1. Consider the following statements:

1) Irrawaddy dolphins fall under Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

2) The Irrawaddy dolphin is mentioned in the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species.

3) At present, the Irrawaddy dolphins are only found in Chilika lake and Indonesia in Asia.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2 only

c)  1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only


In NEWS: Irrawaddy dolphin found dead in Chilika

●        A six-foot-long Irrawaddy dolphin, an endangered species, was found dead in Odisha’s Chilika Lake The carcass, enmeshed in a fishing net, was discovered by locals near Kumarpur village within Rambha range in Chilika Lake.

●        The dolphin might have died after being trapped in an illegal mosquito or fish net.

About Irrawaddy dolphin

●        The Irrawaddy dolphin is a euryhaline species of oceanic dolphin found in discontinuous subpopulations near sea coasts and in estuaries and rivers in parts of the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia.

●        They are also found in coastal areas in South and Southeast Asia, and in three rivers: the Ayeyarwady (Myanmar), the Mahakam (Indonesian Borneo) and the Mekong.

●        The total population of these aquatic mammals in the world is estimated to be less than 7,500.

●        Of these, more than 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins have been reported from Bangladesh, while the dolphin distribution in Chilika is considered to be the highest single lagoon population.

●        Irrawaddy dolphins fall under Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and are mentioned in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Endangered Species. Hence statements (1) and (2) are correct.

●        At present, the Irrawaddy dolphins are only found between Chilika and Indonesia in Asia. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/irrawaddy-dolphin-found-dead-in-chilika-78777

2. Consider the following statements regarding WHITRAP:

1) It is a non-profit organization specialized in the area of heritage conservation.

2) It is an institute under the auspices of UNESCO.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: World Heritage Education recognises CEPT varsity’s programme

●        The programme, along with other commended cases, was presented to the World Heritage Committee and was recognised for its focus on sustainability, people-centered approach, and innovative reforms in heritage conservation.

●        THE World Heritage Institute of Training and Research – Asia Pacific (WHITRAP) has recognised CEPT University’s Programme in Conservation and Regeneration as a “commended case”.

●        As an organisation under the auspices of the World Heritage Centre, UNESCO, WHITRAP had announced a Global Call for Innovative Studies on Heritage Education to select best practices in World Heritage Education and encourage future cooperation for sustainable development of heritage sites.


●        It is a non-profit organization specialized in the area of heritage conservation. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        It is an institute under the auspices of UNESCO, it is the first one established in developing countries. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        It is an autonomous institution at the service of member states and associate members of UNESCO.

●        It was established in 2007 and is located in China.

●        It provides services to States Parties to the 1972 World Heritage Convention in the Asia-Pacific region.


●        Increasing the balanced representation and distribution of Asia-Pacific properties on the World Heritage List.

●        Promoting better protection and management of the World Heritage properties in the Asia and the Pacific region.

●        Raising awareness of the World Heritage conservation among the general public.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/ahmedabad/world-heritage-education-recognises-cept-varsitys-programme-7481226/lite/

3. Consider the following statements:

1) A United Nations Security Council resolution is adopted by the five permanent members of the Security Council.

2) United Nations Resolutions are legally binding.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only


In NEWS: UNSC resolution addresses ‘key concerns’ on Afghanistan: India

●        United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 2593 called on the Taliban to keep their commitments on preventing terror groups in Afghanistan and urged them to assist the safe evacuations of all Afghan nationals wishing to leave the country.

●        The resolution demands that Afghan territory should not be used to threaten or attack any country or to shelter and train terrorists and plan or finance terrorist attacks.

●        Despite the abstention of two “P5” countries — Russia and China — from the India-led United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 2593, the Government of India said it was a “matter of satisfaction” that the resolution addressed India’s “key concerns” on Afghanistan.

UNSC resolution:

●        United Nations resolutions are formal expressions of the opinion or will of United Nations organs.

