about 180 km from the state capital Chennai.
  • This once again underscores the value of safety protocols, particularly the Indian Boilers Act.

About the Indian Boilers Act, 1923:

The Indian Boilers Act-1923:

  • The Indian Boilers Act-1923 was enacted with the objective to provide mainly for the safety of life and Property of persons from the danger of explosions of steam boilers and for achieving uniformity in registration and inspection during operation and maintenance of boilers in India.
  • Accident means an explosion of a boiler or steam- pipe or any damage to a boiler or steam- pipe which is calculated to weaken the strength thereof to render it liable to explode

Salient features:

  • Under Section2(b) of the Act, Boiler is any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 liters in capacity which is used expressly for generating steam under pressureand includes any mounting or other fitting attached to such vessel, which is wholly or partly under pressure when is shut off. Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • Every boiler owner is required to make an application to the Chief Inspector of Boilers for the inspection of the boiler along with the treasury challan of the requisite fees as per requirements of Indian Boilers Act-1923.
  • Under Indian Boilers Act-1923 Indian Boilers Regulation-1950 has been framed. This Regulation deals with the materials, procedure & inspection techniques to be adopted for the manufacture of boilers & boiler mountings & fittinHence, statement 2 is correct
  • The boiler is inspected by the Inspectorate as per the procedure laid under IBR -1950 and if found satisfactory, a Certificate is issued for operation for a maximum period of 12 months.
  • The boilers which are not found satisfactory during the inspection are repaired as per the procedure laid under Indian Boilers Regulation-1950 & are re-inspected as explained above.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/lax-on-safety-the-hindu-editorial-on-nevveli-and-vizag-industrial-disasters/article31965538.ece

8.Consider the following statements with reference to the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

It is an intergovernmental organization located at Hague in the Netherlands.

India is a party of the PCA

It is a court which provides services of an arbitral tribunal to resolve disputes that arise out of international agreements between member states, international organizations or private parties

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:India loses jurisdiction over Italian marines case

  • The Government of India said it was studying an inter­ national tribunal’s ruling that the Italian marines ac­cused of killing two fisher­ men in the waters off the Kerala coast on February 15, 2012, held “immunity” and would face a trial in Italy, not India
  • In its submissions, India had called on the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) UNCLOS tribunal to “ad­ judge and declare that it [PCA] has no jurisdiction with respect to the case sub­ mitted to it by Italy

About Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

  • The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is not a court, but rather an organizer of arbitral tribunals to resolve conflicts between memberstates, international organizations, or private parties. Hence, statement 3 is incorrect
  • It is an intergovernmental organization established by a treaty at the First Hague Peace Conference, Netherland in 1899. Hence, statement 1 is correct
  • It seeks to facilitate arbitration and other forms of dispute resolution involving various combinations of states, state entities, international organizations and private parties.
  • The cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment, and international and regional trade.
  • It also administers cases under the arbitration rules of the UNCITRAL.
  • Parties to the Convention on the Pacific Settlement of disputes of 1899 (71 member states) and 1907 (101 member states) are automatically parties to the PCA.
  • As 51 are parties to both conventions, the PCA has 121 member states: 119 members of the United Nations, as well as Kosovo and Palestine.
  • India is a party of the PCA according to the Hague Convention of 1899.Hence, statement 2 is correct
  • The organization is not a United Nations agency. But the PCA is  an official United Nations Observer.

Source: TH

9.‘Okavango Delta’ which was in news recently is associated with

South Sudan

Botswana

Zimbabwe

South Africa

Answer: (b) Botswana

Explanation:

In NEWS:Over 350 elephants found dead in Botswana

  • Mystery shrouds deaths as experts rule out anthrax, deny possibility of poaching as tusks are intact
  • Over 350 elephants have died in the southern African country of Botswanasince May, leaving conservationists puzzled. Botswana is home to one-third of the continent’s elephant population.Hence option (b) is correct
  • The landlocked southern African country has the world’s largest elephant pop­ulation, estimated to be around 130,000
  • We have had a report of 356 dead elephants in the area north of the Okavango Delta and we have confirmed 275 so far
  • Similar deaths were first re­ ported in May when authori­ties found 12 carcasses in just a week in two villages in the northwest of the country.
  • The latest discoveries were flagged by a wildlife conservation charity, Ele­phants Without Borders (EWB), whose confidential report referring to the 356 dead elephants

Source: TH

10.The Ninth Schedule was introduced in the Constitution of India during the prime ministership of

(a) Jawaharlal Nehru

(b) Lal Bahadur Shastri

(c) Indira Gandhi

(d) Morarji Desai

Answer: (a) Jawaharlal Nehru

Explanation:

  • In the aftermath of Kameshwar Singh V State of Bihar judgment, the Government got apprehensive that the whole agrarian reform programmes would be endangered. To ensure that agrarian reform legislation did not run into heavy weather, the legislature amended the Constitution in the year 1951 under the Prime ministership of Jawahar Lal Nehru which inserted Ninth Schedule. Hence option (a) is correct