●        A United Nations Security Council resolution is a United Nations resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council (UNSC). Hence statement (1) is incorrect.

●        The UN Charter specifies (in Article 27) that a draft resolution on non-procedural matters is adopted if nine or more of the fifteen Council members vote for the resolution, and if it is not vetoed by any of the five permanent members.

●        Draft resolutions on “procedural matters” can be adopted on the basis of an affirmative vote by any nine Council members.

●        The term “resolution” does not appear in the text of the United Nations Charter.

●        Resolutions by the Security Council are legally bindingHence statement (2) is correct.

●        If the council cannot reach consensus or a passing vote on a resolution, they may choose to produce a non-binding presidential statement instead of a Resolution. These are adopted by consensus. They are meant to apply political pressure—a warning that the Council is paying attention and further action may follow.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/unsc-resolution-on-taliban-serves-indias-interest/article36198479.ece

4. Consider the following statements:

1) GVA gives a picture of the state of economic activity from the producers’ side.

2) In comparing GDP, GVA is a better measure for the economic welfare of the population.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: Q1 growth rate 20.1%, real GDP still below pre-Covid level

●        The first quarter’s high growth rate, however, has come despite a brutal second wave of the pandemic which peaked in April-May.

●        GVA — which is GDP minus net product taxes, and reflects growth in supply — grew 18.8 per cent in April-June as against a contraction of 22.4 per cent in the previous year. GDP in nominal terms, which factors in inflation, grew by 31.7 per cent in April-June as against the 22.3% contraction last year.


●        In economics, gross value added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy.

●        Gross value added is the value of output minus the value of intermediate consumption;

●        It is a measure of the contribution to GDP made by an individual producer, industry or sector. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        GVA is a very important measure, because it is used to determine gross domestic product (GDP).

●        In comparing GVA and GDP, we can say that GVA is a better measure for the economic welfare of the population, because it includes all primary incomes. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        GVA is sector specific, and GDP is calculated by summation of GVA of all sectors of the economy with taxes added and subsidies deducted.

●        While GVA gives a picture of the state of economic activity from the producers’ side or supply side, the GDP gives the picture from the consumers’ side or demand perspective.

●        Both measures need not match because of the difference in treatment of net taxes.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/economy/india-q1-april-june-gdp-live-updates-gross-domestic-product-data-7479976/

5. Which of the following statements are correct regarding the V-shaped recovery?

a)  In this, incomes and jobs are not permanently lost and the economic growth recovers sharply

b) It is the most-optimistic scenario in which the economy quickly rises after an economic crash.

c)  Both (a) and (b) statements are the correct

d) Neither (a) nor (b)

Answer: (a) In this, incomes and jobs are not permanently lost and the economic growth recovers sharply


In NEWS: Chief economic adviser says structural reforms set India for robust growth

Briefing media on the growth number, he said the GDP data for the first quarter reaffirms the government’s prediction of an imminent V-shaped recovery made last year.

Economic recovery can take many forms, which is depicted using alphabetic notations. For example, a Z-shaped recovery, V-shaped recovery, U-shaped recovery, elongated U-shaped recovery, W-shaped recovery, L-shaped recovery and K-shaped recovery.

K-Shaped Recovery:

●        A K-shaped recovery occurs when, following a recession, different parts of the economy recover at different rates, times, or magnitudes.

●        This is in contrast to an even, uniform recovery across sectors, industries, or groups of people.

●        A K-shaped recovery leads to changes in the structure of the economy or the broader society as economic outcomes and relations are fundamentally changed before and after the recession.

Z-shaped recovery:

●        It is the most-optimistic scenario in which the economy quickly rises after an economic crash.

●        In this economic disruption lasts for a small period wherein more than people’s incomes, it is their ability to spend is restricted.

V-shaped recovery:

●        It is the next-best scenario after Z-shaped recovery in which the economy quickly recoups lost ground and gets back to the normal growth trend-line.

●        In this, incomes and jobs are not permanently lost, and the economic growth recovers sharply and returns to the path it was following before the disruption. Hence option (a) is correct

U-shaped recovery: It is a scenario in which the economy, after falling, struggles around a low growth rate for some time, before rising gradually to usual levels.

●        In this case several jobs are lost and people fall upon their savings.

●        If this process is more-long drawn than it throws up the “elongated U” shape.

W-shaped recovery: A W-shaped recovery is a dangerous creature. In this, growth falls and rises, but falls again before recovering, thus forming a W-like chart.

●        The double-dip depicted by a W-shaped recovery can be due to the second wave of the pandemic.

L-shaped recovery: In this, the economy fails to regain the level of GDP even after years go by.

●        The shape shows that there is a permanent loss to the economy’s ability to produce.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/business/chief-economic-adviser-says-structural-reforms-set-india-for-robust-growth-gdp-india-growth-101630428876493-amp.html

6. Meghalaya Community-Led Landscape Management Project is being supported by the:

a)  World Bank

b) United Nations Development Programme

c)  South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation


Answer: (a) World Bank


In NEWS: Managing natural resources

●        Just about 50 km from Meghalaya’s capital Shillong is Umdohbyrthih village. It was once known for its rocky terrains, streams, springs and verdant valleys.

●        A project in Meghalaya empowers communities to take informed action pertaining to their environment.

●        Meghalaya is a state with almost 70% of the geographical area under forest cover. However, around 40% of this forest cover has degraded into open forests and shrubs. 

●        There are many reasons for the widespread land degradation. Several of them are deforestation, mining and shifting agriculture (Jhum Cultivation).

●        Hence, to manage the natural resources effectively, the Government of Meghalaya is implementing the MCLLMP Project.

Meghalaya Community-Led Landscape Management Project(MCLLMP):

●        MCLLMP is a unique project of the Government of Meghalaya. The project is being supported by the World Bank. Duration of the Project: 2018-2023 (5 years). Hence option (a) is correct.


To leverage on the strength of the community to develop a sustainable Natural Resource Management system that will lead to

●        The restoration of the degraded landscape of the state,

●        Build climate resilience and generate opportunities for livelihoods.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/managing-natural-resources/article36211512.ece

7. Consider the following statements:

1) Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency is aimed at lowering fuel consumption of vehicles by lowering carbon dioxide emissions.

2) The norms are applicable for petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG passenger vehicles.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: Explained | Why does auto industry want to shift into lower gear on new emissions, safety norms

●        Under the shadow of COVID-19 and uncertainty over sales, India’s automotive sector has been protesting that scheduled implementation of higher standards of emissions and fuel efficiency next year, and enhanced vehicle safety goals, are deeply affecting the prospects of the industry.

●        Fuel efficiency norms have a bearing on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which are now under scrutiny to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement on climate change

●        The car industry must comply with the Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) standards, which represents the emissions profile of the models sold by a company, and was first introduced in 2017.

●        CAFE regulations assume importance in the light of their ability to reduce the carbon footprint of the auto industry.

●        The National Auto Policy (draft) put out in early 2018 calls for developing a roadmap for reduction in CO2 emissions through CAFE regulations.

●        It calls for defining corporate average CO2 gm per km targets for all passenger vehicle manufacturers from 2020 and aspires to match Indian CO2 reduction targets to those set by developed countries by 2025.

●        The Auto Policy also contemplates economic penalties for manufacturers who do not meet corporate average targets and envisages a system where credits under the scheme (for achieving better than mandated fuel efficiency) can be banked and traded.

What are Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) standards?

●        CAFE or Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency/Economy regulations are in force in many advanced as well as developing nations, including India.

●        They aim at lowering fuel consumption (or improving fuel efficiency) of vehicles by lowering carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, thus serving the twin purposes of reducing dependence on oil for fuel and controlling pollution. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        Corporate Average refers to sales-volume weighted average for every auto manufacturer.

●        The norms are applicable for petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG passenger vehiclesHence statement (2) is correct.

●        CAFE regulations in India came into force from April 1, 2017. Under this, average corporate CO2 emission must be less than 130 gm per km till 2022 and below 113 gm per km thereafter.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/explained-why-does-auto-industry-want-to-shift-into-lower-gear-on-new-emissions-safety-norms/article36118750.ece

8. With respect to Naval Anti Drone System, consider the following statements:

1) It has been developed by DRDO and manufactured by BEL.

2) It is the first indigenously developed anti-drone system that will be inducted into the Indian Armed Forces.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: Indian Navy seals contract with BEL to procure naval anti-drone system

●        The Indian Navy on Tuesday sealed a contract with defence PSU Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) for the supply of the first indigenously developed Naval Anti Drone System (NADS)

●        The NADS comprises both ‘hard kill’ and ‘soft kill’ capabilities.

●        Contract was signed in the presence of representatives from Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and senior Naval officers in New Delhi on August 31, 2021.

●        Indian Navy has also provided consistent support and led in the joint development of anti-drone system with DRDO and BEL.

Naval Anti Drone System (NADS):

●        The NADS has been developed by DRDO and manufactured by BEL. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        It is the first indigenously developed anti-drone system that will be inducted into the Indian Armed Forces. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        NADS has the capability to detect and jam micro drones.

●        It uses a laser-based kill mechanism in order to terminate targets.

●        It will act as an effective all-encompassing counter to the increased drone threat to strategic naval installations.

●        It uses the help of radar, electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensors and radio frequency (RF) detectors in order to detect and jam micro drones.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/indian-navy-seals-contract-with-bel-to-procure-naval-anti-drone-system-121083101429_1.html

9. Which of the following statements is correct about the Sukhet model?

a)  It is promoting cleanliness and organic manure to the farmers.

b) It aims to incentivize the farmers to take up sericulture based Agroforestry models.

c)  It aims to bring sharp focus on entrepreneurship development and breed improvement in rural poultry.

d) It aims to spread the message of the need for a nutritionally balanced diet.

Answer: (a) It is promoting cleanliness and organic manure to the farmers


In NEWS: PM Modi lauds Sukhet Model to check pollution in Madhubani villages

An initiative called ‘Sukhet Model” adopted by Dr Rajendra Prasad Agriculture University, Madhubani and local agricultural research centres to check pollution in villages was praised by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his Maan Ki Baat.

Sukhet model:

●        Sukhet model is named after Sukhet village in Madhubani district of Bihar.

●        It is being implemented by the scientists of Dr Rajendra Prasad Central Agriculture University, Pusa (Samastipur).

●        It is promoting cleanliness and organic manure to the farmers.

●        It is also helping the village in getting rid of pollutionHence option (a) is correct.

●        Under this project, garbage and dung from houses are collected door-to-door and then converted into vermicompost (organic manure).

●        From the income generated from the sale of organic manure, every family is provided LPG cylinders every two months in exchange of the waste and cow dung.

●        This project also provides employment to 14 to 15 people at the village.

10. With reference to the Union Government consider the following statements:

1) The Department of Revenue is responsible for the preparation of the Union Budget that is presented to the parliament.

2) No amount can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India without the authorization of Parliament of India.

3) All the disbursements made from Public Account also need the authorization from the Parliament of India.

Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 2 only


●        The Department of Economic Affairs is responsible for the preparation of the Union Budget that is presented to the parliament. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.

●        No amount can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India without authorization from the Parliament of India. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        The Public Account of India accounts for flows for those transactions where the government is merely acting as a banker. This fund was constituted under Article 266 (2) of the Constitution.
Examples of those are provident funds, small savings and so on. These funds do not belong to the government. They have to be paid back at some time to their rightful owners. Because of this nature of the fund, expenditures from it are not required to be approved by the Parliament. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.